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Full text of "A new voyage to Carolina; : containing the exact description and natural history of that country: together with the present state thereof. And a journal of a thousand miles, travel'd thro' several nations of Indians. Giving a particular account of their customs, manners, &c."

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Containing the 

ExaEl Defcription and Natural Hifiary 



- Together with the Prefent State thereof. 



Of a Thoufand Miles, TraveFd thro' feveral 
Nations <£ INDIANS* 

Giving a particular Account of their Cuftoms, 
- - Manners, &c. 

By John Law son, Gent. Surveyor- 
Ceneral of North-Carolina. 

LO N D ON.- 
Printed in the Year 1709. 


■ . : 



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To His Excellency 
William Lord Graven, Palatine ; 
The moil Noble, Henry Duke of Beaufort ; 
The Right Hon ble John Lord Carteret ; 
The Hon bIe Maurice Ashley, Efq; 
Sir John Colleton, Baronet, 
John Dans on, Efq; 

And the reft of the True and Abfolute 



Province of Carolina in America, 

My Lords, 

S Debts of Gratitude ought molt pun- 
dually to be paid, fo, where the Deb- 
tor is uncapable of Payment, Acknow- 
ledgments ought, atleaft, to be made. I can- 
not, in the leaft, pretend to retaliate four Lord* 
/hips Favours to me, but muft farther intrude 
on that Goodnefs of which 1 have already had 
fo good Experience, by laying thefe Sheets at 
Your Lord/hips Feet, where they beg Proteai- 
on, as having nothing to recommend them, but 
Truth ; a Gift which every Author may t>e 
Matter of, if he will. " 

Aa I 

- ' / 


I here prefent Tour Lordjhips with a De- 
fer! ption of your own Country, for the molt 
part, in her Natural Drefs,and therefore lefs vi- 
tiated with Fraud and Luxury. A Country, 
whofe Inhabitants may enjoy a Life of the 
greatelt Eafe and Satisfaction, and -pafs away 
their Hours in folid Contentment. 

Thole Charms of Liberty and Right, the 
Darlings of an Englijh Nature, which Tour 
Lordjhips grant and maintain, make you 
appear Noble Patrons in the Eyes of all Men, 
and we a happy People in a Foreign Country • 
which nothing lefs than Ingratitude and Bale- 
nefs can make us difown. 

As Heaven has been liberal in its Gifts, fo 
are Tour Lordjhips favourable Promoters of 
whatever may make us an eafy People ; which, 
I hope, Tour Lordjhips will continue to us and 
our Pofterity ; and that we and they may al- 
ways acknowledge fuch Favours, by banifhing 
from among us every Principle which ren- 
ders Men factious and lartjnft, which is the 
hearty Prayer of. 

My Lords, 

"T<mr Lordfoips moft obliged, 

moft humble, 

and moft devoted Servant, 

J o hn La w s o ft. 

SPJ IS a great Misfortune, thai mofi of our Tra- 
vellers, whs goto this vaft Continent in Ame- 
rica, are Perfons of the meaner Sort, and ge- 
nerally of a very flender Education ^ who be- 
ing hir'd by the Merchants, to trade amongjl the Indians, 
in which Voyages they often fpend fever al Tears, are yet f 
at their Return, nncapalole of giving any reafonable Ac- 
count of what they met withal in th of e remote Parts; 
tho > the Country abounds with Ciiriofties worthy a nice 
Obfervation. In this Point, I think, the Frerich out- 
Jirip us. 

Firft, By their Numerous Clergy, their Mijjionaries. 
being obedient to their Superiors in the highefl pegfee, 
and that Obedience being one great Article of their Vow\ 
and firi&ly ebfervd amongjl all their Orders. 
- Secondly-, They always fend abroad fome of their 
Gentlemen in Company of' the Mijfionaries, who, upon 
their Arrival, are order 'd out into the Wildemefs, to 
make Difcoveries, and to acquaint themf elves -with the 
Savages of America \ and are oblig'd to keep a firi& 
Journal of all the Pajfages they -meet withal jn order to pre- 
fent the fame not only to their Governors and Fathers, but 
likewife to their Friends and Relations in France ; 
which is induflrioufly Jpread about that Kingdom, to 
their Advantage. For their Monarch being a very good 
Judge of Mens Deferts, doe,s not often let Money or Inte- 
refi make Men of Parts give Place to others of lefs 
Worth. This breeds an Honourable Emulation amongft 


E R E F A C E. 

them, to outdo one mother, even ivSatigws, and Dm* 
gerp whereby they gain a good Correspondence with the 
Indians, and acquaint themfehes with their Speech and 
Ufjloms hondfo make considerable Difcoveries in a ibort 
*fifiL ?■""$> m/\ Journals from Canada, to the 
Mliiidpi, and Us Jeveral Branches, where they have effe- 
cted great Matters, in a few Tears. J 

Having fpent mofl of my Time, during my eight Tears 
Abode.m Czrohm in traveling b I not only furvey d the 
Lrfif th f ?«*ts which are already inhabited by 
the Lhrijhans , but lihewife view d a fpatious TraB of 
Land, lying betwixt the Inhabitants and the Ledaes of 
Mountains, from whence our nobleft Rivers have their 
Ktje running towards the Ocean, where they water as 
pleafant a Country as any in Europe; the Difcovery of 
which being never yet made publick, I have, in the fol- 
lowing Sheets, given you a faithful Account thereof 
woerein I have laid down every thing with Impartiality 
wd Irutto, which is indeed, the Duty of every 4uthor 
and preferable to a fmooth Stile, accompany d with Fal- 
fities and Hyperboles. 

Great V art of this pleafant and healthful Country is 
inhabited by none but Savages, who a>vet a Chri/iian- 
Neighbourhood, for the Advantage of Trade, and enjoy 
4iU the Comforts of Life, free from Care and Want. 

But not to amufe my Readers any longer with the En- 
comium of Carolina,, / refer "em to my Journal , and o- 
thcr more particular Defer iption of that Country and jts 
inhabitants, which they will find after the Natural Hifto- 
ry thereof in which I have been very exaff, and for Me- 
thod's fake, rangd each Species under its diftindt and 
proper Head, ~. 


( I ) 



N the Y'ear 1.700, when People flock'd from 
all Parts. of the Chriftian World, to fee the 
Solemnity of the Grand Jubilee at Rome, my 
Intention, at that Time,. being to travel,! ac- 
cidentally met with a Gentleman,whohad been 
Abroad, and was very well acquainted with the 
Ways of Living in both Indies ; of whom,having made Enqui- 
ry concerning them, he aflur'd me, that Carolina was the bell 
Country I could go to 1 and,that there then lay a Ship in the 
Thames, in which I might have my PafTage. I laid hold on this 
Opportunity, and was not long on Board, before we fell down 
the River, and fail'd to Corns \ where, having taken in fome 
Paffengers, we proceeded on our Voyage, 'till we fprung 
a-leak, and 'were forc'd into the Iflands of Sdlly. Here we 
fpent about 10. Days in refitting ; in which Time we had a 
great ■ dial " of Diverfion in Fifliing and Shooting on thofe 
rocky Iflands. The Inhabitants were very courteous and 
civil, efpecially the Governor, to whofegood Company and 
Favour we were very much oblig'd.- There is a Town on 
one of 'thefe Iflands, where is good Entertainment for thofe 
that happen to come in, though the Land is but mean, and 
Fleilv-meat not Plenty. They have good Store of Rabbits, 
Quails, and Fim V and you fee at the poor Peoples Doors 
great Heaps of Perriwinkle-fhelis, thofe Fifh being a great 
Part of their Food. On ^the ift Day of May, having a fair 
Wind at Baft, we put to Sea, and were on the Ocean (with- 
out fpeaking to any VefTel, except a Ketch bound itomNew 
England to tarbaloes, laden with Horfes, Fifh, and Provifions) 
"till the latter End of July, when the Winds hung fo much 
Southerly, that we could not get to our Port, but put into 
Sandyhool-bay, and went up to NewTork, -after a pinching 
Voyage, caus'd by our long Paffage. We found at the Wa- 

B tering- 


tering-Place, a French Man of War, who had on Board Men 
and NecefTaries to make a Colony, and was intended for 
the Mejiajippi River, thereto fettle. -The Country of iW- 
lork is very pleafant in Summer, but in the Winter very 
cold, as all the Northern Plantations are. Their chief Com- 
modities are Provisions, Bread, Beer, Lumber, and Fiih in 
abundance ■; all which are very good, and fome Skins and 
Furrs are hence exported. The City is -govern'd by a May-' 
or, (as in England) is feated on an Ifland, and lies very con- 
venient for Trade and Defence, having a regular Fort, and 
well mounted with Guns. The Buildings are generally of a 
fmaller Sort of Flenjip Brick, and of the Dutch Fafhion," (ex- 
cepting fome few Houfes : ) They are all very firm and good 
Work, and conveniently plac'd, as is likewife the Town, 
which gives a very pleafant Prdfpedf of the neighbouring' 
Iflands and Rivers. A good Part of the Inhabitants are 
Dutch, in whofe Hands this Colony once was. After a Fort- 
night's Stay here, we put out from Sandyhook, and in 14 Days 
after, arriv'd at Charles -Town, the Metropolis of South Caro- 
lina, which is fcituate in 32, 45 North Latitude, and admits 
of large Ships to come over their Bar up to the Town, where 
is a" very commodious Harbour, about 5 Miles diftant from 
the Inlet, and ftands on a Point very convenient for Tra,de, 
being feated between two pleafant and navigable 1. Rivers, 
The Town has very regular and fair Streets, in which are 
good Buildings of Brick and Wood, and fince my coining 
thence, has had great Additions of beautiful, large Brick- 
buildings, befides-'a ftrong Fort, and regular Fortifications 
made to defend the Town. The Inhabitants, by their wife 
Management and Induftry, have much improv'd the Country, 
which is in as thriving Circumftances at this Time, as any 
Colony on the Continent of Englifl) J:merzca^ndis of more Ad- 
vantage to the Crown of Great Britain, than any of the other 
more Northerly Plantations, (Virginia and Maryland excepted.) 
This Colony was at firft planted by a genteefSort of People 
that were well acquainted with Trade, and. had either Mo- 
ney or Parts, to make good Ufe of the Advantages that cf- 
fer'd, as moft of them have done, by raifing themfelves to 
,greaf Fitates, and confiderable Places of Truft, and Polls of 
' - < Honour, 

(3 ) 

Honour, in this thriving Settlement. Since the firft Plan- 
ters, abundance of French and others have gone over,: and 
rais'd themfelves to considerable Fortunes. They are veij 
neat and exaci in Packing and Shipping, of their Commodi- 
ties •, which Method has got them fo great a Chara&er A- 
broad, that they generally come to a good Market with 
their Commodities ; when oftentimes the Product of other 
Plantations, are forc'd to be fold at lower Prizes. They 
have a confiderable Trade both" to Europe, and the Weft 
Indies, whereby they become rich, and are iupply'd with all 
Things neceflary for Trade, and genteel Living, which 
feveral other Places fall fhort of. Their co-habiting in a 
Town, has drawn to them ingenious People of molt Sci- 
ences, whereby they have Tutors amongft them that edu- 
cate their Youth a-la-mode. 

Their Roads, with great Industry, are made very good 
and pleafant. Near the Town is built, a fair Parfonage- 
houfe, with neceflary Offices, and the Minifter has a very 
confiderable Allowance from his Pariih. There is likewife a 
French Church in Town, of the Refer m'd Religion, and fe- 
veral Meet ing-houfes for difTenting Congregations, who all 
enjoy at this Day an entire Liberty of their Worfhip -, the 
Conftirotion- of this Government, allowing all Parties of 
well-meaning Chriftians to' enjoy a free Toleration, and pof- 
fefs the fame Priviledges, fo long as they appear fo behave 
themfelves peaceably and well : It being the Lords Propri- 
etors Intent, that the- Inhabitants of Carolina Ihould be as 
free from Oppreflion, as any in the Univerfe •, which doubt- 
lefs they will, if their own Differences amongft themfelves 
do not occafion the contrary. 

They have a well-difciplin'd Militia; their Horfe aremoft 
Gentlemen, and well mounted, and the beft in America, and 
may equalize any in other Parts: Their Officers, both In- 
fantry and Cavalry, generally appear in fcarlet Mountings, 
and as rich as in molt Regiments belonging to the Crown, 
which Ihews the, Richnefs and Grandeur of this Colony. 
They are a Fronteer, and prove fuch troublefome Neigh- 
bours to the Spaniards, that they have once laid their Town 
of St. Avgnfiine in A{he§>and drove away their Cattle ; befides 

B 2 many 


.many Encounters and Engagements, in which they have de- 
feated them, too tedious to relate here. What the French got 
by their Attempt aga'mft South Carolina, will hardly ever be 
rauk'd amongit their Victories h their Admiral Mouville be- 
ing glad to leave the Enterprize,- and run away, after he 
had fufferd all the Lofs and Difgrace he was capable of re- 
ceiving. They are abfolute Matters over the Indians and 
carry io ftnet a Hand over i'uch as are within the Circle of 
tnerr Trade, -that none does the leaf* Injury to any of the 
EvgliJlK but he is pre fen fly fent for, and punifh^ci with Death 
or otherwiie, according to the Nature of the Fault. They 
have an entire Friendfhip. with the neighbouring Indians of 
feveral Nations, which are a very warlike People, ever faithful 
to the Englifl], and have prov'd themfelves brave and true on all 
Occafjons •, and are a great Help and Strength to this Colo- 
ny. The Chief of the favage Nations have heretofore groan ? d 
under the Spanijb Yoke, and having experienc d their Cruel- 
ty, are become fuch mortal Enemies to that People, that 
they never give a Spaniard Quarter 5 but generally, 'when 
they take any Prifoners, (if the EngliJ/j be not near to prevent 
it) iculpthem, that is, to take their Hair and Skin of their 
Heads, which they often flea away, whilft the Wretch is a- 
Iive. Notwithftanding the Engtifi have us'd all thlflr En- 
deavours, yet they could never bring them to leave this Bar- 
barity to the Spaniards; who, as they alledge, ufe to mur- 
der them and their Relations, and make Slaves of them to 
build their Forts and Towns. 

This Place is more plentiful in Money, than moft, or in- 
deed any of the Plantations on the Continent h befide's they 
build a confiderable Number of VefTels of Cedar, and other 
Wood, with which they trade to Cuirajfau, and the Wtfi Indies ■ 
from one they bring Money, and from the other the Produce 
of their Jflands,which yields a neceffary Supply of both to the 
Colony. Their Stocks of Cattle are incredible, being from 
one to two thoufand Head in one Man's PofTeffion : Thefe 
feed in the Savannas, and other Grounds, and need no Fodder 
in the Winter, l: Their Mutton and Teal is good, and their 
Pork is not inferior to any in America. As for Pitch and 
Tar, none of the Plantations are comparable for affording 



the vaft Quantities of Naval Stor«,asthis Placed jes. There 
have been heretofore fome Difcovenes of rich Mines m the 
mountanous Part of this Country ; but being remote from the 
prefent Settlement, and the Inhabitants not well vers d in- 
ordering Minerals, they have been laid alide till a more fit . 
Opportunity happens. There are feveral noble Rivers, and 
fpacious Trafls of rich Land in their Lordfhips Dominions, 
lying to the Southward, which are yet uninhabited befides 
PertRovaL a rare Harbour and Inlet, having many Inhaoi- 
tants thereon, which their Lordihips have now made a Port 
for Trade. This will be a mod advantageous Settlement, ly- 
ing fo commodioufly for Ships coming from the Gulph, and 
the Richnefs of the Land,which is. reported to be there. Theie 
more Soutbtrly Parts will afford Oranges, Limons, Limes, and 
many other Fruits, which the Northerly Plantations yield 

10 The Merchants of Carolina, are fair, frank Traders. .The 
Gentlemen feated in the Country, are very courteous, live 
very nobly in their Houfes, and give very genteel Entertain- 
ment to all Strangers and others that come toyifit them. And 
fince the Produce of South and North Car ohm is the lame, .un- 
lets Silk, which this Place produces great Quantities of and 
vervicSd, North Carolina having never made any Tryal 
thereof as yet, therefore I (hall refer the natural Produce of 
this Country, to that Part which treats of North Urolina, 
whofe Productions are much the fame. The Chriltian In- 
habitants of both Colonies pretty equal, but the Slaves of 
South CarolinaatefM more in Number than thofe in the North. 
I fhall now proceed to relate my Journey thro the Country,- 
from this Settlement to the other, and then treat of the na- 
tural Hiftory of Carolina, with other remarkable Circum- 
ftances which Ihave met with, during my eight Years Abode 
in that Country. . 






■ ■ 

I . .., ■ 




1 thoufand Miles. Travel among the 

Indians, from South to North' 

N December the 28th, 1700, I began my Tor- 
age (for North Carolina) from Charles-Town be- 
ing, llx EngUfi-menin Company, with three 
IndiM-men, and one Woman. Wife to our In- 
dian-Gmde, having five Miles from the Town 
to the Breach we went down in a large Canoe 
M % e _ h adpKmded tor our Toy age thither, ha^ug the 
Tide of Ebb along with us 3 which was fo far fpent by that 
Time we got down that we had not Water enough for our 
Craft to go over, although we drew but two Foot' or there- 
abouts. This Breach is a PafTage through a Marfh lying to 
the Norrtwardoi Sullmamm^vA^ the- Pilots having a Look- 
out thereon, lying very commodious for Marines, (on that 
Coal!) making a good Land-Mark info level a Country, ri£ 
Bar being difficult to hit, where an Obfervation hath been 
wanting for a Day or two, North Eafi Winds bringing great 

■?*fcM ' *? a Rains ' which > tow ards the cool Months 
of USober, November, and until the latter End of March 
often appear m thefe Parts. There are three Pilots to at' 
*?% ^? condu6 * Ships over the Bar. The Harbour where- 
the VelTels generally ride, is againft the Town on Cooper's Ri- 
ver, lying within a Point which parts- that and ^fcy-River 
tnev beine Land-lock'd almnft nn di <i;a 00 - - s 

they being Land-lock'd almoir. on, all Sides. 




At 4 in the Afternoon, (at half Flood) we pafs'd with our 
Canoe over the Breach, leaving SuUivam Ifland on our Star' 
board. The firft Place we ctefign'd for, was Santee River, on 
which there is a Colony of i r ro?t6'Proteftants,allo^v'dand en- 
Courag'd by the Lords Proprietors. At Night we got to BeFs- 
Jfland, a poor Spot of Land, being about ten Miles ronnd,. 
where liv'd (at that Time) aBerimdiaii, being employ'd here 
with a Boy, to. look after a Stock of Cattle and Hogs, by the 
Owner of this Ifland. One Side t of the ftsof of his Houfe was 
thatch'd with Patoneto'-foaves, the other open to the Hea- 
v-ens,. thousands of Mufketoes> and other trOublefomelnfefe., 
tormenting both Man and Beaft inhabiting thefe IOands. The 
Pahneto- trees, whofe Leaves growing only on the' Top of Palmeto- 
the Tree, in the Shape of a Fan, and in a Clufter, like a Cab- trees ° - 
b&ge - y this Tree in Carolina, when at its utmoft Growth, isf • 
about forty or fifty Foot in Height, and two Foot through : 
It's worth mentioning, that the Growth of the Tree is not 
.perceiveable in the Age of any Man, the Experiment having 
been often try'd in Bmmlas, and elfewhere, which fhews the 
flow Growth of this Vegitable, the Wood of it being porous 
and ftringy, like feme Canes^ the Leaves thereof the Bermu- 
'Oatis make Womens HatSjBokeets, Bafkets, and pretty Dref- 
iing-bofes, a great deal being ti-anfported to Penfihania^ 
and other Northern Parts G$ America, (Where they do not grow) 
for the fame Manufacture . The People of Carolina make of the 
Fans ofthisTree, Brooms very ferviceable, to fweep their Hou- 
fes withal. 

We took up our Lodging this Night with the Ber mudian 5 
our Entertainment was very indifferent, there being nofrefe 
Water to be had on the Ma nd. 

The next Morning we fet away thro' theMarfhes jj about 
Noon we revxh'd anothet Ifland, call'd D ix's Ifland, much like 
to the former, tho' larger ; there liv'd an honeit Scot, who gave 
us the belt Reception his Dwelling afforded, being well provi- 
ded of Oat-meal, and feveral other Effects he had found on 
that Coaft 5 which Goods belonged to that unfortunate VeiTel, 
the Rijing Sun, a Scotch Man of War, lately arrived from the 
v Ijlnms oi'Darkn, and call away near the Bar of AfbUy River,the 
Ssptembsr before, Qwgt.Gibfon oEGlafco then-commanding her, 


Septem. 5 

who, with above an hundred Men then on Board her, were e- 
very Soul ckown'd in that terrible.: Guftwhich then happen 'd* 
naoft.of the Corps being taken up,; -were carefully- interred by 
Mr. Grabam-y their Lieu tenant, who happily was on Shore du- 
ring the Tempeit. 

After Dinner, we Mt. ant Scotch. Landlord, and went that 
Night to'the North Eafl Point of the Ifland : It being dark 
ere we got there, our Canoe [truck on a Sand near the Break- 
ers, and were in great Danger, of our Lives, but :(by God's' 
Blefhng), got off fafetfo the Shore, -where we lay all Night. 
Monday, jgg $j f . Morning -we fet. forwards on our intended Voyage. 
About two a Clock we got to Bulls Ifland, which is about 
thirty Miles long, and hath a great Number of both Cattel 
and Hogs upon it •. the Cartel being very wild, and the Hogs 
yery lean. Thefe two laft Iflands. belong to one Colonel Ca- 
ry, an Inhabitant of South Carolina. Although: it were Win- 
ter, yet we found fuch Swarms -of. Mufketoes, and other tro- 
blefome Infecls, that we got but little Reft that Night. 
luefday. ; The next Day we intended for a fmall Ifland on the otfur 
Side of £W-Bay, which joining to thefe Iflands, Shipping 
might come to victual or careen ; but there being fuch a Bur- 
den of thofe Flies, that few or none cares to fettle there-, To the 
Stock thereon are run wild. , We were gotten about hl!f Way 
to &?eco?z-Ifland, when there fprungup a tart Gale at N.W, 
which put us in fome Danger of being call away, the Bay 
being rough, and there running great Seas between the two 
Iflands, which are better than tour Leagues afunder, a ftrong 
Current of a Tide fetting in and out, which made us turn 
Tail to it, and got our Cahoe right before the Wind, and 
came fafe into a Creek that is joining to -the North End of 
Bulk Ifland. We fent our Indiaw'to hunt, who brought us 
two Deers, which were very poor, and their Maws full of 
large Grubs. 
Wednefdny CN frie Morrow we went and viiited the Eajlermofi Side of 
this Ifland, it joining to the Ocean, having very fair fandy 
Eeechee, pav'd with innumerable Sorts of curious pretty Shells, 
verv p! ifant to the Eye. Amongft the reft, we found the 
, S$&T}iJk ->/fter-Shell, whence come the Pearls. They are very 
large, and of a different Form from other Oy Iters ;. their 




Colour much refembles the Tortoife-Shell, when it is drefs'd. 
There was left by the Tide feveral ftrange Species of a imi* 
ciligmous flimy Subftance, though living, and very aptly 
mov^d at their firft Appearance \ yet, being left on the dry 
Sand,, (by the Beams of the Sun) foon exhale and vamih. 

At our Return to our Quarters, the Indians had kill'd two 
more Deer, two wild Hogs, and three Racoons, all very lean, 
except the Racoons. We had great Store of Oyfters, Conks, 
and Clanns, a large Sort of Cockles. Thefe Parts being very 
well furnifh'd with Shell-Filh, Turtle of feveral Sorts, but few 
or none of the green, with other Sorts of Salt-water Fifh, and 
intheSeafon, good Plenty of Fowl, asCurleus, Gulls, Gail- 
nets, and Pellicans, befides Duck and Mallard, Geefe, Swans, 
Teal, Widgeon, ■ &c. n - - i } 

Oh Tbitrfday Morning we left Bulls Iiland, and went thro rimr/da^ 
the Creeks, which lie between the Bay and the main Land 
At Noon we went on Shore, and got our Dinner near a Planta- 
tion^! a Creek h aving the full Profpeft of Setpee-Biy : ' W e fent 
up to the Houfe, but found none at Home, but a Negro, of 
whom our MefTenger purchas'd fome fmall Quantity of To- 
bacco and Rice, We came to a deferred Indian _ Residence, 
talVd Abendaugb-bovgh, where we refted that Night. 

The next Day we enter'd &wta?-River's Mouth, where is Friday* 
freih Water, occafion'd by the extraordinary Current that 
comes down continually. With hard Rowing, we got two 
Leagues up the River, lying all.Night in a fwampy Pieceof 
Ground, the Weather being fo cold all that Time, we were 
almoft frozen ere Morning, leaving the Impreflions of our Bo- 
dies on the wet Ground. We- fet forward very early in the 
Morning, to feck fome better Quarters. 

As we row'd up the River, we found the Land towards t he Saturday. 
Mouth, and for about ITxteen Miles up it, fcarce any Thing 
but Swamp and Percoarfon,, affording vaft Ciprus-Trees of r P " eo £ 
which the French make Canoes, that will carry fifty or iixty J of ^ 
Barrels. After the Tree is moulded and dug, they lav/ them Land. 
in two Pieces, and fo put a Plank between, and a fmall Keel, 
to prefervethenxfrom the Oyfter-Banks, which are innume- - 
rable in the Creeks and Bays betwixt the French Settlement 
and CWfa-Town. They carry two Malts, and Bermudas 

C Sails, 



C io ) 

Sails, which makes, them very handy and fit fpr their Pur- 
pofe-, for although their River fetches its fi'rft Rife from the 
Mountains, and continues a Current fome hundreds of Mjjes 
ere it difgorges it felf, having no found Bay or Sand-Banks 
betwixt the Mouth thereof, and the Ocean. No^withftand- 
. ing all this, with the vaft Stream it affords at all Seafons, 
and the repeated Fremes it fo often aliarms the Inhabitants 
with, by laying under Water _ great Part of their Country, yet 
the Mouth is barr'd, affording not above four or five Foot 
Water at the Entrance. As we went up the River, we heard 
a great Noife, as-jf two Parties were engag'd againft each o- 
ther, feeming exacHy like final! Shot, When we approach'd 
/„_ nearer the Place, we found it to be fome Seyee Indians firing 
the Canes Swamps, which drives out the Game/ then taking 
their particular Standstill great Quantities of both Bear,Deer, 
Turkies, and what wild Creatures the Parts afford. 

Thefe Sewees have been formerly a large Nation, though 
now very much decreas'd, iince tfie Englifi hath feated their 
Land, and all other Nations of Indians are obferv'd to par- 
take of the fame Fate, where the Europeans, come, the Indians 
being a People very apt to catch any Diftemper they are affli- 
cted withal \ the Small-Pox has deftroy 5 d many thousands of 
thefe Natives, who no fooner than they are attacked with the 
violent Fevers, and the Burning which attends that Diftem- 
per, fling themfelves over Head in the Water, in the very 
Extremity of the Djfeafej which (hutting up the Pores, hin- 
ders a kindly Evacuation of the peftilential Matter, and drives 
it back J by which Means Death mod commonly enfues - not 
but in other Diftemper s, which are epidemical, you may find a- 
mong 'em Practitioners that have extraordinary Skill and Suc- 
cefs in removing thofe morbifick Qualities which afflicl 'em,not 
often going above loo Yards from their Abode for their Reme- 
dies, fome of their chiefeft Phyficians commonly carrying their 
Compliment of Drugs continually about them, which are 
Roots, Barks, Berries, Nuts, &c. that are ftrung upon a 
Thread. So like a Pomander, the Phyfician wears them a- 
bout his Neck. An Indian hath been often found to heal an 
Mngli ffi-man of a Malady, for the Talue of a Match-Coat -, 
t Which the ableft. of our Erglifi Pretenders in Jmerica, after 






C ii ) 

repeated Applications, have tleferted the Patient as incurable'} 
God having furnifli'd every Country with fpecifick Remedies 
for their peculiar Difeafes: 

Rum, a Liquor nowfo much in Ufe with them, that they R um . 
will part with the deateft Thing they have, topurcliafe it j 
and when they have got a little in their Heads, are the irh 1 
patients Creatures living, 'till they "have enough to make 'erri 
quite drunk ; and the moft miferable Spectacles wheri they are 
fb, fome' falling into the Fires, burn their Legs or Arms, 
contracting the Sinews- and become Cripples all ther Life-time j 
others from Precipices break their Bones and joints, with a- 
bundanceof Ihftances,yet none are fogreatto deter them from 
that accurs ? d Practice of Drunkennefs, though fennble how 
many of them (are by it) hurry'd into the other World be- 
fore their Time, as themfelves oftentimes will confefs. The 
Indians, I was now fpealcing of, Were not content with the com- 
moii Enemies that leffen and dellroy ttieir Country-men, but 
invented an infallible Stratagem to purge their Tribe, and~re« 
duee their Multitude into far lefs Numbers. Their Contri- 
vance was thus, as a Trader amongft them inform'd me. 

They feeing fe.veral Ships coming in, to bring the BvgJiJff 
Supplies from Old England? one* chief Part of their Cargo be- 
ing for aTrade with the Indians; Tome of the craftieft ofthem 
had obferv'd, t|vat the Ships came always in at one Place, 
which made them very confident that Way was the exa£fc Road 
to' England ; anil feeing fo many Ships come thence, they b*e- 
liev'd it could not be far thither, elfeemingthe EngliJI) that 
were among them, no better than Cheats, and thought, 
if- they could carry the Skins and Furs they got, them- 
felves to Enilatii; which were inhabited with a Better Sort of 
People than thofe fenf amongft them, that then they mould 
purchafe twenty times the Value for every Pelt they fold A- 
broad, in Confideration of what 'Rates they fold for' at Home. 
The intended Barter wis exceeding well approved of, and af- 
ter a general Confutation of the ablelt Heads amongft them, 
it was,- Nemitte Contradicente, agreed upon, immediately to make 
an Addition of their Fleet, by building more Canoes, and 
thofe to be of the beft Soff, and biggeft Size, as fit for their 
intended Difcovery. Some Indians were employ 'd about ma- 

C 2 ^ . king 

■ I ! 

(12 ) 

They ne- 
ver hear- 
ing more 
of their 

king the Canoes, others to hunting, everyone to thePoft he 
was molt fit for, all Endeavours tending towards an able 
Fleet and Cargo for Europe. The Affair was carry 'd on with 
a great deal of Secrecy, and Expedition, fo as in a final! Time 
they had gotten a Navy, Loading, Provifions, and Hands rea- 
dy to. let Sail, leaving only the Old, Impotent, and Minors 
at Home, 'till their fuccefsful Return. The Wind prefenting 
they fet up their Mat-Sails, and were fcarce out of Sight' 
when there rofe a Temperr, which it> fuppos'd carry'd ' one 
Part of thefe Indian Merchants, by Way of the other World 
whilfi: the others were taken up at Sea by an Englijl) Ship* 
and fold for Slaves to the Tflands. The Remainder are bet- 
ter fatisfy'd with their Imbecilities in fuch an Undertaking, 
nothing affronting them more, than to rehearfetheir Voy-' 
age to England. 

There being a ftrong Current in 5We^River, caus'd us to 
make fmall Way with our Oars. With hard Rowing, we got 
that Night to Monf. Eugee's Houfe, which liands about fif- 
teen Miles up the River, being the firft Chriftia'n dwelling 
we met withal in that Settlement, ,-and were very courter 
oufly received by him and his Wife. 

Many of the French follow a Trade with the Indians, living 
very conveniently for that InrerefL . There: is about feventy 
Families feated on this.River, who live as decently and hap-i 
pily^ as any Planters. in thefe Southward, Parts of America. The ; 
French being a temperate induftrioUs" People, fome of them 
bringing very little of Effects^ yet by theirEndeavours and 
mutual Affifianceamongit themfelves, (which is highly to be 
commended) have out-ftript our Englijl^ who brought with 'em 
larger Fortanes, though (as it Teems) lefs endeavour to ma- 
nage their Talent to the beft Advantage. Tis admirable to 
fee what Time and Induftry will (wkh God's Bleffing) effecl. 
Carolina affording many ftrange Revolutions in the Age of a 
Man, daily Inflances prefenting themfelves to our View, of 
fo many, from defpicable Beginnings, which in amort Time 
arrive to very iplended Conditions. Here Propriety hath a 
large Scope, there being no ftri& Laws to bind our Privileges* 
AQueft after Game, being as freely and peremptorily en* 
joy'd by the meaneft Planter, as he that is the higheft in Dig- 

( 13 ) 

nity or wealthier! in the Province. Deer, and other Game that 
are naturally wild, being not immur'd, or preferv'd withm 
Boundaries, to fatisfy the Apppetite of the Rich alone, A 
poor Labourer, that is Matter of his Gun, &c. hath as good a 
Claim to have continu'd Coarfes of Delicacies crouded upon 
his Table, as he that is Mailer of a greater Purfe. 

We lay all that 'Night at Monf. Engee\znc\ the next Morn- 
ing fet out farther, to go the Remainder of our Voyage by 
I and • At ten a Clock we pafi'd over a narrow, deep 
Swamp, having left t&e three Indian, Men and one Woman* 
that' hadpilotted the Canoe from ^/Mj-River, having hir d 
a Sewee-Indlan, a tall, lufty Fellow, who carry'd a Pack of 
our Cloaths, of great Weight-, notwithstanding his Burden,. 
we had much a-do to keep pace with him. At Noon w* came 
up with feveral French Plantations, meeting with feveral 
Creeks by the Way, the French were very officious in ai- 
fiftme with their fmall Dories to pafs over thefe Waters, 
(whom we met coming from their Church) being all of them 
very clean and decent in their Apparel h their Houfesand 
Plantations fuitable in Neatnefs and Contrivance. They are 
all of the fame Opinion with the Church of Geneva, there 
being no Difference amongft them concerning the PimBthos 
of their Chriftian Faith j which Union hath propagated a 
happy and delightful Concord in all other Matters through- 
out the whole Neighbourhood ; living amongft themfelves as 
one Trible, or Kindred, every one making it his Bufinefs to 
be afllftant to the Wants of his Country-man, prefervmg his 
Eftate and Reputation with the fame Ex actnefs and Concern 
as he does his own ; all feeming to lhafr'e in the Misfortunes, 
andrejoyceat the Advance, and Rife, of theirBreth'ren. : 

Towards the Afternoon, we came, to Monf. VJandro, where 
we got our Dinner ;- there coming fomeFrewcfc Ladies whilft 
we were there, who were lately come from England, andMonl. 
& Grand, a worthy Korman, who hath been a great Sufferer in 
his Eftate, by the Perfecution m France, againft thofeof the 
Protectant Religion : This Gentleman very kindly invited us 
to make our Stay with him all Night, but we being intended 
farther that Day, took] our Leaves, returning Acknowledgr 

ments of their Favours. 



( 14 ) 


About 4 in the Afternoon, wepafs'd over a large Gpmsmn 
211a fmal Canoe > the French Doctor fent his Nelrotoguide 

MnTf% ir ' a fl 0f u' larg t S T affl ^' f ° ^gotthlt Night to 
Moni. M^-3 theelder, who lives- in a very curious contriv'd 
Houfe, built of Brick and Stone, which ft gotten near that 
Place Near here comes in the Road fromCharks-Ton>n, and 
the reft of the tnghfi Settlement, it being a very good Way 
by Land, and riot above 36 Miles, -althp' more than 100 by 
Water, and I thinly :the moft difficult Way I ever faw ocS- 
iiond by ReaTon of the multitude of Creeks lying along the 
Main, keeping thar Courfe tlW the Marfhesf turnmg and 

7i&r^ a ^Sf W^ the Tide °f Eub and Flood 
- twenty Times in lefs than three Leagues going 

Monday. The next Morning very early, we ferry 5 d over a Creek that 
runs^near the Houfe , and, after an Hour's Travel in the 
Woods,- we came to the River,fide,where we ftay'd for the -I* 
itan who was our Guide, and was gone rourM-by Water in a 
fmall Canoe, to meet us at that Place wereftedat, HecameaP 
Mr a fmall Time and ferry 'd us in that little Veifel bver Santec 
River 4 .Miles and 84 Miles in the Woods, which the over-W 
ingof the Fremes, which then came down, had mad* a perfect 
^.°», there running an incredible Current in the River 
which had ca^nr fmall Craft, and us, away, had we n * 
Had this bewee Indian with us \ who are excellent Artifts in 
managing thefe fmall Canoes. 

Santee River, atthisTime, (from the ufual Depth of Water} 
was rifen perpendicular 36 Foot, always making a Breach 
from her Banks, about this Seafon of the Year : The general 
Opinion of the Caufe thereof, is fu PP os'd to proceed from the 
• werfiowing^offrefli Water-Lakes that lie near the Head of 
this River, and others, upon the Bine Continent : But my 
Opinion is, that thefe v~aft Inundations proceed from the great 
and repeated Quantities of Snow that falls upon the Moun- 
tains which lie at fo great a Diflance from the Sea therefore 
they have no Help of being diiibW'd bf thofe faline, piercins 
Particles as other adjacent Parts near the Ocean receive 
and therefore lies and iiicreafes to a vail Bulk, until fome 
mild Southerly Breezes coming on a fudden, continue to unlock 
thefe frozen Bodies, congeal'd by the North-Weft Wind, dilfipa- 
-. n ting 

C *5 ) 

ting them in Liquids ; and coming down with Impetuofity, 
fills thofe Branches that feed thefe Rivers, and caufes tMs 
ftrauge Deluge, which oft-times lays under Water the adjacent 
Parts on. both Sides this Current, for feveral Miles diftant from 
her Banks j tho>the French and Indians afhYnfdto me, they 
never knew fuch an extraordinary Flood there before. 

We all, by God's Bltiling, and the Endeavours of our In- 
^aw-Pilot, pafsYl fafe over the River, but was loft in the 
Woods., which feemfa like fome great Lake, except here and 
there a Knowl of .high Land, which appeared above Water. 

We intended for Monf. <jalUar°s^un\ but was loft,none of us 
knowing the Way at that Time, altho' the Indian wasborfs 
in that Country, jt having receive foltrange a -/Wtt^wor^qfo. 
We were in feveral Opinions concerning the right Way, the 
Indian and my felf,fuppQs'd theHoufe to bear one Way ,the reft 
thought to the contrary j we differing, it was agreed on 
amongft us,that one half mould go with the Indian to find the 
Houfe, and the other part'to ftay upon one of thefe dry Spots, 
until fome of them return'd to us,and inform'd us where it lay. 

My felf and two more were left beliind,by Reafon the Ca- 
noe would not carry* us all ; we had but one Gun amongftus, 
one Load of Ammunition, and no Provifion. Had our Men 
in the Canoe mifcairy'd, we mwft (in all Probability) there 
have pejifh'd. 

In about fix Hours Time, from our Mens Departure, the 
Indian came back to us in the fame Canoe he went in, being 
half drunk, which afTur'd us they had found fome Place of 
Refremment. He took us three into the Canoe, telling us all 
was well : Padling our Veflel feveral Miles thrO 1 the Woods, 
being'often half full of Water •, but at-length we got- fafe to the 
Place we fought for, which proved to lie the fame Way the 
Indian and I guefs'd it did. . > 

When we got to theHoufe, we found our Comrades in the 
fame Trim the Indian was in, and feveral of the French Inha- 
bitants with them,whotfeated us very courteoufly,wondering. 
at pur undertaking fuch a Voyage, thro' a Country inhabi- 
ted by none but Savages, and them of fo different Nations 
and Tongues. ^ 

Afaer we had refrefh'd our fejvss, we parted from a very 


C t6 ) 



kind, loving and affable People, who wifh'd us a fafeand 
profperous Voyage. . ' . 

.3 Hearing of a Camp of &wto /»<&»« not far of, we fet out 
intending to take up our Quarters with them that Nieht. 
-There being a deep Run of Water in the Way, oaeof our Com- 
pany being top-heavy, and there being nothing but a fmall 
Pole for a Bridge over a Creek, fell into the Water up to the 
Chin j my felf laughing at the Accident, and not taking 
good Heedtomy Steps, came to the fame Misfortune: All our 
Beddingwaswet The Wind being at N. W. it froze very hard 
which prepardfuch a Night's Lodging forme, that I never 
deure to have the like again % the wet Bedding and freezing 
Air had fo qualify'd our. Bodies, that in the Morning when 
we awak d we were nigh frozen to Death, until we had re- 
cruited cur felves before a large Fire of the Indians. 
_ Tuefday Morning we fet towards the Congerees, leaving 
the Indian : Guide Scipia drunk amongft the Santee-hdians We 
went ten Miles out of our Way, to head a great Swamp, the 
Freflies having fill'd them all with fuch great Quantifies of 
Water, that the ufual Paths were render'd unpayable. We 
met in our Way with an Mian Hut,where we were enrertain'd 
with a fat boil'dGoofe, Veriifon, Racoon, and ground Nats 
We made but little Stay; about Noon, we pafs'd by feverai 
large Savannah's, wherein is curious Ranges for Cattel be- 
ing green all the Year; they were plentifully ftor'd with 
H™™; pem&e- and the adjacent W6ods with great Flocks 
11 i" r J ieS * Thls Da y we traveU'd .'about 30 Miles, and lav 

1 »ir g « at a Houfe wrhich was built for the &&& Trade 
the Matter thereof we had parted with at the French Town 
who gave us Leave to make ufe of his Manfion. Such Houfes 
■are common m thefe Parts, and efpecially where there is In- 
dian 1 owns, and Plantations near at hand, which this4%ce 
is well furnihYd withal. 

The&Satitee-Indians are awell-humour'd and affable Peo- 
ple } and living near the Ettglifc are become very tradable 
iiieymake themfelves Cribs after a very curious Manner ' 
wherein they fecure their Corn from Vermin: which are 
more frequent in thefe warm Climates, than Countries more 
diltant from the Sun. Thefe pretty Fabricks are commonly 


( 17 ) 


fupported with eight Feet or Polls, about feven Foot high 
from the Ground, well daub'd within and without upon Laths, 
with Loom or Clay, which makes them tight, and fit to 
keep out the fmalleft Infeft, there being a fmall Door at the 
gable End, which is made of the fame Compofition, and to 
be remov'd at Pleafure, being no bigger, than that a (len- 
der Man may creep in at, cementing the Door up with the 
fame Earth, when they take Com out of the Crib, and are 
going from Home, always finding their Granaries in the fame 
Pofture they left them h Theft to each other being altogether 
tmpradtis'd, never receiving Spoils but from Foreigners. _■ 

Hereabouts the Ground is fomething higher than about 
■Owrfei-Town, there being found fome Quarries of brown free 
Stone, which I have feen made Ufe of ior Building, and hath 
prov'd very durable and gpod. The Earth here is mix d with 
white Gravel, which is rare, there being nothing like a Stone 
to be found, of the natural Produce, near to ^f^River. 

The next Day about Noon we came to the Side of a great #r e j ne f d Q 
Swamp, where we were forc'd to ftrip our felves to get over it, sqtem. 5. 
which, with much Difficulty, we effected. Hereabouts the 1700. 
late Guft of Wind, which happen'd in Smtmbtr hit, had torn 
the large Ciprus-Trees and Timbers urF6y the Roots, they 
lying confufedly in their Branches, did block up the Way, 
making the PafTage very difficult. _ 

This Night we got to one Sc'tpio's Hutt, a famous Hunter : 
There was no Body at Home-, but we having (in our Company) 
one that had us'd to trade amongft them, we made our lelves 
welcome to what his Cabin afforded, (which is a Thing com- 
mon) the Indians allowing it prafticable to the Enghfi Tra- 
ders, to takeout of their Houfes what they peed in their Ab- 
feiace in Lieu whereof they moft commonly leave fome lmall 
Gratuity of Tobacco, Paint, Beads, Vc. We found great 
Store of Indian Peas, (a very good Pulfe) Beans, Oyl, Think- 
apin Nuts, Com. barbacu'd Peaches, and Peach-Bread j which 
Peaches being made into a Quiddony, and fo made up into 
Loves like Barley-Cakes, thefe cut into thin Slices, and dit- 
folv'd in Water, makes a very grateful Acid, and extraordi- 
nary beneficial in Fevers, as hath often been try'd, and ap- 
prov'd on by our pvglijb Praditioners. The Wind, being at 

( 18 ) 

N. W. with cold Weather, made us make a large Fire in the 
Indian's Cabin ; being very intent upon our Cookery, we fet 
the Dwelling on Fire, and with mueh ado, put it out, tho' 
with the Lofs of Part of the Roof. 
Thurfday. The next Da y we travelFd on our Way, and about Noon 
came up with a Settlement of Satttee Indians, there being Plan- 
tations lying (battering here and there, for a great many Miles. 
They came out to meet us, being acquainted with one of our 
Company, and made us very welcome with fat barbacu'd 
Venifon, which the Woman of the Cabin took and tore in 
Pieces with her Teeth, fo put it into a Mortar, beating it to 
Rags, afterwards ftews it with Water, and other Ingredients, 
which makes a very favoury Dilh. 

At thefe Cabins came to vifit us the King of the Santee ^ Na- 
tion. He brought with him their chief Doctor or Phyfician 
wh ° was warmly and neatly clad with a Match-Coat, made 
of Turkies Feathers, which makes a pretty Shew, feemins as 
if it was a ; Garment of the.deepeft fflk Shag. This Doctor 
had the Misfortune to lofe his Nofe by the Pox, which Di- 
feafe the Indians often get by the Englijh Traders that ufe a- 
uiongft them; not but the Natives of" America have for many 
Ages (by their own Confeffion) been afflicled with a Di« 
Kemper much like the Lues. Venerea , which hath all the 
Symptoms of the Pox, being different in this only- for 
I never could learn, that this Country-Diftemper, or Yawes 
is begun or continu'd with a Gonorrhoea; yet is attendee! 
with noaurnal Pains in the Limbs, and commonly makes 
iuclra Progrefs, as to vent Part of the Matter by Botches 
and feveral Ulcers in the Body, and other Parts ; oftentimes 
Death enfuing. I have known mercurial Ungiients and Re- 
medies work a Cure, following the fame Methods as in the 
Tox h feveral white People, but chiefly the Criolo\ lofmg their 
Palates and Nofes- by this devouring Vulture. 

It is epidemical, vifiting thefe Parts of America, which is 
often occaiion'd thro' the immoderate drinking of Rum by 
thofe that commonly drink Water at other Times, cold Nights 
Lodging, and bad open Houfes, and more chiefly by often wet- 
ting the Feet, and eating fuch Quantities of Pork as they 
do, which is agrofsFood, and a great Propagator of fuch 



( I ) 

Juices as it often meets withal in human Bodies, once tainted 
with this Malady; which may differently (in forne Refpecls) 
act its Tragedy •, the Change being occaflonM by the Diffe- 
rence of Climates and Bodies, as in Europe. We being well, 
enough afford that the Pox had its flrft Rife (known to us) 
in this new World, it being caught of the Indian Women, 
by the Spam/} Soldiers that/ollow'd Columbus in one of his 
Expeditions to -America^ who after t^heir Arrival in Old Spain, 
werehslWd to the Relief of Naples, at that Time befieg'd 
by the French. Provifions growing fcarce, the ufelefs Peo«. 
pie were turn'd out of the City, to lefTen the Mouths -, a- 
mongftthefe, the Curtefans'wefe bne;Part, who had frequent- 
ly embraced the Spaniards, being well fraught with Riches b}r 
their new Difcovery. The Leager Ladies had no fooher loft 
their Spanijl) Dons, but found themfelves as well entertain'd 
by the French, whofe Camp, they traded in, giving the Moun- 
fieurs as large a Share of the pocky Spoils within their own 
Lines, as the Spaniards had, who took the Pains to bring it in 
their Breeches as far as from America •, the large Supplies of 
Swmes Flefh, which that Army was chiefly victuall'd withal," 
made it rage. The Siege was rais'd ; the French and Spani- 
ards retreating to Flanders, which was s Parrade of all Nations^ 
by which Means , tfois filthy Diftemper crowded it felf into 
moftNatious of the known World.^ 

Notv to return to our Doctor, who in the Time of his Afflicti- 
on withdrew himfelf (with one that labourd under the fame 
Diftemper) into the Woods. Thefe two perfected their Cures 
by proper Vegitables; &c. of which they have Plenty, and 
are well acquainted with their fpecifick Virtue. 

I have feen inch admirable Cures perform'd by thefe Sava- 
ges, which would puzzle a great many graduate Practitioners 
to trace their Steps in Healing, with the fame Expedition, 
Eafe, and Succefs $ ufing no racking Inftruments in their Chi- 
rargery, nor nice Rules of Diet and Phyfick, to verify the 
Saying, qui Medice vivit, mifere vivit. In Wounds which pe- 
netrate deep, and feem mortal, they order afpare Diet, with 
drinking Fountain-water ; if they perceive a white Matter,or 
Pus to arife, they let the Patient more at large, and prefently 

D i After 

( 3ol 

After thefe two bad perform'd their Cures at no eafier Rate 
than the-Expence of both their Nofes, coming again amongft 
their old Acquaintance fodisfigur'd, the Indians zdmir'd to fee 
them metamorphosd after that manner : enquir'd of them, 
where they had been all that Time, and what were become 
of their Nofes? They made. Anfwer, That they had been 
converting with the white Man above, (meaning God Al- 
mighty; how they were very kindly entertain'd by that Great 
15eing 5 he being much plea&'d with their Ways, and had 
Promis d to make their Capacities equal with the white People 
in niakingGuns Ammunition,^, in Retaliation of which 
they had given him their Nofes, The Verity of which, they 
yet hold, the Mutts being an eafy, credulous People, and 
moft notonoufly cheated by their Priefts and Conjurers/both 
fradesmeeting ever in onePerfon, and moft commonly a 
Spice of Quackfliip added to the other two Ingredients which 
renders that cunning Knave the Impoftor to be more rely'd 
upon ^ thence a fitter Inftrument to cheat thefe ignorant 12 
ple^thePneft and Conjurers being never admitted to their 
Practice, till Years and the Experience of repeated Services- 
h*| wrought then Efteem amongft :the Nations they belong 

^ favtee King who was in Company. with thisNqr- 
nosd Dote , is the moft abfblute Man Ruler in thefe 
Parts, although he is Head but of a fmall People in Re- 
lpecl: tofome other Nations of Indians, that' I have feen • 
Hecanput any of his People to Death that fflh committed 
any Fault which he judges worthy of fo great a Punimment 
This Authority & rarely found amongl thefe Savages for' 
they adt not (commonly) by a determinative Voice BSS 
Laws, towardsany one that hath committed Murder, or fuch 
other great Crime, but take thisMethodj him to whom the 
Injury was done, or if dead, the neareft of nis Kindred 
profecutes by Way ofanadtual Revenge, being himfflftf 
Opportunity ferves his Intent, both Judge andlrecSer 
performing fo much Mifchief on the Cinder, or his neareft 
Relation, until fuch Time that he is fully f a tisfy'd Y e * 
Shis Revenge is not fo infallible/but it may be bought 'off- 
with Beads, Tobacco, and ftich like Commodities that are 


(21 ) 

ufeful amongft them, though it were the moft fable Villany 
that could be acted by Mankind. 

Some that attended the King, prefented me with an odorife- 
jous,balfamiekRoot, of afragrant Smell and Tafte,the Name 
I know not j they chew it in the Mouth, and by that fimple 
Application, heal' defperate Wounds, both green and oldv 
that fmall Quantity I had, was, given inwardly to thofe 
troubl'd with the Belly-ach, which Remedy foil'd not to give 
prefent Help, the Pain leaving the Patient foon after they 
had taken the Root. 

Near to thefe Cabins are feveral Tombs made after the 
manner of thefe Indians h the largeft and the chiefeft of 
them was the Sepulchre oi the late Indian King of the Santees v 
a Man of great Power, not only amongft his own Subjects, but 
dreaded by the neighbouring Nations for his great Valour and 
Conduct, having aslarge a Prerogative in his Way of Ruling,, 
as the prefent King I now fpoke of 

The manner of their Interment, is thus: A Mole or Pyramid 
of Earth is rais'd,the Mould thereof being work'd very fmooth 
and even, fometimes higher or lower, according to the Digni- 
ty of the Perfon whofe Monument it is. On the Top there- 
of is an Umbrella, made Ridge-ways, like the Roof of an 
Houfe -, this is fupported by nine Stakes, or fmall Pofts,. the 
Qrave being about fix or eight Foot in Length, and four Foot 
in Breadth j about it is hung Gourds Feathers, and other fuch 
like Trophies, plac'd there by the dead Man's Relations, in 
Refpect to him in the Grave. The other Part of the Funeral- 
Rites are thus, As Toon as the Party is dead, they lay the 
Corpsiupon a Piece of Bark in the Sun, feafoningor embalm- 
ing it with a fmall Root beaten to Powder,which looks as red as 
Vermilion j the fame is mix'd with Bear's Oil, to beautify the 
Hair, and preferve their Heads from being loufy, it growing: 
plentifully in thefe Parts of America. After the Carcafs-hafi 
laid a Day or two in the Sun, they remove and lay it upon 
Crotches cut on purpofefor the Support thereof from the Earthy 
then they anoint it all over with the fore-mention'd Ingredi- 
ents of the Powder of this Root, and Bear's Oil. When it is 
fo done, they cover it very exactly over with Bark, of the 
Pine or Cyprus Tree, to prevent any Rain to, fall upon it, 


( 22 ) 

fweeping the Ground very clean all about it. Some of his 
neareft of Kin brings all the temporal Eftate he was pof* 
fefsd of at his Death, as Guns, Bows, and Arrows, Beads, 
Feathers, Match-coat, Mm This Relationis the chief JVfourn-- 
er, being clad in Mofs, and a Stick. in his Hand, keeping a 
mournful Ditty for three or four Days, his Face being black 
with the Smoak of Pitch, Pine, mingl'd with Bear's Oil. All 
the whilehe tells the dead Mans Relations, and the reft of the 
Spectators, who that dead Perfon was, and of the great Feats 
perform'd in his Life-time h all what he fpeaks, tending to the 
Praifeof the Defunfi:. As foon as the Flefh grows mellow, 
and will cleave from ^the Bone, they get it off, and burn it s 
making all the Bones veryxlean, then anoint them with the 
Ingredients aforefaid, wrapping up the Skull (very carefully) 
in a Cloath artificially woven of Poffums Hair. (Thefe Mi- 
am make Girdles, Sallies, Garters, &c. after the fame Manner.) 
The Bones they carefully preferve in a wooden Box, every 
Year oiling and cleaning them *. By thefe Means preferve 
them for many Ages, that you may fee an Indian in Poffeffion 
of the Bones of his Grand-father, or fome of his Relations of a 
larger Antiquity. They have other Sorts of Tombs-, as where 
an Indian is flain, in that very Place they make a Heap of 
Stones, (or Sticks, where Stones are not to be found h ) to this 
Memorial, every Indian that paffes by, adds a Stone, to aug- 
ment the Heap, in Refpe& to the decease Hero. 

We had a very large Swamp to pafs over near the Houfe 
and would have hir'd our Landlord to have been our Guide' 
but he feem'd unwilling; fo we prefs'd him no farther about 
it. He was the talleft Indian I ever faw, being feven Foot high 
and a very ftrait compleat Perfon, efteem'd on by the King 
for his great Art in Hunting, always carrying with him an 
artificial Head to hunt withal : They are made of the Head 
of a Buck, the back Part of the Horns being fcraptand hol- 
low, for Lightnefs of Carriage. The Skin is left to the fet- 
ting on of the Shoulders, which islin'dall round with fmall 
Hoops, and flat Sort of Laths, to hold it open for the Arm to 
go in. They have a Way to preferve the Eyes, as if living. 
The Hunter puts on a Match-coat made of Deer's Skin, with 
the Hair on, and a Piece of ^he white Part of a Deer's Skin, 



that grows on theBreaft, which is faften'd to the Neck-End 
of this (talking. Head, fo hangs down. In thefe Habiliments- 
an Indian will go as near a Deer- as he pleafes, the exadr Mo- 
tions and Behaviour of a Deer being fo well counterfeited by 
'em,that feveral Times it hath been known for two Hunters to 
come up with a (talking Head together, and unknown to each 
other, fo that they have kill'd an Indian inftead of a Deer, 
which hath happen'd fometimes to be a Brother, or fome 
dear Friend ; for which Reafon they allow not of that Sort 
of Practice, where the Nation is populous. 

Within half a Mile of the Houfe, we pafs'd over a prodi- 
gious wide and deep Swamp, being forc'd to ftrip ftark-naked , 
and much a-do to fave our felves from drowning in this Fa- 
tiegue. We, with much a-do, got thro', going that Day about 
five Miles farther, and came to three more Indian Cabins,, 
call'd in the Indian Tongue, Hickerau, by the EngliJI) Traders, 
the Hack Houfe, being pleafantly feated on a high Bank, by a .. 
Branch of Santee-River. One of our Company 1 , that had 
traded a mongft thefe Indian j, told us, That one of the Cabins 
was his FatherVin-Law •, he call'd him fo, by Reafon the old 
Man had given him a young IndianGivl, that was his Daugh- 
ter, to lie with him, make Bread, and to be necefTary in what 
fhe was capable to afTift him in, during his Abode amongft 

When we came thither firft, there was no Body at Home v 
fo the Son made bold to fearch his Father's Granary for Corn, 
and other Provifions. He brought us fome Indian Maiz and 
Peas, which are of a reddifh Colour, and eat well, yet colour 
the Liquor they are boil'd in, as if it were a Lixivium of red 
Tartar. After we had been about an Hour in the Houfe, 
where was Millions of Fleas, the Indian Cabins being often 
fuller of fuch Vermin, than any Dog-Kennel, the old Man 
came in to us, and feem-'d very glad to fee his Son-in-Law. 

This Indian is a great Conjurer j as appears by the Sequel. 
The Seretee or Santse Indians were gone to War againft the 
Hooks and Backhooh Nations, living near the Mouth o£Winy- 
tfM*Rn r er. Thofe that were left at Home, (which are com- 
monly old People and Children) had heard no News a long 
Time of their Men at Arms. This Man, at the Entreaty of 

t hef® 

C 24 ) 


thefe -People, (being held to be a great Sorcerer amongft'ern) 
went to know what Pollute their fighting Men were in. His 
Exorcifm was carry 'd on thus : He drefs'd himfelf in a clean 
white drefs'd Deer- Skin ; a great Fire being made in the Mid- 
dle of the Plantation, the Indians fitting all round it, the 
Conjurer was blind-folded, then he furrounded the Fire feve- 
ral Times, I think thrice h leaving the Company, he went into 
the Woods, where he ftay'd about half an Hour, returning to 
them, furrounded the Fire as before j leaving them, went the 
fecond Time into the Woods s at which Time there came a 
huge Swarm of Flies, very large, they flying about the Fire 
feveral Times, at laft fell all into it, and were vifibly confum'd. 
Immediately after the IWwH-Conjurer made a huge Lilleloo, 
and howling very frightfully, prefently an Indian went and 
taught hold of him, leading him to the Fire. The old Wizard 
was fo feeble and weak, being not able to Hand alone, and all 
over in a Sweat, and as wet as if he had fallen into the River. 
After fome Time he recover'd his Strength, aiTuring them, 
that their Men were near a River, and could not pafs over it 
'till fo many Days, but would, in fuch a Time, return all in 
Safety, to their Nation. All which prov'd true at the Indians 
Return, which was not long after. This Story the Mnglijb- 
man, his Son-in-Law, affirmed to me. 

The old Man flay d with us about two Hours, and told us 
we were welcome to flay there all Night, and take what his 
Cabin afforded ; then leaving us, went into the Woods, to 
fome Hunting-Quarter not far off. 

The next Morning early we purfu'd our Voyage, finding 
the Land to improve it felf in Pleafantnefs and Richnefs of 
Soih 1 When we had gone about ten Miles; one of our Compa- 
ny tir'd, being not able to travel any farther ; fo we went for- 
ward, leaving the poor dejecled Traveller with Tears in his 
Eyes, taretum to Charles-Town, and travel back again over 
fo much bad Way, we having pafsYl thro' the worft of our Jour- 
ney, the Land here being high and dry, very few Swamps 
and thofe dry, and a little W r ay through. W r e travell'd about 
twenty Mile6, lying near a Savanna that was over-flown with 
Water ; where we were very fhort ofVicluals,but finding the 
Woods newly burnt, andonfirein many Places, which gave 
us great Hopes that Indians were not far of. Next 

( fjj ) 

Next Morning very early, we waded thro' the Savanna, ($»»> ■<% 
"the Path lying-there •, and about ten a Clock came to a hunt- *° mics - 
ing Quarter, of a great many Salens -, they made us all Wel- 
come 5 ihewing a great deal of Joy at our coming, giving us 
barbacu'd Turkeys, Kear's Oil, and Vemfon. 

Here we hir'd Santeejack (a good Hunter, and a well-hu- 
-mour'd Fellow) to be our Pilot to the Conger et Indians ; we 
gave him a Stroud-water-Blew, to make his Wife an Indian 
Petticoat, who went with her Hufband. After two Hours Re- 
frefhment, we went on, and got that Day about twenty Miles ; 
we lay by a finall fwift Run of Water, which was pav'dat 
the Bottom with a Sort of Stone much like to Tripoli, and 
fo light, that I fancy'd it would precipitate in no Stream, 
but where it naturally grew. The Weather was very cold, 
the Winds holding Northerly. We made our Selves as merry as 
we could, having a good Supper with the Scraps of the Veni- 
fonwehad gj.ven us by the Indians, havingkilFd 3 Teal and a 
Pofliim-, which Medly ail together made a curious Ragoo._ 

This Day all of us had a Mind to have refted, but the Indian Sunday 15 
was much againtt it, alledging, That the Place we lay at, was &>!'*• 
not good to hunt in % telling us, if we would goon, by Noon, 
he would bring us to a more convenient Place ; fo we mov'cl 
forwards-, ancl&bout twelve a Clock came to the moft amazing 
Profpeft I had feen iince I had been in Carolina •, we travelled 
by a Swamp'fide, which Swamp I believe to be no lefs than 
twenty Miles over, the other Side being as far as I could well 
difcern. there appearing great Ridges of Mountains, bearing 
from us W. N. V/. One Alp with a Top like a Sugar-loaf, ad- 
vanc'd its Head above all the reft very considerably 5 the Day 
was very ferene, which gave us the Advantage of feeing along 
Way jthefe Mountains werecloth'd all over with Trees,which 
feem'd tq us to be very large Timbers. 

At the Sight of this fair Profpect, we ftay'd all Night ^ our 
Indian going about half an Hour before us,had provided three 
fat Turkeys e : er we got up to him. 

The Swamp I now fpoke of, is not a miry Bog, as others 
generally are, but you go down to it thro' a fteep Bank, at the 
Foot of which, begins this Valley, where you may go dry . 
for perhaps 200 Yards, then you meet with a fmall Broob 

E or. 


( g ) 

or Run of Water, about i or 3 Foot deep, then-dry Land for 
fuch another Space, fo another Brook, thus continuing. The 
Land in this Percoaribn, or Valley, being extraordinary rich^ 
and the Runs of Water well ftor'd withTowl. It is the Head 
of one of the Branches of Santee-Kiver - r but a farther Difcovery 
Time Would not permit ; only one Thing is very remarka- 
ble, there growing all over this Swamp, a tall, lofty Bay- 
tree, : but is not the fame as in England, thefe being in their 
Verdure all the Winter long ; which appears here, when 
you Hand on the Ridge, (where our Path lay ) as if it were one 
pleafant, green Field, and as even as a Bowling-green to the 
Eye of the Beholder -, being heinm'd in on one Side with thefe 
Ledges of vaft high Mountains. 

Viewing the Land here, we found an extraordinary rich y 
black Mould, and Tome of a Copper-colour, both Sorts very 
good ; the Land in fome Places is much burthen'dwith Iron, 
Stone, here being great Store of it, feemingly very good : The. 
©viling Springs, which are many in thefe Parts, ifTuing out 
■of the Rocks, which Water we drank of, it colouring therEx- 
crements of Travellers (by its chalybid Quality) as black 
as a Coal. When ive were all afleep, in the Beginningof the 
Night, we were awaken '4 with the difmall ft and moft hideous 
Noife that ever pierc'd my Earsc This fudden Surprizal inca- 
pacitated us of gueffing what this threatning Noife might pro- 
ceed from ^ but our Indian Pilot (who knew thefe Parts very 
iwell) acquainted us, that it was euftomary to hear fuch Mu- 
4*ck along that Swamp-fide, there being endlefs Numbers of 
Panthers, Tigers, Wolves, and other Beafts of Prey, which 
take this Swarrip for their Abode in the Day, coming in whole 
Droves to hunt the Deer in the Night, making this frightful 
Ditty 'till Day appears, the!n all is ftill as in other Places. 

The next Day it proy'd a fmall drifly Rain, which is rare, 
there happening not the tenth Part of Foggy -falling Weather 
towards thefe Mountains, as vifits thofe Parts. Near the 
Sea-board,the IndianYiU'd 15 Turkeys this Day 5 there com- 
ing-out of the Swamp,, (about Sun-riiing) Flocks of thefe 
Fowl, containing feveral hundreds in a Gang, who feed up- 
■^nthe Acrons, it being mofl: Oak that grow in thefe Woods,. 
-"If here are but veryfewPinesin thofe Quarters. 


,, j ... ... ."._,__. -'.! " 

( g ) 

< i n ... ■ ■ ' ! - - ' " '": ' ' 

Larly the nest Morning, wefet forward for the Congeree-In- 
diam, parting with that delicious Profpeft. By the Way, our 
Guide kill'd more Turkeys, and two Polcats, which he ear, 
efteeming them before fat Turkeys Some .of the Turkeys 
which we eat, whillt we ftay'd there, I believe, weighed no 
lefs than 40 Pounds. # ' 

The Land we pafs'dover this Day, was moft of it good, 
and the worft paflable. At Night we kill'd a Poflum, being 
cloyd with Turkey s,madie arDilh ol that, which t aft ed much 
between young Pork and Veal* their Fat being as white as 
any I ever law. 

Our Indian having this Day kill'd good Store of Proviittm 
with his Gun, he always {hot with a fingle.Ball ,, miffing 
but two Shoot's in above forty-, they being curious Artifts in 
mai^afirfgijarGun, to make it carry either Ball, or Shot, true. 
Whe^they have bought a Piece,and find it to fhoot any Ways 
erooked,the}r take, the Barrel out of the Stock, cutting a Notch 
in a Tree, wherein they fet it ftreight, fometimes mooting a- 
way above loo Loads of Ammunition, before they ;bring the 
Gun to fhoot according to their Mind. Wetook up our Quar- , 

tersby aFifh-pond-iide,i the Pits in the Woods that Hand full 
of Water, naturally breed Fifh in them, in great Quantities. 
We.cook'd our Supper ,but havingneither Bread,or Salt,our fat 
Turkeys began to be loathfome to us, altho^ we were never 
wanting of a good Appetite, yet a Continuance of one Diet, 
made us weary. 

The next Morning, Smitee Jack told us, we fhould reach the &ej*$&& 
Ivdi an Settlement betimes that Day * about Noon, we pafs'd 
by -feveral fair Savanna's, very rich and dry -, feeing great 
Copfes of many Acres that bore nothing but Bufiies, about 
the Bignefs of Box-trees ^ which (in theSeafon) afford great 
Quantifies.of fmall Black-berries, very pleafant Fruit, and 
much like to our Blues, or Huckle- berries, that -grow on 
Heaths in England. Hard by the Savanna s we found the 
Town, where we halted •, there was not above one Man left 
with the Women, the reft being gone a Hunting for a Feaft, 
The Women were very bufily engag'din Gaming : The Name 
or Grounds of it, I could not learn, tho'L look 'd on, above 
two Hours. Their Arithmetick was kept with a Heap of Indian 

E 2 Grain. 


Grain. When their Play was ended, the King, or Caffettas 
Wife, invited us into her Cabin. The Indian Kings always en- 
tertaining Travellers, either Englifi, or Indian ; taking it as a 
great -Affront, it- they pafs by their Cabins, and take up their 
Quarters at any other Indian's Houfe. The Queen fet Victu- 
als before us,- which good Compliment they ufe generally r as 
foon as you come under their Roof. 

The Town confifts not of above a dozen Houfes, they having 
other ftragling Plantations up and down the Country, and 
are Tested upon a - , final! Branch of Santee-Rw$r. ■ Their Place 
hath curious dry Marines, and Savanna's adjoining to it, 
and would prove an exceeding thriving Range for Cattb, and' 
Hogs, provided tlie Englijb were feated thereon. Befides, the 
Land v is good for Plantations. orf2 bu/3 

Thefe Indians are afmall People* '.having loft mufch of their 
former Numbers, by inteftine Broils • but rnoft bf the 
Smallpox, which hath often vifited them , (weeping away 
whole Towns; occafion'd by the immoderate Government 
of themfelves in their Sicknefs ; as I have mention 'd before 
treating of the Sewees. Neither do I know any Savages that 
have traded with the Englijf), but what have been great Lofefs 
by this Diftemper. 

We found here good; Store of Chinkapin-Nuts, which they 
gather in Winter great Quantities of, drying them 1} fo keep 
thefe Nuts in great Baikets for their Ufe } likewife Hickerie- 
Nuts, which they beat betwixt two great Stones, thenfift 
them, fo thicken their Yenifon-Broath therewith g the fmall 
Shells precipitating to the Bottom of the Pot, whilft the Ker- 
nel in Form of Flower, mixes it with the Liquor. Both thefe 
Nuts made into Meal, makes a curious Soop, either with clear 
Water, or in any Meat-Broth. 

From the Nation of Indians, until fuch Time as you come 
to the Tnrkeiruros in North Carolina, you will fee no long 
*Mofs upon the Trees j which Space of Ground contains above 
live hundred Miles. This feeming Miracle in Nature, is oc- 
cafion'd by the Highnefs of the Land, it being dry and 
healthful •; for tho' this moil bears a Seed in a Sort of a fmall 
Cod, yet it is generated in or near low fwampy Grounds. 


(, ?-9 


The Cow^m* are kind and affable to the Evghjb, the^ueeja 
being very land, giving us what Rarities herCabmattorued, 
as Loblolly made with Indian Corn, and dry a Peaches. Thefe 
Convenes have abundance of Storks and Cranes in their Sa- 
vannas They take them before they can fly, and breed em 
as tame and familiar as a Dung-hill Fowl. They had a tame 
Crane at one of thefe Cabins, that was fcarce lets than hx 
Foot in Height, his Head b«ing round, with a .{tuning natu- 
ral Criinfon Hue, which they all have. Thefe are a very 
comely Sort of Indians, there being a ftrange Difference in the. 
Proportion and Beauty of thefe Heathens. Altho their Tribes 
er N*tions'border one upon another, yet you may dilcern as 
great an Alteration in their Features and Difpohtions , as you 
can in their Speech, which generally proves quite different 
from each other, though their Nations be not above 10 
or 20 Miles in Diftance. The Women here being as hand- 
Tome as moft I have met withal, being feveral fine-finger d 
Brounetto's amongft them." Thefe Laffes ftick not upon Hand 
long, for they marry when very young, as at 12 or 14 Years 
of Age The Evglip Traders are feldom without an Indian 
Female for his Bed-fellow, alledging thefe Reafons as fuffici- 
ent to allow of fuch a Familiarity. Firft, They being re- 
mote from any white People, that it preferves their .Friend ihip 
with the Heathens, they etteeming a white Man s Child much 
above one of their getting, the Indian Miftrefs ever fecuring 
her white Friend Provifions whilft he ftays amonglt them. 
And laftly, This Correfpondence makes them learn the In- 
dian Tongue much the fooner, they being of the French- 
mans Opinion, how that an Englifi Wife teaches her Hul- 
band more Englijb in one Night, than, a School-matter can in- 

a Week. r * 

We faw at the Cafettas Cabin the ftrangelt Spectacle of An- 
tiquity I ever knew, it being an old Indian Squah, that, had 
I been to have guefs'd at her Age by her Aipect,old .-Parr's Head 
(the Welch Methnfalem) was a Face in Swadling-Clouts to hers. 
Her Skin hung in Reaves like a Bagof Tripe. By a fair Com- 
putation, one might have juftly thought it would have con- 
tain'd three fuch Carcafles as hers then was. She had one of 
her Hands contracted by fome Accident in the Fire, they 


( 3© ) 

flecping always by it, and often fall into fad Difafters, efpeci- 
aliy in their drunken Moods. I made the ftricleft Enquiry that 
was poffible, and oy what I could gather, (lie was confiderably 
above iqo Years old, notwithftanding ihe fmoak'd Tobacco, 
and eat her Victuals,, to all Appearance, as-heartily as one of 
1 8. One of our Company fpoke fome of their Language, and 
having not quite forgotten his former Intrigues with the Indi- 
awLafies, would fain have been dealing with fome of the young 
Female Fry . h but theyrefus'd him, he having nothing that 
thefe Girls efteemU At Night we were laid in the King's Ca- 
bin, where the Queen and the old Squah pig'd in with us: 
The former was very much disfigur'd with Tettars, and very 
referv'd, which drfappointed our fellow Traveller in his In- 

.The Women fmoafc much tobacco, .'(as raoft Indians do.) 
They have Pipes, whofe Heads are cut out of Stone, an<l will 
hold an Ounce of Tobacco, and fome much fiefs, They have 
large wooden Spoons, as big as fmall Ladles, which they make 
little Ufe of, lading the Meat out of the Bowls with their Fin- 

Zburfday. I n the Morning we rofe before Pay, having hir'd a Guide 
over Night to conducl us on our Way j but it was top foon 
for him to ftir out, the Indians never fetting forward 'till the 
Sun is an Hour or two high, and hath eihalFd the Dew 
from the Earth. The Queen got us a good Breakfaft be- 
fore we left her •, fhe had a young Child, which was much 
affhdted with the Cholick ; for which Diftemper me in- 
fus'd a Root in Water, which was held in a Gogrd* this me 
took into her Mouth, andfpurtedit into the Infent's, which 
- gaveiteafe. After we had eaten, we fet Out (with our new 
Guide) for the Wateree Indians. We went over a great deal of 
indifferent Land this Day. -Here begins to appear very good 
: Marble, which continues more and lefs for the Space of ?oo 
Miles. We lay all Night by a Run of Water, as we always 
do, (if poffible) for the Convenience of it. The Weather 
was very cold. , We went this Day about 30 Miles from the 
Conger ees ,; 

Friday. \ In the Morning we made no Stay to get our Breakfaft, but 

hafted on our Voyage, the Land increafing in Marble' and 

' v . Richnefs 

(31 ) 

Richnefs of Soil. At Noon we halted, getting our Dinner 
upon a Marble-Stone, thatiofe it felf halt a Foot above the 
Surface of the Earth, and might contain the Compafs of a 
Quarter of m Acre of Land, being very even, there grow- 
ing upon it in fome Places a finall red Berry, like a Salmon- 
Spawn, there boiling out of the main Rock curious Springs 
of as delicious Water, as ever I drank in any Parts I ever tia- 

velFd in. - - 

Thefe Parts likewife affords. good free Stone, ht for Build- 
ing; and of feveral Sorts. The Land here is pleafantly feat- 
ed, with pretty little Hills and Valleys, the riling Sun at once 
fhewing his glorious reflecting Rays on a great many of thefe 
little Mountains. We went this Day about 20 Miles, our 
Guide walking like a Horfe, 'till we bad fadl'd him with a 
good heavy Pack of fome Part of our Cloaths and Bedding - y 
by which Means we kept Pace with him. 

This Night we lay by a Run-fide, where . I found a fine 
yellow Earth, the fame with Bruxels-Sand, which Goldfhnths 
ufe to call withal, giving a good Price in England, .and other 
Parts. Here is Ijkewife the true Blood-Stone, and confi- 
derable Quantities of Fullers-Earth, which I took a Proof 
of, by fcouring great Spots out of Woollen, and it prov'd ve- 
ry good. ■•>. - „ 

,Aswe were;on our Road this Morning, our Indi an liiot at a 
•Tyger,> that erofsM the Way, he being a great Diftance from 
us. I believe he did him no Harm, becaufe he fat on his 
Breech afterwards, ancMook'd upon us. I fuppofe he ex- 
pected to have bad a .Spaniel Bitch, that I had with me, for 
Jbis Breaftfaft, who run towards him, but in the Midway 
it opt her Career, and came fneaking bade to, us with her 
Tail betwixt her Legs. 

We faw in the Path a great many Trees blown up by the 
Roots., at the Bottom .whereof ftuck great Quantities of fine 
red Bole ; I believe nothing inferior to that of Venice or Lem- 
ma. We found fome Holes in the Earth, which were full of 
a -Water as f black, as Ink. I thought that Tincture might 
proceed from fome Mineral,: but >. had- not Time to make a_ 
farther Difcovery. About Noon' we pafs'd over a pleafant 


C m ) 


1 1 

flony Brook, whofe Water was of a bluifh Caft, as it is for < 
ieveral hundreds of Miles towards the Heads of the Rivers 
■I fuppofe occaiion'd by the vait Quantities of Marble ly- 
ing m the Bowels of the Earth. The Springs that feed thefe 
Rivulets, lick up fome Potions of the Stones in the Brooks - 

a r! 11013 gives this Tin£lure > a s appears in all or 
molt of the Rivers and Brooks of this Country whofe'ra- 
pid Streams are like thofe in Torklnre, and other Northern 
Counties of England. The Indians talk of many Sorts of 
Fiih which they afford, but we had not Time to difcover 
their Species. , 

I faw here had been fome Indian Plantations formerly 
there being feveral pleafant Fields of clear'd Ground and 
excellent Soil, now well fpread with fine bladed Grafs' and 
Strawberry-Vines. ' 

. The Mould here is exceffive rich, and a Country very plea- 
ling to the Eye, had it the Convenience of a navigable Ri- 
ver as all new Colonies (of Neceffity) require. It would make 
a delightful Settlement. 

We went eight Miles farther, and came to the .Jfateree 
Ltockanee Indians. The Land holds good, there being not 
a Spot of bad Land to be feen in feveral Days going 

The People of this Nation are likely tall Perfons, and 
great Pilferers, ftealing from us any Thing they could lay 
their Hands on, though very refpectful in giving us what 
Victuals we wanted. We lay in their Cabins all Night, be- 
ing dark fmoaky Holes, as ever I faw any Indians d'well 
in. This Nation is much more populous than the Come- " 
rees x and their Neighbours, yet underftand not one ano- 
ther Speech. They are very poor m Englifl, EfFec'ts, feve- 
ral ol them having no Guns, making Ufe of Bows and Ar- 
rows, being a lazy idle People, a Quality incident to motf 
Indians, but none to that Degree as thefe, as I ever met 

Their Country is wholly free from Swamps and Quag- 
mires, being high dry Land, and confequently healthful 
producing large Corn-Stalks, and fair Grain. 


Next Morning, we took off our Beards with a Razor, -the ^w^'' 
Indians looking on with a great deaf of Admiration. They 
told 4is, they had never feen the like before, and that our 
Knives cut far better than thofe that came amonglt the In- 
dians. They would fain have borrow'd our Razors, as they 
had our Knives, Sciflbrs, and Tobacco-Tongs, the day be- 
fore, being as ingenious at picking of Pocket?, as any, I be- 
lieve, the World affords \ for they will Ileal with their Feet. 
Yefterday, one of our Company, not walking fo fait as the _ 
reft, was left behind. He being out of Sight before we mifs'd 
him,and not coming up to us,tho' we ftaid a confiderable time . 
on the Road for him, we ftuck up Sticks in the Ground, 
and left other Tokens to diredl; him which way we were gone: 
But he came not to us that Night, which gave us Occafion to 
fear fome of the Heathens had kill'd him, for his Cloaths, or 
the favage Beaffs had devoured him in the Wildernefs, he 
having nothing about him to ftrike Fire withal. As we 
were debating which way we fhould fend to know what was 
become of him, he overtook us, having a V/axfaw Indian for 
his Guide. He told us, he had mifs'd the Path , and got 
to another Nation of Indians, but 3 Miles off, who at that 
time held great Feafting. They had entertain'd him very 
refpeftfully, and fent that Indian to invite us amongft them, 
wondring that we would not take up our Quarters with 
them, but make our Abode with fuch a poOr Sort of Indims r 
that were not capable of entertaining us according to our 
Deferts: We receiv'd the Meffenger with a great many Ce- 
remoniei, acceptable to thofe fort of Creatures. Bidding our 
Waterree King adieu , we fet forth towards the Waxfaxos, 
going along clear'd Ground all the Way. Upon our Arrival, 
we were led into a very large and lightfome Cabin, the like I 
have not met withal. They laid Furs' and Deer-Skins upon 
Cane Benches for us to fit or lie upon, bringing (Immediately) 
ftewed Peaches and green Corn, that is preferv'd in their Ca- 
bins before it is ripe, and fodden and boil'd when they ufe it, 
which is a pretty fort of Food, and a great Increafer of the 

Thefe Indians are of an extraordinary Stature, and call'd 
by their Neighbours fiat Heads, which feems a very fuitable 
Name for them. In their Infancy , their Nurfes lay ther 
Back-part of their Children's Heads on a Bag of Sand, (fuch 

F as 


as Engravers ufe to reft their Plates upon.; They ufe a Roll, 
which is placed upon the Babe's Forehead, it being laid with 
its Back on a flat Board, and Twaddled hard down thereon, 
from one End of this Engine, to the other. This Method 
makes the Child's Body and Limbs as ftraight as an Arrow. 
There being fome young Indians that are perhaps crookedly 
inclin'd, at their firft coming into the World,, who are 
made perfectly ftraight by this Method. I never faw-an Indian 
of a mature Age,that was any ways crooked, except by Acci- 
dent, and that way feldom ;, for they cure and prevent De- 
formities of the Limbs, and Body, very exa&ly. The In- 
ftrument I fpoke of before, being a fort of a Prefs, that is let 
out and in,- more or lefs, according to the Difcretion of the 
Nurfe, in which they make the Child's Head flat, it makes 
the Eyes ftand a prodigious Way afunder, and the Hair hang 
over the Forehead like the Eves of a Houfe, which feems 
very frightful : They being ask'd the Reafon why they pra- 
clis'd this Method, reply'd, the Indians Sight was much 
ftrengthened and quicker, thereby, to difcern the Game in 
hunting at larger Diftance, and fo never mifs'd of becoming 
expert Hunters, the Perfection of which they all aim at, as 
we do to become experienced Soldiers, Jearned School-Men 
or Artifts in Mechanicks : He that is a good Hunter never 
miffesof being a Favourite amongft the Women •, thepret- 
tieft Girls being always beftow'd upon the chiefeft Sports- 
Men, and thofeof a grofler Mould, upon the ufelefs Lvbbers. 
Thus they have a Graduation amongft them, as well as o- 
ther Nations. As for the Solemnity of Marriages amongft: 
them, kept with fo much Ceremony as divers Authors af- 
firm, it never appear'd amongft thofe many Nations I have 
been withal, any otherwife than in the Manner I have men- 
tion'd' hereafter. 

The Girls at \x or 13 Years of Age^ as foon as Nature 
prompts them, freely beftow their Maidenheads on fome 
Youth about the fame Age, continuing her Favours on whom 
She mo ft affe&s, changing her Mate very often, few or none 
of them being conftant to one, till a greater Number of 
Years has made her capable of managing domeftick Affairs., 
and me hath try'd the Vigour of moft of the Nation fhe 
belongs to •, Multiplicity of Gallants never being a Stain to 
a Female's Reputation, or the leaft Hindrance of her Ad- 

; ( 35 ) 

vancement, but the more Wkorijh, the more Honourable, and 
they of all moll coveted, by thofe of the firft Rank, to make a" 
Wife of. The Bos Virginia for much coveted by t\\Q Europeans, 
is never valued by thefe Savages. When a Man and Wo- 
man have gone through their Degrees," (there being a certain 
Graduation amongft them J and are allow'd to be Hoiife- 
Keepers, which is not till they arrive at fuch an Age, and 
have pall the Ceremonies pra&is'd by their Nation, aim oft 
all Kingdoms differing in the Progrefs thereof, then it is that 
the Man makes his Addreffes to fome one of thefe thorough- 
paced Girls, or other, whonrhe likes belt. Whenfhe is won, 
the Parents of both Parties, (with Advice of the King) a- 
gree about the Matter, 4 making a PrOrnife of their Daughter, 
to the Man, that requires her, it often happening that- they 
converfe and travel together, for feveral Moons before the 
Marriage is publifh'd openly ; After this, at the lead Diflike 
the Man may turn her away, and take another •, or if fhe 
difapproves of his Company, a Price is fet upon her, and if 
the Man, that feeks to get her, will pay the Fine to her 
Husband, me becomes free from Him: Like wife fome of their 
War Captains, and great Men, very often will retain 3 or 4 
Girls at a time for their own "Life, when at the fame time, he 
is fo impotent and old, as to be incapable of making 
Ufe of one of them \ fo that he feldom mifles of wearing 
greater Horns than the Game he kills. The Husband' is 
never fo enrag'd as to put his Adulterefs to Death ; if fhe is 
caught in the Fad, the Rival becomes Debtor to thecornuted 
Husband, in a certain Quantity of Trifles valuable amongft 
them,which he pays as foon as difcharg"d,and then all Animofi- 
ty is laid afide bewitft theHusband,and hisWife'sGallant. The 
Man proves often fo good humour'd as to pleafe hisNeighbour 
and gratify hisWife's!nclinations,by letting her out for aNight 
or two, to the Embraces of fome other, which perhaps fhe 
has a greater Liking to, tho' this is not commonly practjs'd. 

They fet apart the youngefl and prettieft Faces ,ibr trading 
Girls j thefe are remarkable by their Hair, having a particu- 
lar Tonfure by which they are known, and diftinguifh'd from 
thofe engag'd to Husbands. They are mercenary, and who- 
ever makes Ufe of them, firft hires them, the greateft Share 
of the Gain going to the King's Purfe, who is fhe chief Bawd, 
«xerci!ing his Perogative over all the Stews of his Nation,and 
• • . F 2 his 


( 3* ) . 

his own Cabin ( very often) being the chiefeft Brothel-Houfe. 
As they grow in Years, the hot Afiaultsof Lovegrowcooier ; 
and then they commonly are fo ftaid, as to engage them- 
felves with more Conftancy to each other. I have feen feve- 
ral Gouples amongft them, that have been fo referv'd, as to 
live together for many Years, faithful to each other^ admits 
ting none to their Beds but fuch as they own'd for their 
Wife or Husband : "So continuing to their Life's end. 

At our Wax/aw Landlord's Cabin, was a Woman employ'd 
in no other Bufinefs than Cookery y it being a Houfe of 
great Refort. The Fire was furrounded with Roaft-meat, or 
Barbakues, and the Pots continually boiling full of Meat, from 
Morning till Night. This She-Cook was the cleanlieftj ever 
Jaw amongft the Heathens of America, warning her Hands 
before fhe undertook to do any Cookery ; and repeated 
this unufual Decency very often in a day. She made us as 
White-Bread as any Englijh could have done, and was full as 
neat, and expeditious, in her Affairs. It happen'd to be one 
of their great Feafts, when we were there : The firft day 
that we came amongft them, arriv'd an Ambaflador from the 
King ofSapona, to treat with thefe Indians about fome impor- 
tant Affairs. He was painted with Vermillion all over his 
Face, having a very large Cutlafs ftuck in his Girdle, and a 
Fufee in his Hand. At Night, the Revels began where this 
Foreign Indian was admitted , the King, and War Captain, 
Inviting us to fee their Mafquerade: This Feaft was held 
-in Commemoration, of the plentiful Harveft of Corn they 
had reap'd the Summer before, with an united Supplication " 
for the like plentiful Produce the Yearenfuing. Thefe Re- 
vels are carried on in a Houfe made for that purpofe, it be- 
ing done round with white Benches of fine Canes, joining 
along the Wall y and a place for the Door being"left, which, 
is fo low, that a Man muft ftoop very much to enter therein* 
This Edifice refemblesa large Hay- Rick; its Top being Pyra- 
midal, and much bigger than their other Dwellings,and at the 
Building whereof, every one affifts till it is finifh'd. AH their 
DweHing-Houfes are cover'd with Bark, but this differs very 
much-, for, it is very artificially thatch'd with Sedge and 
Rulhes : As foon a's finifh'd, they place fome one of their 
chiefeft Men to dwell therein, charging him with the dili- 
gent Prefervation thereof , as a Prince commits the Charge 



(37 ) 

and Government of a Fort or Cattle, to fome Subjed lie 
thinks worthy of that Trait. In thefe State-Houfes is tranf- 
afted all Publick and Private Bufinefs, relating to the Af- 
fairs of the Government, as the Audience of Foreign AmbaG. 
fadors from other Indian Rulers, Confutation of waging and 
making War, Propofals of their Trade with neighbouring 
Indians, or the Englijl h who happen to come amongft them. 
In this Theater, the moll Aged and Wifeft meet, determi- 
ning what to Aft, and what may be molt convenient to Omit, 
Old Age being held in as great Veneration amongft thefe 
Heathens, as amongft any People you' fhall meet withal in 
any Part of the World. 

Whenfoever an Aged Man is fpeakmg, none ever inter- 
rupts him, (The contrary Pradice the EngHfa and other Eu- 
ropeans, too much ufej the Company yielding a great deal of 
Attention to his Tale, with a continued Silence, and an ex- 
ad Demeanour, during the Oration. Indeed, the Indians are 
a People that never interrupt one another in their Difcourfe-, 
no Man fo much as offering to open his Mouth, till the Speak- 
er has utter'd his Intent ; When an Enghfr~Mm comes a- 
mongft them, perhaps every one is acquainted with him, 
vet firft the King bids him Welcome, after him the War- 
Captain, fo on gradually from High to Low ; not one of all 
thefe fpeaking to the White Gueft, till his Supenour has 
ended his Salutation. Amongft Women, it feems impoffible. 
to find a Scold-, if they are provok'd, or affronted, by their 
Husbands, or fome other, they refent the Indignity offer d- 
them in filent Tears, or by refufing their Meat. Would fome 
of our European Daughters of Thunder fet thefe Indians for 
a Pattern, there might be more quiet Families tound ■ amongft 
them, occafiorfd by that unruly Member, the Tongue. 

Fefiination proceeds from the Devil, (fays, a Learned&oaor) 
a PaiTion the Indians feem wholly free from-, they determi- 
ning no Bufinefs of Moment, without a great deal of Delibe- 
ration and Warinefs. None of their Affairs appear to- be at- 
tended with Impetuofity, or Hafte, being more content with 
the common Accidents incident to humane Nature, (as Lor-- 
fes, contrary Winds, bad Weather, and Poverty; than thefe 
of more civilized Countries. _ _ 

Now, to return to our State-Houfe,w hither we were invi- 
ted by the Grandees : As foon as we came into it^they plac'd- 

1 '- "- OUT- 

In in 



our Englijhmen near the King ; h being my Fortune to lit 
next him, having his great General, or War-Captaiii.-on my 
other Hand. The Houfe is as dark as a Dungeon and as 
hot as one of the Dutch-Stoves in Holland. They had made 
a circular Fire of fplit Canes in the middle of the Houfe It 
was one Man's Employment to add more fplit Reeds to 
the one end as it confum'd at the other, there being a fmall 
Vacancy left to fupply it with Fewel. They brought in great 
ftore of Loblolly, and other Medleys, made of Indian Grain 
ftewed Peaches, Bear-Venifon, &c. every one bringing fome 
Offering to enlarge the Banquet, according to his Degree and 
Quality. When all the Viands, were brought in, the firft Fi- 
gure began with kicking out the Dogs, which are feemingly 
Wolves, made tame with flarvirtg and beating 5 they being 
the worft Dog-Mafters in the World ; fo that it is an infalli- 
ble Cure for Sore-Eyes, ever to fee an Indian's Dog fat. They 
are of a quite contrary Difpofition to Horfes; fome of their 
Kings having gotten, by great chance, a Jade, ftolen by fome 
neighbouring Indian, and tranfported farther into the Coun- 
try, and fold \ or bought fometimes of a Chriftian, that trades 
f m J ag ?2S The ? Crratures they continually cram, and 
teed with Maiz , and what the Horfe will eat, till he is as 
fat as a Hog 5 never making any farther ufe of him than to 
fetch a Deer home, that is killed fomewhere near the India*'*- 

After the Dogs had fled the Room, the Company was fum- 
mon d by Beat of Drum ; the Muflck being made of a drefs'd 
Deer s Skin, tied hard upon an Earthen Porridge-Pot Pre- 
fentlyin came fine Men drefs'd up with Feathers, their Fa- 
ces being covered with Vizards made of Gourds: round 
their Ancles and Knees, were hung Bells of feveral forts, ha- 
ving Wooden Falchions in their Hands, (f uc h as Stage-Fen- ' 
cers commonly ufe- ) m this Drefs they danced about an 
Hour , mewing many ftrange Geftures, and brandifhing their 
Wooden Weapons, as if they were going to fight each other; 
oitentimes walking very nimbly round the Room, without 
making the leaft Noife with their Bells, (a thing I much ad- 
mired at ;■) again, turning their Bodies, Arms and Legs, into 
inch frightful Poftures., that you would have guefs'd they had 
been quite raving mad : At laft, they cut two or three high 
Capers, and left the Room. In their Head, came in. a par- 

■ 1 

( 39 l 

eel of Women and Girls, to the Number of Thirty odd j 
every one taking place according to her Degree of Stature, 
the tallelt leading the Dance, and the leaft of all being plac'd 
laft j with thefe they made a circular Dance, like a Ring, 
reprefenting the Shape of the Fire they danced about f Ma- 
ny of thefe had great Horfe-Bells about their Legs, and fmall 
Hawk's Bells about their Necks. They had Muikians, who 
were two Old Men, one of whom.beat a Drum, while theother 
rattled with a Gourd* that had Corn in it, to make a Noife 
withal: To thefe Inftruments, they >both fang a mournful 
Ditty , the Burthen of their Song was, in Remembrance of 
their former Greatnefs, and Numbers of their Nation', the 
famous Exploits of their Renowned Anceftors, and all Acti- 
ons of Moment that had* (in former Days) been perform'd 
by their Forefathers. At thefe Feftivals it is , that they 
give a Traditional Relation of what hath pafs'd amongft 
them, to the younger Fry. Thefe verbal Deliveries being 
always publiflfd in their moft Publick AfTe.mblies, ferve in- 
fl.ead of our Traditional Notes, by the ufe of Letters. Some 
Indians, that I have met withal, have given me a very curious 
Defcription of the great Deluge, the Immortality of the 
Soul, with a pithy Account of the Reward of good and wic- 
ked Deeds in the Life to come , having found, amongft fome 
of -them, great Obfervers of Moral Rules, and the Law of Na- 
ture j indeed, a worthy Foundation to build Christianity 
upon, were a true Method found ou£, and practis'd, for the 
Performance thereof. 

Their way of Dancing, is nothing but a fort of {tamping 
Motion , much like the treading upon Foanders Bellows. 
This Female-Gang held their Dance for above fix Hours, be- 
ing all of them of a white Lather, like a Running Horfe that 
has juft come in from his Race. My Landlady was the Ring- 
leader- of the Amazons, who, when in her ownHpufe, be- 
bav'd herfelf very difcreetly, and warily, in her Domeftick: 
Affairs '-, yet, Cuftom had fo infatuated her, asto almoft break 
her Heart with Dancing amongft fuch a confufed Rabble. 
During this Dancing, the Spectators do not neglect their Bu- 
finefs, in working the Loblolly- Pots, and the other ,MeaE 
that was brought thither ; more or lefs of them being con- 
tinually Eating, whilft the others were Dancing. When the 
Dancing was-eflded, every Youth that was fo dilpofsd, catch'd 

' -" - ' ' hold ; 


( 40 ) 

hold of the Girl he liked belt, and took her that Night for 
his Bed-Fellow, making as fhort Courtfhip and expeditious 
Weddings, as the Foot-Guards us'd to do with the Trulls ia 
Salisbury-Court. I 

Next we fhail treat of the Land hereabouts, which is a 
Marl as red as Blood, and will lather like Soap. The Town 
Hands on this Land, which holds considerably farther in 
the Country, and is in my Opinion, fo durable that no La- 
bour of Man, in one or two Ages, could make it poor. I 
have formerly feen the like in Leicefierjhire, bordering upon 
Rutland. Here were Corn-Stalks in their Fields as thick as 
the Small of a Man's Leg, and they are ordinarily to be feen. 

We lay with thefe Indians one Night, there being by my 
Bed-fide one of the largeft Iron Pots I had ever feenjn Ame- 
rica, which I much wondred at, beeaufe I thought there might 
be no navigable Stream near that Place. I ask'd them, wher® 
they got that Pot? They laugh'd at my Demand, and would 
give me no Anfwer, which makes me guefs it came from fome 
Wreck, and that we were nearer the Ocean, or fome great 
River, than I thought. 

The next day aboutNoon,we accidentally met with a South- 
ward Indian, amongft thofe that us'd to trade backwards and 
forwards, and fpoke a little Englijh,whom we hirM to go with 
tistothe Efaw Indians, a very large Nation containing many 
thoufand People. In the Afternoon we fet forward, taking 
our Leaves of the Wifack Indians, and leaving them fome Tri- 
fles. On our Way, we met with feveral Towns of Indians, 
each Town having its Theater or State Houfe, fuch Houfes 
being found all along theRoad,till you come toSapona^nd then 
no more of thofe Buildings, it being about 170 Miles. We 
reach'd 10 Miles this day, lying at another Town of the Wi- 
fach. The Man of the Houfe offer'd us Skins to fell, but 
they were too heavy Burdens for our long Voyage. 

Next Morning we fet out early, breaking the Ice we met 
withal, in the ftony Runs, which were many. We pafs'd by 
feveral Cottages, and about 8 of the Clock came to a pret- 
ty big Town, where we took up our Quarters, in one of 
their State Houfes,- the Men being all out, hunting in the 
Woods, and none but Women at home. Our Fellow Tra- 
veller of whom I fpoke before at the Congerees, having a great 
Mind for an Indian Lafs, for his Bed-Fellow that Night, 


(4i ) 

fpoke to our Guide, who foon got a Couple, referving one 
for himfelf. That which fell to our Companion's Share, 
was a pretty young Girl. Tho' they could net underftand 
'one Word of what each other fpoke, yet the Female Indian, 
being no Novice at her Game, but underftanding what file 
came thither for, a&ed her Part dexteroufly enough with her 
Culiy, to make him fenfibleof what (he wanted >, which was 
to pay the Hire, before he rode the Hackney. He fhew'd 
her all the Treafure he was pofTefs'd of, as Beads, Red Ca- 
dis, &c. which me lik'd very well, and permitted him to put 
them into his Pocket again, endearing him with all the 
Charms, which one of a better Education than Dame Na- 
ture had beftow'd upon her,could have made ufe of,to render 
her Confort a furer Captive. After they had us'dthis Sort 
of Courtfhip a fmall time, the Match was confirm'd by both 
Parties, with the Approbation of as many Indian Women, 
as came to the Houfe , to celebrate our WincbeJler-'Wed- 
ding. Every one of the Bride-Maids were as great Whores, 
as Mrs. Bride, tho' not quite fo handfome. Our happy Cou- 
ple went to Bed together before us all,and with as little BluftV 
mg, as if they had been Man and Wife^fcr 7 Years. The 
reft of the Company being weary with travelling, had 
more Mind to take their Reft, than add more Weddings to 
that hopeful one already confummated ; fo that tho' the o- 
ther Virgins ofFer'd their Service to us, we gave them their 
Anfwer, and went to fleep. About an Hour before day, I 
awak'd, and faw fomebody walking up and down the- Room 
in a feemingly deep. Melancholy. I call'd out to know who it 
was, and it prov'd to be Mr. Bridegroom, who in lefs than 1 2 
Hours, was Batchelor, Husband, and Widdower, his dear 
Spoufe having pick'd his Pocket of the Beads, Cadis, and 
what elfe mould have gratified the Indians for the Victuals we 
receiv'd of them. However v that did not ferveher turn,but me 
had alfo got his Shooes away, which he had made the Night 
before, of a dreft Buck-Skin. Thus dearly did our Spark al- 
ready repent his newBargain, walking bare-foot, in his Peni- 
tentials, like fome poor Pilgrim to Lor et to. 

After the Indians had laugh'd their Sides fore at the Fi- 
gure Mr. Bridegroom made, with much ado, we mufter'd up 
another Pair of Shooes, or Meggifom, and fet forward on our 
intended Voyage, the Company (all the way) lifting up their 

F 1 Pray- 

(42 ) 

Prayers for the newt married Couple, whofe Wedding had 
made away with that, which mould have purchas'd our Food. ' 
Weinef- Relying wholly on Providence, we march'd on, now and 
**■?• then payingc>ur Refpedts to the new-married Man. The Land * 
held rich and good •, in many Places there were great Quanti- 
ties of Marble. The Water was ftill of a wheyifh Colour. 
About io of the Clock, we waded thro' a River, fabout the 
Bignefs of Dervpent, in Torkjhire) which I take to be one of 
the Branches of Winjavp River. We faw feveral Flocks of Pi- 
geons, Field-Fares-, and Thrufhes, much like thofe of Eu- 
rope. The Indians of thefe Parts ufe Sweating very much. 
If any Pain feize their Limbs, or Body, immediately they 
take Reeds, or fmall Wands, and bend them Umbrella-Faftii- 
on, covering them with Skins and Matchcoats : They have a 
large Fire not far off,wherein they heat Stones,or (where they 
are wanting,) Bark, putting it into this Stove, which calls an 
extraordinary Heat : There is a Pot of Water in the Bagnio^m 
which is put a Bunch of an Herb, bearing a "Silver TafTel, not 
much unlike the Aurea Virga. With this Vegetable they ru'» 
the Head, Temples, and other Parts, which is reckon'd a 
Preferver of the Sight and Strengthener of the Brain. We 
went, this day, abou-t 12 Miles, one of our Company being 
lame of his Knee. Wepafs'd over an exceeding rich Traci 
of Land, affording Plenty of great free Stones, and marble 
Rocks, and abounding in many pleafant and delightfome 
Rivulets. At Noon, we Itay'd and refrefh'd ourfelves at a 
Cabin, where we met with one of their War- Captains, a 
Man of great Efteem among them. At his Departure from 
the Cabin, the Man of the Houfe fcratch'd this War-Cap- 
tain on the Shoulder, which is look'd upon as a very great 
Compliment among them. The Captain went two or three 
Miles on our way, with us, to direct, us in our Path. One 
©f our Company gave him a Belt, which he took Very kindly, 
bidding us call at hisHoufe, (which was in our Road) and 
flay till the lame Traveller was well, and fpeaking to the In- 
dian-, to order his Servant to make us welcome. Thus we 
parted, he being on his Journey to the ■ Congerees, and Savem~ 
nsis, a famous , warlike, friendly Nation of Indians^ living 
to the South-ErA of Aftly River. Me had a Man-Slave with 
him, who was loaded with, European Goods, bis Wife and 
• Daughter being in Company. He told us, at his Departure, 

that James had fent Knots to all the Indiar.i thereabouts, for 



every Town to fend ia 10 Skins, meaning Captain Moar, 
thenGovernour of Ssuth-CaroLna. The Towns being very 
thick hereabouts, at Night we took up our Quarters at one 
of the chief Mens Houfes, which was one of the Theaters 
I fpoke of before. There ran, hard-by this Town, a pleafant 
River, not very large, but, as the Indians told us, wellftor'd ' 
withFiih. We being now among the powerful Nation of 
£faws, our Landlord entertain'd us very courteoufly, fliew- 
ingus, that Night, a pair of Leather-Gloves, which he had 
made ; and comparing them with ours, they prov'd to be • 
very ingenioufiy done, confidering it was the firft Tryal. 

In the Morning, he defired to fee the lame Man's afFe&ed Tburflay. 
Part, to the end he might do fomething, which (he believ'd) 
would give him Eafe. After he had viewed it accordingly, 
he pull'd out an Inftrument, fomewhat like a Comb, which 
was made of a fplit Reed, with 15 Teeth of Rattle-Snakes 
fet at much the fame diftance, as in a large Horn-Comb: 
With thefe he fcratch'd the place where the Lamenefs chief- 
ly lay, till the Blood came, bathing it, both before and after 
Incifion , with warm Water , fpurted out of his Mouth. 
This done , he ran into his Plantation , and got fome 
Sajfafras Root, (which grows here in great plenty) dry*d it 
in the Embers, fcrap'd off the outward Rind, and having 
beat it betwixt two Stones, apply'd it to the Part affiifted, 
binding it up well. Thus, in a day or two, the Patient be-' 
came found. This day, we pafs'd through a 'great many 
Towns, and Settlements, that belong to the Sugeree-Indians, 
no barreh.Land being found amongft them, but great plen- 
ty of Free-Stone, and good Timber. About three in the 
Afternoon, we reach'd the Kadapau King's Houfe, where 
we met' with one John Stewart, a Scot, then an Inhabitant 
of James-Rivec in Virginia, who had traded there for many 
Years. Being alone, and hearing that the Sinnagers (Indians 
from Canada) were abroad in that Country, he durft not 
venture homewards, till he faw us, having heard that we 
were coming, above 20 days before. It is very odd, that 
News mould fly fo fwiftly among thefe People. Mr. Stewart 
had left Virginia ever fince the Ottober before, and had loft a 
day of the^Week, of which we inform'd him. He had 
brought feven Horfes along with him, loaded with Englifo 
Goods for the Indians', and having fold moft of his Cargo, 

G 2 told - 

( 44 ) 


III' ill 


told us, if we would flay two Nights, he would go along 
with us. Company being very acceptable, we accepted the 

Friday. The next day, we were preparing for our Voyage, and 
baked fome Bread to take along with us. Our Landlord 
v/as King of the Kadapau Indians, and always kept two or 
three trading Girls in his Cabin. Offering one of thefe to 
fome of our Company, who refus'd his Kindnefs, his Majefty 
flew into a violent Paflion, to be thus flighted, telling the 
Englishmen, they were good for nothing. Our old Game- 
iter, particularly, hung his Ears at the Propofal, havin* 
too lately been a Lofer by that fort of Merchandize. It was 
obfervable, that we did not fee one Partridge from tbeWa- 
terrees to this place, tho' my Spaniel-Bitch, which I had with 
me in this Voyage, had put up a great many before. 

On Saturday Morning, we all fet out for Sapona, killing in 
thefe Creeks, feveral Ducks of a Arrange Kind, having a red 
Circle about their Eyes, like fome Pigeons that I have feen 
a Top-knot reaching from the Crown of their Heads al- 
moft to the middle of their Backs, and abundance of Fea- 
thers of pretty Shades and Colours. They prov'd excellent 
Meat. Likewife, here is good ftore of Woodcocks, not fo 
bigasthofein England, the Feathers of the Breaft being of 
a Carnation-Colour, exceeding ours for Delicacy of Food 
The Marble here is of different Colours, fome or other of 
the Rocks reprefenting moft Mixtures, but chiefly the white 
having black and blue Veins in it, and fome that are red. 
This day, we met with feven heaps of Stones, being the Mo- 
numents of feven Indians, that were flain in that place by the- 
S.nnagers, or Troquois. Our Indian Guide added a Stone ta 
each heap. We took up our Lodgings near a Brook-fide 
where the Virginia Man's Horfes got away. % and went back 
to the Kadapau %. 

Sunday-. This day, one of our Company, with a Sapona Indian, who 
attended Stsxoart, went back for the Horfes, In the mean 
time, we went to (hoot Pigeons, which were fo numerous in 
thefe Parts, that you might fee many Millions in a Flock- 
they fometimes fplit off the Limbs of ftout Oaks, and other 
Trees, upon which they rooft o' Nights. You may find fe- 
veral Indian Towns,of not above 17 Routes, that have more 
than 100 Gallons of Pigeons Oil, or Fat \ they with: 


(45 ) 

Pulfe, or Bread, as we do Butter, and making the Ground 
as white as a Sheet with their Dung. The Indians take a 
Light, and go among them in the Night, a^id bring away 
fome thoufands, killing them with long Poles, as they roolt 
in the Trees. At this time of the Year, the Flocks, as they 
pafs by, in great meafure, obftrua the Light of the day. 

On Monday, we went about 25- Miles, travelling through Mtw%. 
a pleafant, dry Country, and took up our Lodgings by a Hill- 
fide, that was one entire Rock, out of which guuYd out plea>- 
fant Fountains of well- tailed Water. 

The next day, ftill palling along fuch Land as we had done TuefcUjc 
for many days before, which was, Hills and Vallies, about 
10 a Clock we reach'd the Top of one of thefe Mountains, 
which yielded us a fine ProfpecT: of a very level Country, 
holding fo, on all fides, farther than- we could difcern. When 
we came to travel through it, we found it very ftiff and 
rich, being a fort of Marl. This Valley afforded as large 
Timber as any I ever met withal, efpecially of Chefnut-Oaks, 
which render it an excellent Country for railing great Herds 
of Swine. Indeed, were it cultivated, we might have good 
hopes of as pleafant and fertile a Valley, as any our Englifr 
m America can afford. At Night, we lay by a fwift Cur- 
rent, where we faw plenty of Turkies, but pearch'd upon 
fuch lofty Oaks, that our Guns would not kill them, tho* we 
fliot very often, and our Guns were very good. Some of our 
Company mot feveral times, at one Turkey, before he would 
fly away, the Pieces being loaded with large.Goofe-fhot. 

Next Morning, we got our Breakfafts •, roafted Acorns be-WedneJ- 
ing one of the Difhes. The Indians beat them into Meal, and <*<?/• 
thicken their Venifon-Broth with them-, and oftentimes 
make a palatable Soop. - They are ufed inftead of Breads 
boiling them till the Oil fwims on the top of the Water* 
which they preferve for ufe, eating the Acorns with Flefh- 
meat. We travell'd, this day, about 25 Mites, over plea- 
fant Savanna Ground, high, and dry, having very few \ 
Trees upon it, and thofe ftanding at a great diftance. The 
Land was very good, and free from Grubs or Underwood, 
A Man near Sapona may more eafily clear 10 Acres of Ground, 
than in fome places he can one •, there being mnch-loofe Stone, 
upon the Land, lying very convenient for making of dry- 
Walls, or any other fort of durable Fence, This Country ■ 


(46 ) 

abounds likewife with curious bold Creeks, (navigable for 
fmall Graft) difgorging themfelves into the main Rivers, 
that vent themfelves into the Ocean. Thefe Creeks are well 
ftor'd with fundry forts of Fifh, and Fowl, and are very con- 
venient for the Tranfportation of what Commodities this 
Place may produce. This Night, we had a great deal of 
Rain, with Thunder and Lightning. 
'fhuffiay. Next Morning, it proving delicate Weather, three of us 
Separated ourfelves from the Horfes, and the reft of the 
Company, and went directly for SaponaTown. That day, 
we pafs'd through a delicious Country, (none that lever 
faw exceeds it.) We fawfinebladed Grafs, fix Foot high, 
along the Banks of thefe pleafant Rivulets: We pafs'd by 
the Sepulchres of feveralilain Indians. Coming,that day,about 
30 Miles, we reach'd the fertile and pleafant Banks of Sapona 
^River,w hereon ftands the Indian Town and Fort. Nor could 
all Europe afford a pleafanterStream,wereit inhabited byCh-i- 
ftians,and cultivated by ingenious Hands. Thefe Indians live in 
a clear Field, about a Mile fquare, which they would have fold 
me j becaufe I talked fometimes of coming into thofe Parts to 
live. This moll pleafant River may be fomething broader 
-than the Thames at King fi en, keeping a continual pleafant 
warbling Noife, with its reverberating on the bright Mar- 
ble Rocks. It is beautified with a numerous Train of Swans, 
and other forts of Water-Fowl, not common, though extra- 
ordinary pleafing to the Eye. The forward Spring welcom'd 
us with her innumerable Train of fmall Chorifters, which 
inhabit thofe fair Banks •, the Hills redoubling, and adding 
Sweetnefs to their melodious Tunes by their fhrill Echoes. 
'One fide of the River is hemm'd in with mountainy Ground, 
the other fide proving as rich a Soil to the Eye of a knowing 
Perfon with us, as any this Weftern World can afford. We 
took up our Quarters at the King's Cabin, who was a good 
Friend to the Englijh, and had loft one of his Eyes in their 
Vindication. Being upon his march towards the Appedlatche 
Mountains, amongft a Nation of Indians in their Way, there 
happen'd a Difference, while they were meafuring of Gun- 
powder •, and the Powder, by accident, taking fire, blew out 
one of this King's Eyes, and did a great deal more mifchief, 
upon the fpot : Yet this Sapona King ftood firmly to the Eng- 
lifl) Man's Intereft, with whom he was in Gompany, ftill 

1 iiding 

( 47 ) 

fiding with him againft ihevhdians, They were intended 
for the South Sea, but were too much fatigued by the vafb 
Ridge of Mountains, tho' they hit the right Paflage ; it being 
no lefs than five days Journey through a Ledge of Rocky 
Hills, and fandy Defarts. And which is yet worfe, there is 
no Water, nor fcarce a Bird to be feen, during your PafFage 
bver thefe barren Crags and Valleys. The Sapona River 
proves to be the Weft Branch of Cape-Fair^ or Clarendon River, 
whofe Inlet, with other Advantages, makes it appear as noble 
a River to plant a Colony in, as any I have met withal. 

The Saponas had (about 10 days before we came thither) 
taken Five Prifoners of the Sinnagers or Jennitos^ a Sort of 
People that range feveral thoufands°of Miles, making all Prey 
they lay their Hands on. Thefe are fear'd by all the favage 
Nations 1 ever was among, the Weftward Indians dreading 
* their Approach. They are all forted in, and keep continual 
Spies and Out-Guards for their better Security. Thofe Cap- 
tives they did intend to burn, few Prifoners of War efcaping 
that Punifhment. The Fire of Pitch-Pine being got ready, 
and a Feaft appointed, which is folemnly kept at the time of. 
their acting this Tragedy,the Sufferer has his Body ftuck thick . 
with Light- Wood-Splinters, which are lighted like fo many 
Candles, the tortur'd Perfon dancing round a great Fire, till 
his Strength fails,and difables him from making them any far- 
ther Paftime. Moft commonly , thefe Wretches behave 
themfelves (in the Midft of their Tortures) with a great, 
deal of Bravery and Refolution, efteeming it Satisfa&ion 
enough, to be aflur'd, that the fame Fate will befal fome of 
their Tormentors, whensoever they fall into theHands of 
their Nation. More of this you will have in the other 

The Toteros, a neighbouring Nation, came down from the 
Weftward Mountains, to the Saponas, defiring them to give 
them thofe Prifoners into their Hands, to the Intent they. 
might fend them back into their own Nation, being bound: 
in Gratitude to be Serviceable to the Sinnag«rs, fincenot long ., 
ago, thofe Northern-/w^»j had taken fome of the Toteros - 
Prifoners, and done them no Harm* but treated them civilly 
whilffc among them, fending them, with Safety, back to their 
own People, and affirming, that it would be the belt-. Me- 
thod to preferve Peace on, ail Sides. At that, time thefe ■-• 
' ' " ,' " " - " . Ten*- 



( 48 > _ 

Toteros, Saponas, and the Keyamvees, 3 fmall Nations, were 
going to live together, by which they thought they mould 
itrengthen therafelves, and become formidable to their Bne* 
rnies. The Reafons oiFer'd by the Totsros being heard, the 
Sapona King, with the Confent of his Counfellors, deliver'd 
the Sinnagers up to the Toteros, to conduit them home. 

&ri&0* Friday Morning, the old King having ftiew'd us 2 of his 

Horfes, that were as fat,as if they had belong'd to the Dutch 
Troopers, left us, and went to look after his Beyer-Traps 
there being abundance of thofe amphibious Animals in this 
River, and the Creeks adjoining. Taken with the Pleafant- 
nefs of the Place, we walk'd along the River-fide, where we 
found a very delightful Ifland, made by the River, and a 
Branch ; there being feveral fuch Plots of Ground environ'd 
with this Silver Stream, which are fit Pafbres for Sheep, 
and free from any offenfive Vermin. Nor can any thing 
•be defired by a contented Mind, as to a pleafant Situation 
but what may here be found ; Every Step prefenting fome 
new Objed, which ftill adds Invitation to the Traveller in 
thefe Parts. Our Indian King and his Wife entertain'd us 
very fefpeftfufly. 

Situt-day. On Saturday, the Indians brought in fome Swans, and 

=§an. 51. Geefe, which we had our Share of. One of their Do&ors 
took me to his Cabin, and fhew'd me a great Quantity of 
medicinal Drugs, the Produce of thofe Parts ; Relating their 
Qualities-as to theEmun&ories they work'd by,and what great 
Maladies he had heal'd by them. This Evening, came to us 
the Horfes, with the Remainder of our Company, their In- 
dian Guide (who was a Youth of this Nation) having kill'd, 
in their Way, a very fat Doe, Part of which they brought 
to us. 

4Mlny. ' This day, the King fent out all his able Hunters, to kill 
Game for a great Feaft, that was to be kept at their Depar- 
ture, from the Town, which they ofFer'd to fell me for a 
fmall matter. That Piece of Ground, with a little Trouble, 
would make an Englijhman a molt curious Settlement, con- 
taining above a Mile fquare of rich Land. This Evening, 
came down fome Totems^ tall, likely Men, having great 
Plenty of Buffelbs, Elks, and Bears, with other fort of Deer 
amongft them, which ftrong Food makes large, robuit Bo- 
dies. Enquiring of them, if theyjiever got any of the Be- 



(49 ) 

tjoar Stone, and giving them a Defcription how it was found, 
the Indians told me, they had great plenty of it } and ask'd 
me, What ufe 1 could make of it ? I anfwer'd them, That the 
white Men us'd it in Phyfick, and that I would buy Tome of 
them, if they would get it againft I came that way again. 
Thereupon, one of them pull'd out a Leather-Pouch, where- 
in wasfomeof it in Powder , he was a notable Hunter, and 
affirm'd to me, That that Powder, blown into the Eyes, 
ilrengthen'd the Sight and Brain exceedingly, that being 
the molt common Ufe they made of it. I bought, for 2 or 
3 Flints, a large Peach-Loaf, made up with a pleafant fort 
of Seed ; and this did us a Angular Kindnefs, in our Journey. 
Near the Town, within their clear'd Land, are feveral Bag* 
nios^ or Sweating-Houfes, made of Stone, in Shape like a 
large Oven. Thefe they make much Ufe of \ efpecially, for 
any Pains in the Joints, got by Cold, or Travelling. At 
Night, as we lay in our Beds, there arofe the moll violent 
N..W. Wind 1 ever knew. The firft Puff blew down all the 
Talifadoes that fortify'd the Town •, and I thought it would 
have blown us all into the River, together with the Houfes. 
Our one-ey'd King, who pretends much to the Art of Con- 
juration, ran out in the moft violent Hurry, and in the 
Middle of the Town , fell to his Necromantick Pra&ice - 7 
tho' I thought he would have been blown away or kill'd, be- 
fore the Devil and he could have exchang'd half a dozen 
Words ; but in two Minutes, the Wind was ceas'd, and it be- 
came as great a Calm, as ever I knew in my Life. As I much 
admir'd at that fudden Alteration, the old Man told me, the 
. Devil was very angry, and had done thus, -becaufe they had 
not put the Sinnagers to Death. 

On Monday Morning, our whole Company, with the Hor-Moniy, 
fes, fet out from the Sapona-In'dian Town, after having ken 
fome of the Locuft, which is gotten thereabouts, the fame 
Sort that bears Honey. Going over feveral Creeks, -very 
convenient for Water-Mills, about 8 Miles from the Town, 
we pafs'd over a very pretty River, call'd Rocky River, a 
fit Name, having a Ridge of high Mountains running from 
its Banks, to the Eaftward; and difgorging itfelf into Sapo- 
»^-River', fo that there is a moll pleafant and convenient 
Neck of Land, betwixt both Rivers, lying upon a Point, 
where many thoufand Acres may be fenced in, without 

H much 

C 50) 



'. . 

1 •! 

much Coft or Labour. You. can fcarcego a Mile, without 
meeting with one of thefe fmall fwift Currents, here being 
no Swamps to be found, but pleafant, dry Roads all over 
the Country. The Way that we went this day, was as full 
of Stones, as any which Craven, in the Weft of TorkJhire r 
could afford, and having nothing but Moggifons on my Feet, 
I was fo lanfd by this ftony Way, that I thought I mull have 
taken up fome Stay in thofe Parts. We went, this day, not 
above 1 5 or 20 Miles. After toe had fupp'd, and all lay down 
to fteep, there came a Wolf clofeto the Fire-fide, where we 
lay. My Spaniel foon difcoVer'd him, at which, one of Our 
Company fir'd a Gun at the Beaft } but, I believe, there was 
a Miftake in the loading of it, for it did him no Harm. The 
Wolf ftay'd till he had almoft loaded again, but the Bitch 
making a great Noife, at la ft left us and went afide. We 
had nofooner laid down, but he approach'd us again, yet 
was more fhy, fo that we could not get a Shot at him. 

Tu-'fday. Next day, we had 1 5 Miles farther to the Keyauwees. The 
Land is more mountainous,but extremely pleafant, and an ex- 
cellent Place for the breeding Sheep, Goats, and Horfes \ or 
Mules, if the Englijh were once brought to the Experience of 
the TJfefulnefs of thofe Creatures. The Valleys are here very 
rich. At Noon, we pafs'd over fuch another ftony River, 
as that eight Miles from Sapona. This is call'd Helghwaree, 
and affords as good blue Stone for Mill-Stones, as that from 
CoJogn, good Rags, fome Hones, and large Pebbles, in great 
abundance, befides Free-Stone of feveral Sorts, all very ufe- 
ful. I knew one of thefe Hones made ufe of by an Acquain- 
tance of mine, and it prov'd rather better than any from Old 
Spain, or elfe where. The Veins of Marble are very large 
and curious on this River, and the Banks thereof. 
<.~ . Five Miles from this River, to the N. W- ftands the Key- 
auwecs Town. They are fortify'd in, with wooden Punch- 
eons, like Sapona, being a People much of the fame Number.. 

1 Nature hath fo fortify'd this Town, with Mountains, that 

to ere it a Seat of War, it might eafily be made impregnable ; 
-having large Corn-Fields joining to their Cabins, and a Sa- 
vanna near the Town, at the Foot of thefe Mountains, that 
is capable of keeping fome hundred Heads of Cattle. And. 
all this environed round with very high Mountains, fo that no 
hard Wind ever troubles thefe Inhabitants. Thofe high 


( 5i ) 

Clifts have no Grafs growing on them, and very few Trees, 
which are very fhort, and ftand at a great Diftance one from 
another. The Earth is of a red Colour, and feems to me to 
be wholly defign'd by Nature for the Produftion of Minerals, 
being of too hot a Quality, to fuffer any Verdure upon its 
Surface Thefe Indians make jife of Lead-Ore, to paint then- 
Faces withal, which they get in tho neighbouring Mountains. 
As for the refining of Metals, the Indians are wholly igno- 
rant of it, being content with the Realgar. But if it be my 
Chance, once more to vifit thefe Hilly Parts, I fell make a 
longer Stay amongft them i For were a good Vein of Lead 
found out, and work'd by an ingenious Hand, it might be of 
no fmall Advantage to the Undertaker, there being great 
Convenience for fmelting, either by Bellows or Reverberati- 
on S and the Working of thefe Mines might difcover fome 
that are much richer. . - ■ 

At the Top of one of thefe Mountains, is a Cave that iop 
Men may fit very conveniently to dine in * whether natural, 
or artificial, I could not learn. There is a fine Bole between 
this Place, and the Saps. Thefe Valleys thus hemm'd in with 
Mountains, would (doubtlefs) prove a good place for pro- 
pagating fome fort of Fruits, that our Eafterly Winds com- 
monly blaft. The Vine could not mifs of thriving well here ; 
but we of the Northern Climate are neither Artifts, nor curi- 
ous, in propagating that pleafant and profitable Vegetable. 
Near the Town, is fuch another Current, as Heighwaree. We 
being fix in Company, divided ourfelves into Two Parties-; 
artd it was my Lot to be at theHoufe of Keyauwees Jack, who 
is King of that People. He is a Conger ee- Indian, and ran a- 
way when he was a Boy. He got this Government by Mar- 
riage with the Queen ; the Female IfTue carrying the Heri- 
tage, for fear of Impoftors ; the Savages well knowing, how 
much Frailty poffeffes the Indian Women, betwixt the Gar- . 
ters and the Girdle. - 

The next day, having fome occafion to write, the Indian Wekefi 
King who faw me, believ'd that he could write as welU<y. 
as I. Whereupon, I wrote a Word, and gave it him to copy, 
which he did with more Exactnefs, than any European could 
have done, that was illiterate. It was fo well, that he who 
<:ould read mine, might have done the fame1)y his. After- 
wards, he took great Delight in making Fifh-hooks of bis 

H 2 owu 

( 52 > 


, '! 

own Invention, which would have been a good Piece for an 
Antiquary to have puzzled his Brains withal, in tracing out 
the Characters ofall the Oriental Tongues.- He fent for fe- 
veral Indians to his Cabin, to look at his Handy-work, and ' 
both he and they thought, I could read his Writing as well 
as I could my own. 1 had a Manual in my Pocket, that had 
King ZWW'sPifture inn, in one of his private Retirements. 
The Indian ask'd me, Who that Figure reprefented ? I told 
him, It was the Pi&ure of a good King, that liv'd according 
to the Rules of Morality, doing to all as he would be done 
by, ordering all his Life to the Service of the Creator of all 
things ; and being now above us all, in Heaven, with God 
Almighty, who had rewarded him with all the delightful 
Pleasures imaginable in the other World, for his Obedience 
to him in this ; I concluded, with telling them, that we re- 
ceived nothing here below, as Food, Raiment, &c. but what 
came from that Omnipotent Being. They liftned to my Dif- 
courfe with a profound Silence^ alluring me, that they be- - 
liev'd what I faid to be true. No Man living will ever be 
able to make thefe Heathens fenfible of the Happinefs of a 
future State, except he now and then mentions fome lively 
carnal Reprefentation, which may quicken their Apprehen- 
lions, and make them thirft after fuch a gainful Exchange • 
for, were the belt Lecture that ever was preach'd by Man' 
given to an ignorant fort of People, in a more learned Style' 
than their mean Capacities are able to underftand, the In- 
tent would prove ineffectual, and the Hearers would be left 
in a greater Labyrinth thanjheir Teacher found them in. 
But difpenfe the Precepts of our Faith according to the Pu- 
pil's Capacity, and thefe is nothing in our Religion, but 
what an indifferent Reafon is, in fome meafure, able to com- 
prehend 5 tho' a New-England Minifter blames the French Je- 
fuits for this way of Proceeding, as being quite contrary to 
a true Chriftian Pra&ice, and affirms it to be no ready, or 
true Method , to eftablifh a lively Reprefentation of our 
Chriftian Belief amongft thefe Infidels. 

All the Indians hereabouts carefully preferve the Bones of 
the Flefh they eat, and barn them, as being of Opinion, that 
if they omitted that Cuftom, the Game would leave their 
Country, and they mould not be able ^maintain themfelves 
by their Hunting. Molt of thefe Indians wear Muftacboes, 
or Whiskers, which is rare ; by reafon the Indians are a Peo- 


_ — -! 

' ( 53 ) _ : 

pie that commonly pull the Hair of their Faces, and other 
Parts, up by the Roots, and fuffer none to grow. Here is 
plenty of Chefnuts, which are rarely found in Carolina, and 
never near the Sea, or Salt-Water j tho' they are frequently 
in fuch Places in Virginia. ' 

At the other Houfe, where our Fellow- Travellers lay, 
they had provided a Dilh, in great Falhion amongft the In- 
dians, which was Two young Fawns, taken out of the Doe's 
Bellies, and boil'd in theiameflimy Bags Nature had plac'd 
them in, and one of Ihe Country-Hares, ftew'd with the 
Guts in her Belly, and her Skin with the Hair on, This 
new-fafhion'd Cookery wrought Abftinence in our Fellow- 
Travellers, which I fomewhat wonder'd at, becaufe one of 
them made nothing of eating AUegators, as heartily as if it 
had been Pork and Turneps. The Indians drefs molt things 
after the Wood-cock Falhion, never taking the Guts out. 
At the Houfe we lay at, there was very good Entertainment 
of Venifon, Turkies, and Bears-, and which iscuftomarya- 
mongftthe/W^/w, the Queen had a Daughter by a former 
Husband, who was the beautifulleft Indian I ever faw, and 
had an Air of Majefty with her, quite contrary to the gene- 
ral Carriage of the Indians. She was very kind to the Eng- 
lish, during our Abode, as well as her Father and Mother. -■ . 

This Morning, moft of our Company having fome Inclina. 7*«W> 
tion to go ftraight away for Virginia, when they left this 
Place; I and one more took our leaves of them, refolving 
(with God's Leave) to fee North-Carotiriai one of the Indians 
fetting us in our way. The reft being indifferent which way 
they went, defired usj by all means,. to leave a Letter for 
them,.atthe^dWec&y-Town. The Indian that put us m 
our Path, had been a Prifoner amongft the Sinnagers; but 
had out-run. them, although they had cut his Toes, and half 
his Feet away, which is a Practice common amongft them. 
They firft raife the Skin, then cut away half the Feet, and 
fo wrap the Skin over the Stumps, and make a prefent Cure 
of the Wounds. This commonly difables them from making 
their Efcape^ they being not fo good Travellers as before, 
and the Impreffion of their. Half-Feet making it eafy to trace: 
them. However, this Fellow was got clear of them, but 
had little Heart to go far from home, and carry'd always a 
Cafe of Piftols in his Girdle, befides a Cutlafs, and a Fuzee. 


( 5 4 ) 

Leaving the reft of our Company at the Indian-Town, we 
travell'd, that day, about 20 Miles, in very cold, frofty Wea- 
ther'; and pafs'd over two pretty Rivers, foraething bigger 
than Heighwaree, but not quite fo ftony. We took thefe two 
Rivers to make one of the Northward Branches of 'Cafe-Fair 
River, but afterwards found our Miftake. 

■Indiiy. The next day, we travell'd over very good Land, but full 
of -Free-Stone, arid Marble, which pinch'd our Feet fevere- 
ly. We took up our Quarters in a fort of Savanna-G round, 
that had very few Treesin it. The Land was good, and had 
feveral Quarries of Stone, but not loofe, as the others us'd 
to be. 

■Saturday. Next Morning, we got our Breakfaftsof Parch'd Corn, 
having nothing but that to fubfift on for above 100 Miles. 
All the Pine-Trees were vanifh'd, for we had feen none for 
two days. We pafs'd through a delicate rich Soil this day ; 
no great Hills, but pretty Rifings, and Levels, which made 
a beautiful Country. We likewife pafs'd over three Rivers 
this day ; the firft about the bignefs of Rocky River, the o- 
ther not much differing in Size. Then we made not the 
leaft Queftion, but we had pafs'd over the North-Weft 
Branch of Cafe-Fair-, travelling that day above 30 Miles. 
We were much taken with the Fertility and Pleafantnefs 
of the Neck of Land betvveen thefe two Branches, and" no 
lefspleas'd, that we had pafs'd the River, which us'd to 
frighten Paflengers from fording it. At laft, determining 
to reft: on the other fide ■ of a Hill, which we iaw before us ; 
when we were on the Top thereof, there appear'd to us 
fuch another delicious, rapid Stream, as that of Safona, ha- 
iring large Stones, about the bignefs of an ordinary Houfe, 
lying up and flown the River. As the Wind blew very cold 
at N. W. and we were very weary, and hungry, the Swift- 
aiefs of the Current gave us fome caufe to fear ; but, at la ft, 
We concluded to venture over that Night. Accordingly, 
we ftripp'd, and with great Difficulty, (by God's Affiftance) 
got fafe to the North-fide of the famous /&a-River, by 
fome called Reatfan ; the Indians differing in the Names of 
Places, according to their feveral Nations. It is call'd Hau- 
River, from the Sijfifahau Indians? who dwell upon this 
.Stream, which is one of the main Branches of Cafe-Fair, 
<there being rich Land enough to contain forne Thousands of 


( 55 ) 

Families i for which Reafon, I hope, in a fliort tune, u 
will be planted. This River is much fuch another W&gm 
both feeming to run a vaft way up the Country.. Here is 
pk ty Tf good Timber, and efpecially of a Scaly-barkU 
Oak •; And as there is Stone enough in both Rivers, and the 
Land is extraordinary Rich, no Man that will be content 
within the Bounds of Reafon, can have any grounds to dif- 
like it. And they that are otherwife, are the belt Neigh- 
bours, when far theft of. 

As foonas it was day, we fet cut for the Achonechy-Sm^. 
Town it being, by Eftimatiwi, 20 Miles off, which, I be- 
lieve, is pretty exaft. We were got about half way, (meet- 
ing great Gangs of Turkies) when we few, at a Diftance, 30 
loaded Horfes, coming on the Road, with four or live Men, 
on other Jades, driving them. We charg'd our Piece, and 
went up to them: Enquiring, whence they came rrom i 
They told us, from Virginia. The leading Man's Name was 
Mafley who was born about Leeds in Torkfhire. He ask d, 
from whence we came ? We told him. Then he ask'd again, 
Whether we wanted any thing that he had ? telling us, we 
fhould be welcome to it. We accepted of Two Wheaten 
Biskets, and a little Ammunition. He advifed us, by all 
means, to ftrike down the Country for Ronoack, and not think 
of V-vrini^ becaufe of the Sinnagers, of whom they were a- 
fl-aid^tho' fo well arm'd, and numerous. They perfuaded 
us alfo, to call upon one Enoe Will, as we went to Ad(hujheer^ 
for that he would conduct us fafe among the Etiglijb, giving 
him theCharadter of a very faithful Indian 7 which we afterwards 
found true by Experience. The Firgim^Men asking our Opi- 
nion of the Country we were then in ? we told them, it was a 
very pleafant one. They were all of the fame Opinion, and af- 
firm'd,That they had never feen.20 Miles of fuch extraordina- 
ry rich Land, lying all together, like that betwixt Hau*R\yer-~ 
and the Achmechy Town. Having taken our Leaves of each o- 
ther,we fet forward -, and the Country, thro' which wepafs'd, 
was fo delightful, that it gave us a great deal of Satisfa&ion* 
About 1 hi-ee a Clock, we reaCh'd the Town, and the Indi-. 
ans prefently brought us good fat Bear, and Venifon, which, 
was very acceptable at that time. Their Cabins were, 
hung with a good fort of Tapeftry, as fat Bear, and, bar-, 
bakued or dried Venifon; no Indians having greater Plea-> - 

I . ty 

c mi 

H i' > 

ty of Provifions than thefe. The Savages do, indeed ftill 
poffefs the Flower of Carolina , the Englifi enjoying 'only 
the Fag- end of that ..fine Country. We had not been in 
the Town 2 Hours, w hen jEwc-W^/7 came into the King's Ca- 
bin ; which was our Quarters. We ask ? d him, if he would 
conduft us to the Englijh, and what he would have for his 
Pains , he anfwer'd, he would go along with us, and for 
what lie was to have, he left that to our Difcretion. 
Mtndw. The next Morning, we fetout, with Enoc-Will, towards 
Adjlmfoeer, leaving the Virginia Path, and ftriking more to 
the Eaftward, for Ronoack. Several Indians were in our Com- 
pany belonging to Will's Nation, who are the Shoccories, mixt 
with the Enoe-Indians, and thofe of the Nation of Adjliu- 
fiieer. Enoe-WMis their chief Man, and rules as far as the 
Banks of Reatkin. It was a fad ftony Way to Adjhujheer. 
We went over a fmall River by Achonechy, and in this 
14 Miles , through feveral other Streams , which empty 
themfelves into the Branches of Cape-Fair. The ftony Way 
made me quite lame , fo that I was an Hour or two behind 
the reft \ but honeft Will would not leave me, but bid me 
welcome when we. came to his Houfe,' lifting us with hot 
Bread, and Bears^Oil ; which is wholfomeFood for Travel- 
lers. There runs a pretty Rivulet by this Town. Near 
the Plantation, I faw a prodigious overgrown Pine-Tree, 
having not feen any of that Sort of Timber for above 125 
Miles : They brought us 2 Cocks, and pull'd their larger 
Feathers off, never plucking the letter, but iingeing them off*. 
I took one of thefe Fowls in my Hand, to make it cleaner 
than the Indian had, pulling out his Guts and Liver, which 
I laid in a Bafon; notwithftanding which, he keptfuch a 
Struggling for a confiderable time,tbat I had much ado to hold 
him in my Hands. The Indians laugh'd at me, and told me, 
that Ense-Will had taken a Cock of an Indian that was not 
at home, and the Fowl was defign'd for another Ufe. I con- 
jedur'd, that he was defign'd for an Offering to their God, 
who,they fay, hurts thcm,(which is the Devil.;) In this Strug- 
gling, he bled afrefh, and there ifiued out of his Body more 
Blood than. commonly fuch Creatures afford. Notwithftand- 
; ing all this, we coak'd him, and eat him \ and if he was de- 
fign'd for him, cheated the Devil. The Indians keep many 
Cocks., but feldom above one Hen, ufing very often fuch 
wicked Sacrifices, as I miftrufted this Fowl was defign'd for. 


_ C 57 ) 

Our Guide and Landlord Etioe-WM was of the belt and molt 
agreeable Temper that ever I met with in an Indian, being al- 
ways ready to fervethe Englijh, not out of Gain, but real 
AfFe&ion :, which makes him apprehenfive of being poifon'd by 
fome wicked Indians, and was therefore very earnefl: with me, \ 
to promife him to revenge his Death, if it mould fo happen. 
He brought fome of his chief Men into his Cabin, and 2 of 
them having a Drum, and a Rattle, fung by us, as we lay 
in Bed, and ftruck up their Mufick to ferenade and welcome 
us to their Town. And tho'at laft, we fell afleep, yet they 
continu'd their Confort till Morning. Thefe Indians are for- 
tify'd in, as the former, and are much addi&ed to a Sport they 
call Chenco, which is carry'd on with a Staff and a Bowl made 
of Stone, which they trundle upon a fmooth Place, like a 
Bowling-Green, made for that Purpofe* as I have mention'd 

Next Morning, we fet out, with our Guide, and feveral7«e/%. 
other Indians, who intended to go to thtEnglifh, and buy Rum. 
Wedefign'dfor -a Nation about 40 Miles from Adfi>i$iee?\ 
call'd the Lower Quarter : The firft Night, we lay in a rich " 
Terkofon, or low Ground, that was hard-by a Creek, and 
good dry Land. 

The next day, we went over feveral Tf a&s of rich Land,^^/- 
but fnixM with Pines and other indifferent Soil. In our way,^> 
.there flood a great Stone about the Size of a large Oven, and 
hollow j this the Indians took great Notice cf, putting 
fome Tobacco into the Concavity, and fpitting after it. I 
ask'd them the Reafon of their fo doing, but they made me - 
no Anfwer. In the Evening, we pafs'd over a pleafant Rivu- 
let, with a fine gravelly Bottom, having come over fuGh ano- 
ther that Morning. On the other fide of this River, we found 
the Indian Town, which was a Parcel of nafty fmoaky Holes, 
much like the Waterrees ; their Town having a great Swamp 
running dire&ly through the Middle thereof. The Land 
here begins to abate of its Height, and has Fome few Swamps. 
Moil of thefe Indians have but one Eye •, but what Mifchance 
or Quarrel has bereav'd them of the other I could not learn. 
They were not fo free to us, as molt of the other Indians' 
had been :, Victuals being fomewha't fcarce among them. 
However, we got enough to fatisfy our Appetites, i law, 
among- thefe Men, very long Arrows, headed with Pieces of 

I " Glafs, 


Thar [day. 

1 1 ! 


( 58) 

Giafs, which they had broken from Bottles. They had ihap'd them 
neatly, like tire Head of a Dart ,• but which way they did it, I can't 
tell. , We had not been at this Town above an Hour, when two of our 
Company, that had bought a Mare of John Stewart, came up to us,, 
having receiv'd a Letter by one of Will's Indians, who was very cautious, 
and asked a great many Queftions, to certifie him of the Perfon, e'er 
he would deliver the Letter. They had left the Trader, and one that 
came from South- Carolina with us, to go to Virginia • thefe Two be- 
ing refolved to go to Carolina with us. 

This Day fell much Rain, fo we feid at the Indian Town. 
This Morning, we fet Out early, being four, Englifo- Men, befides 
ieveral Indians. We went 10 Miles, and were then ftopp'djsy the 
Freihes of 22/w-River, which had rais'd it fo high, that we could not 
pafs over, till it was fallen. I enquir'd of my Guide, Where this Ri- 
ver difgorg'd it felf ? He faid, It was £«op- River, and run into a. 
Place^caU'd -Ewe-Bay, near liis Country, which he left when he was 
a Boy ; by which I perceiv'd,he was one of the Cores by Birth : This - 
being a Branch of A T f«j-River. 

Saturday. This Day, our Fellow-Traveller's Mare ran away from him; where- 
fore, V¥ill went back as far as the lower Quarter, and brought her 

Sunday, The next Day, early, came two Tushmro Indians to the other fide 
of the River, but could not get over. They talk'd much to us, but 
we uhderflood them not. In the Afternoon, Will came with the Mare, 
and had Tome Difcourfe with them t, they told him, The Englijh, to 
whom he was going, were very wicked People ; and, That they 
, fhjea.tned the Indians for Hunting near their Plantations. Thefe Two 
FelieAvs were going among the Schoccores and Achoncchy Indians, to 
fell their Wooden Bowls and Ladles for Raw-Skins, which they make 
great Advantage of, hating that any of thefe Weftward Indians ihould 
have any Commerce with the Englifb, which would prove a Hinde- 
rance to their Gains. Their Stories deterr'd anOldlndian and his Son, 
from going any farther ; but Will told us, Nothing they had faid ihould . 
frighten him, he believing them to be a couple of Hog-ftealers ; • and 
that the Englifb only fought Reflitution of their Lofies, by them ; and 
that this was the only ground for their Report. Will had a Slave, a - 
Si/jlpahan- Indian by Nation, who killed us fevcral Turiues, and other 
Game, on which we feaired. 

Monday.-, This River is near as large as Reatlin • the South-fide having curious 

. ;•' Tracts of good Land, the Banfehigh, and Stone-Quarries. TheTuf- 
ftemros being come to us, we vJeittur d over the River, which we found 
to be a itrong Current, and thas^ater about Breafl-high. . However,, 
) we all got fafe to the North-Shore, which is but poor, white, fandy 
Land, and bears no Timber, but fmall lh-rubby Oaks. We went about 
10 Miles, and fat down at the Falls of a krge Creek, where lay migh- 
' ' ty Rocks., the Water making a firange Noiie, as if a great many Wa- 

( 59 ) 

ter-Mills were going at once. I take this to be the Falls of 
Neut-Cictk, called by the Indians, Wee quo Whom. We lay here 
all Wight. ' My Guide Witt deliring to fee the Book that 1 had a- 
bout pie, 1 lent it him ; and as he foon found the Piflure of King 
David he asked me feveral Questions concerning the Book^and 1 1- 
aure, which I refolv'd him, and- invited him to become a Chriftiaii. ._ 
Ke made me a very fharp Reply, alluring me, That he lov'd the Ea«~ 
/;//? extraordinary well, and did believe their Ways to be very good 
for thofe that had already pra&is'd them, and had been brought. up; 
therein ; But as for himfelf, he was too much in Years to think of 
a Chang'e, efteeming it not proper for OldPeople to admit of fuch an 
Alteration. - However, he told me, If 1 would take hisSon gdci, who 
was then about 14 Years of Age, and teach him to talk in that Book,, 
and make Paper fpeak, which they call our Way of Writing, he would 
wholly refign him K> my Tuition 5 telling me, he was of Opinion, I 
W as very well affefted to the Indians. ■ 

The next Morning, we fet out early, and I perceiv d that thefe In-Tuefhj. 
dims were in fome fear of Enemies ; for they had an Old Man with 
them, who was very cunning and circumfpeft, wherefoever he faw 
any Marks of Footing, or of any Fire that had been made ; going out 
of his Way, very often, to look for thefe Marks. We went, this day,, 
above 30 Miles, over a very level Country, and moft Pine Land, 
yet intermix d with fome Quantities of Marble ; a good Range for 
Cttel, though very indifferent for Swine. We had now loft our ra- 
pid Streams, and were come to How, dead Waters, of a brown Co- ; 
lour, proceeding from the Swamps, much like the Sluices in Holland, 
where the Track- Scoots go along. In the Afternoon, we mettio v 
Tmhruros, who told us, That there was a Company of Hunters not 
far of, and if we -walk'd ftoutly, we might reach them that Night. . 
But Will and He that own'd the Mare, being gone before, and the 
Old Indian tired, we refted, that Night, in the Woods, making a: • 
good light Fire, Wood being very plentiful in thefe Parts. < '..< - . 
3 Next Day, about 10 a Clock, we fbruck ,out of -the Way, by. the Weim\- 
Advice of our Old Indian. We had not gone pafl two Miles, e'er vieday. . 
met with about 500. Ttuhruros in one Hunting-Quarter. ' They had 
made themfelves Streets of Houfes, built with Pine- Bark, not with 
round- Tops, as they commonly ufe, but B.idge-Fafhion, after the 
manner of" moft othci Indians. We' got nothing amongft them but 
Corn, Flefii being not plentiful, by reafon of the great Number, of 
their People. For tho'they are expert Hunters, yet they are too po- 
paloifs for one Range ; which makes Venifon veiy-fcarce to what it 
is "irougft other Indians, that are fewer ; no Savages, living fo'. well 
fniTii^ty, as- thofe near -die Sea. I faw, amongft thefe, a "Hump- 
back 1 d Indian, which was the only crooked one I ever met withal. . 
About two a Clock, we reach'd one of their Towns, in which there 
was no body left, but an Old Woman or two ; the reft being gone to _. 

theix . 


■;:f ii 


; ( fo > , __ 

their Hunting- Quarters. We could find no Provifion at that Place. 
We had a Tushruro that came in company with us, from the lower 
Quarter, who took us to his Cabin, and gave us what it afforded, 
which was Corn- meat. 

This Day, we pafs'd through feveral Swamps, and going not above 
a dozen Miles, came to a Cabin, the Mafter whereof us'd to trade a- 
mongft the Englijh. He told us, If we would flay Two Nights, he 
would conduct us fafe to them, himfelf designing, at that time, to go 
and fetch fome Rum ; fo we refolvedto tarry for his Company. During 
our Stay, there happen'd to be a Young Woman troubled with Fits. 
The Doctor who was fent for to affift her, laid her on her Belly, and 
made a fmall Incifion withRattle-Snake-Teeth ; then laying his Mouth 
to the Place, he fuck'd out near a Quart of black conglutinated Blood, 
and Serum. Our Landlord gave us the Tail of a Eever, which was a 
choice Food. There happen'd alfo to be a Burial of one of their 
Dead, which Ceremony is much the fame with that of the Santees, 
who make a great Feaft at the Interment of their Corps. The fmall 
Runs of Water hereabout, afford great Plenty of Craw-Fifh, full as 
large as thofe in England, and nothing inferior in Goodnefs. 
Saturday. Saturday Morning, our Patron, with Enoe Will, and his Servant, fet 
out with us, for the Englijh. In the Afternoon, we ferried over a 
River, (in a Canoe) called by the Indians, Chstwhu, which is the 
N. W. Branch of Nens-Rxvef. We lay in the Swamp, where fome In- 
dians invited us to go/to their Quarters, which fome of our Company 
accepted, but got nothing extraordinary, except a dozen Miles March 
out of their Way : The Country here is very thick of Indian Towns 
and Plantations. ^ 

We were forced to march, this day, for Want of Provisions. About 
10 a Clock, we met an Indian that had got a parcel of Shad-Fifh rea- 
dy barbaku'd. We bought 24 of them, for a drefs'd Doe-Skin, and 
fo went on, through many Swamps, finding, this day, the long ragged 
Mofs on the Trees, which we had not feen for above 600 Miles. 
In libel Afternoon, we came upon the Banks of Pampticough, about 20 
Miles above the En^lifi Plantations by Water, though not fo far by 
Land. The Indian found a Canae, which he had hidden, in which we 
all got over, and went about fee Miles farther. We lay, that Night, 
under two or three Pieces of Barkj at the Foot of a large Oak. There 
fell abundance of Snow and Rain in the Night, with much Thunder 
and Lightning. - 

Next Day, it: clear'dup, and it being about 12 Miles to theEnglifo, 
about half-way we paned overa deep Lreek, and came fafe to Mr. Ri- 
cloard Smith's, of Pamptkough-Wivzr, in North- Carolina ; where be- 
ing well receiv'd by the Inhabitants, and pleas'd with the Goodneis 
©f the Country, we all refolv'd to continue, 

f i n i sr 





O F 


H £ Province of Carolina is feparated Cam- 
from Virginia by a due Weft-Line , H? a: f" 
which begins at Curritu d-lnlet, in % 6^ mm ^ 
Degrees , 30 Minutes, of Northern- 
Latitude, and extends indefinitely to 
the Weftward , and thence to the 
Southward, as far as 29 Degrees; 
which is a vaft Traft of Sea-Coaft. 
But having already treated, as far as 
is neceflary,. concerning South- Carolina, I fhall confine my- 
lelf, in the enfuing Sheets, to give my Reader a Defcription 
of that Part of the Country only, which lies betwixt 
Cvrrituch and Cape-Fair, and is almoft 34 Deg. North. * And 
this is commonly call'd North Carolina. 

This Part of Carolina is faced with a Chain of Sand-Banks, 
which defends it from the Violence and Infults of the Atlan- 
tick Ocean ♦, by which Barrier, a- vaft Sound is hemm'd in, 
. which fronts the Mouths of the Navigable and Pleafant Ri- 
vers of this Fertile Country, and into which they difgorge 
themfelves. Thro' the fame are Inlets of feveral Depths of inlets, 
Water. Some of their Channels admit only of Sloops, Bri- 
gantines, fmall Barks, and Ketches % and fuch are Currituck, 
Ronoak-, and up the Sound above Hatteras : Whilft others 
can receive Ships of Burden, as Ocacocly Toffail-lnlQt, and 
-Cape-Fair j as appears by my Chart. 

K The 


A Description 


11 II 


Fhft Colo- The firft Difcovery and Settlement of this Country was 
tiyof Ca-foy t h e procurement of Sir N Walter Raleigh, in Conjunction 
rolna. wl th fome publick-fpirited Gentlemen of that Age, under 
the Protection of Queen Elizabeth ; for which Reafon it was 
then named Virginia, being begun on that Part called Ro- 
w^-Ifiand,, where the Ruins of a Fort are to be feen 
at this day, ' as well as fome old English Coins which 
have been lately found ; and a Brafs-Gun, a Powder-Horn, 
and one fmall Quarter deck-Gun, made of Iron Staves, and 
hoop'd with the fame Metal ; which Method of making 
Guns might very probably be made ufe of in thofe Days 3 
for the Convenience of Infant-Colonies. 

A farther Confirmation of this we have from the Hat- 
teras Indians, who either then lived on Ronoak-lftand, or 
much frequented it. Thefe tell us, that feveral of their 
Anceftors were white People, and could talk in a Book, as 
we do , the Truth of which is confirm'd by gray Eyes be- , 
ing found frequently amongft thefe Indians, and no others* 
They value themfelves extremely for their Affinity to the 
Englijh, and are ready* to do them all friendly Offices. It 
is probable, that this Settlement mifcarry'd for want of 
timely Supplies from England , or thro' the Treachery of 
the Natives, for we may reafonably fuppofe that the Englijh 
were forced to cohabit with them, for Relief and Conven- 
tion -, and that in procefs of Time, they conform'd themfelves 
to the Manners of their Indian Relations. And thus we fee, 
how apt Humane Nature is to degenerate. 

I cannot forbear inferting here, a pleafant Story that paf- 
fes for an uncontefted Truth amongft the Inhabitants of 
this Place , which is, that the Ship which brought the firft 
Colonies, does often appear amongft them, under Sail, in 
a gallant Pofture, which they call Sir Walter Raleigh's Ship ^ 
And the truth of this has been affirm'd to me, by Men of 
jhe belt Credit in the Country. 

A fecond Settlement of this Country was made about 

Secernent fifty Years ago, in that part we now call Albemarl- County, 

of North- aIK } chiefly in Chuxvon Precinft, by feveral fubftantial Plan- 

Ca:olina - ters, from Virginia, and other Plantations-, Who finding 

mild Winters, and a fertile Soil, beyond Expectation, pro- 

■ dacing every thing that was planted, to a prodigious In- 

creafe j their Cattle, Horfes, Sheep, and Swine, breeding 

, very 

Sir Wal- 
ter Ra- 



of North-Carolina. 


very faft, and pafling the Winter, without any Aflifrance 
from the Planter \ fo that every thing feenVd to come by 
Nature, the Husbandman living alrnoft void of Care, and 
free from thofe Fatigues which are abfolutely req'iifite in 
Winter-Countries, for providing Fodder and other Necefla- 
ries j thefe Encouragements indued them to Hand their 
Ground, altho' but a handful of People, feated at great 
Diftances one from another, and amidft a vaft nunfber of 
Indians of different Nations, who were then in Car din a. 
Neverthelefs, I fay, the Fame of this new-difcover'd Sum- 
mer-Country fpread thro' the neighbouring Colonies, and, 
in a few Years, drew a confiderable Number of Families 
thereto, who all found Land enough to fettle themfelves in, - 
(had they been many Thoufands more) and that which was 
very good and commodioufly ieated, both for Profit and ^ 
Pleafure. And indeed, molt of the Plantations in Carolina pi ea r m . 
naturally enjoy a noble Prolpect of large and fpacious Ri- nefrnf 
vers, pleafant Savanna's, and fine Meadows, with their Carolina. 
green Liveries, interwoven with beautiful Flowers, of molt 
glorious Colours, which the feveral Seafons afford -, hedg'd 
in with pleafant Groves of the ever-famous Tulip-tree, the 
ftately Laurel, and Bays, equalizing the Oak in Bignefs and 
Growth ^ Myrtles, Jeflamines, Wood-bines, Honyfuckles, 
and feveral other fragrant Vines and Ever-greens, whofe 
afpiring Branches fhadow and interweave themfelves with 
the loftieft Timbers, yielding a pleafant Profpedt, Shade and 
Smell, proper Habitations for the Sweet-finging^irds, that 
melodioufly entertain fuch as travel thro'theWoods of Carolina. 

The Planters poffefTing all thefe Bleflings, and the Pro- 
duce of great Quantities of Wheat and Indian Com, in 
which this Country is very fruitful, as likewife in Beef, 
Pork, Tallow, Hides, Defr-Skins, and Furs % for thefe 
Commodities the New-England-Men and Bermudians vifited 
Carolina in their Barks and Sloops, and carry'd out what 
they made, bringing them, in Exchange, Rum, Sugar, Salt, 
MolofTes, and fome wearing Apparel, tho' the laft at very 
extravagant Prices. , 

As the Land is very fruitful, foare the ; Planters kind 
and hofpitable to all that come to vifit them ; there being 
very few Houfekeepers, but what live very nobly, and 
-give away more Provifions to Coafters and Guefts who 

. K -2 come 


^— — M— — a»— MMWh^ M I ITT1 l lll 11 1 J M , 

^4 Description 

come to fee them, thaa they expend amongft their own 

Of the Inlets and Havens of this Country. 

Curri- The Bar of Currituck being the Northermoft of this. 
tuck Met. Country, prefents itfelf firft to be treated of. It lies in 
36 deg. 30 min. and the Courfe over is S. W. by W. having 
not above feven or, eight Foot on the Bar, trio' a good 
Harbour, when you are over, where you may ride fafe, and 
deep enough •, but this Part of the Sound is fo full of Shoals, 
as not to fuffer any thing to trade thro' it, that draws a- 
., bove three Foot Water, which renders it very incommodi- 
ous. However, this affects but fome part of the Country, 
and may be eafily remedied, by carrying their Produce, in, 
finall Craft, down to the Vefiels, which ride near the Inlet. 
Ronoak Ronoak Inlet has Ten Foot Water r the Courfe over the 
inlet... Bar is almolt W. which leads you thro' the belt of the Chan- 
nel. This Bar, as well as Currituck^ often Mfts by the Vio- 
lence of the N. E. Storms, both lying expos'd to thofe 
Winds. Notwithstanding which, a confiderable Trade 
might be carry'd on, provided there was a Pilot to bring 
them in ; for it lies convenient for a large Part of this Co- 
lony, wliofe Product would very eafily allow of that Charge y 
Lat. 35 deg. 5a min. 
Hatteras The Inlet of Hatter as lies to the Weftward of the Cape,\ 
Met. round which is an excellent Harbour. When the Wind blows 
liard at N. or N. E. if you keep a fmall League from the 
Cape-Point, you will have 3, 4, and-5; Fathom, the outer- 
moft Shoals lying about 7 or 8 Leagues from Shoar. As 
you come into the Inlet, keep clofe to the South Breakers^ 
till you are over the Bar, whe§p you will have two Fathom 
at Low- Water. You may come to an Anchor in two Fa- 
shorn and a Half when you are over, thenfteer over clofe 
aboard the North Shoar, where is four Fathom, clofe to a 
Point of Marfh; then fteer up the Sound a long League, 
till you bring the North Cape of the Inlet to bear S.S.Ei 
half E. then fleer W. N. W- the Eaft-point of Bluff- Land 
at Hamras bearing E. N. E. the Southermoft large Ham- 
mock towards Ocacock, bearing S. S. W. half S. then you are 
_ iji the Sound, over the Bar of Sand, whereon, is but 6 Foot 

Water 1 

of North-Carolina. 

Water •, then your Courfe to Pampticough is almoft Weft. 
It flows on thefe three Bars §. E. by E>i E. about Eight of 
the Clock, unlefs there is a hard Gale of Wind at N. E. 
which will make it flow two hours longer ; but as foon as 
the Wind is down, the Tides will have their natural Courfe : 
A hard Gale at N. or N. W. will make the Water ebb 
fometimes 24 hours, but ftill the Tide will ebb and 
flow, tho' not feen by the turning thereof, but may be 
feen by the Rifing of the Water, and Falling of the fame, 
Lat. 35 20". , . 

Ocaeock is the beft Inlet and Harbour yet in this Country ; ocacock 
and has 1.3 Foot at Low-water upon the Bar. There are Ma. 
two Channels •, one is but narrow, and lies dole aboard the 
South Gape ; the other in the Middle, viz.. between the Middle 
Ground, and the South Shoar, and is above half a Mile 
wide. The Bar itfelf is but half a Cable's Length over, and 
then you are in 7 or 8 Fathom Water ; a good Harbour. 
The Courfe into the Sound is N. N. W. At High-water, 
and Neap-tides, here is 18 Foot Water. It lies S. W. from 
Hatter as Inlet. Lat. 35 Q 8 "- 

Top/ail Inlet is above two Leagues to the Weftward of Topfail 
Cape Look-out. . You have a fair Channel over the Bar, aiKU»/«. • 
two Fathom thereon, and a good Harbour in five or fix Fa- 
thom to come to an Anchor. Your Courfe over this Bar is 
almoft N.W. Lat. 34° 44"- 

As for the Inlet and River of Cape Fair, I cannot give youcape 
abetter Information thereof, than has been already deli- Fair Met- 
ver'd by the Gentlemen, who were fent on purpofe, from mi River,. 
JBarhados,to make aDifcovery of thatRiver,in the Year \66$. 
which is thus. 

From Tuefday the 29th of September, to Friday- the id of 
OBober, we rang'd along the Shoar from Lat. 32 deg. 20 min. 
to Lat. 33 deg. 11 min. but could difcern no Entrance for 
our Ship? after we had pafs'd to the Northward of 32 deg. 
40 min. On Saturday, Ottob. 3. a violent Storm overtook 
as, the Wind between North and Eaft ^ which Eafterly. 
Winds and Foul Weather continu'd till Monday the 12th % , 
byfeafon of which Storms and Foul Weather, we were 
forced to get off to Sea, to fecure Our&lves and Ship, and. 
were driven by the Rapidity of a ftrong Current to Cape 
Matteras ia Lat.. 3 < deg, 30 min* OR-Monday the. 1 2th afore- 

jj- -'■"' faidr. 




! i 

i !:::: I 

r '. ■ 

fa id, we came to an Anchor in Teven Fathom at Cape-Fair 
Road, and took the Meridian Altitude of the Sun, and were 
in Latitude 33 deg. 43 min. the Wind continuing Hill eafter- 
ly, and foul Weather, till Thurfday the 15th 5 and on Friday 
the 1 6th, the Wind being at N. W. we weigh'd and fail'd 
up Cape -Fair-River , fome 4 or 5 Leagues, and came to an 
Anchor in 6 or 7 Fathom , at which time feveral Indians came 
on board, and brought us great Store of frefh Fifh, large 
Mullets, young Bafs, S,hads, and feveral other Sorts of very 
good well-tailed Filh. On Saturday the 1 7th, we went down 
to the Cape, to fee the Englijh Cattle, but could not find 'em, 
tho' we rounded the Cape : And having an Indian Guide with 
us, here we rode till Oft. 24. The Wind being againlt us, 
we could not go up the River with our Ship ; but went on 
fhoar, and view'd the Land of thofe Quarters. On Saturday , 
we weigh'd, and fail'd up the River fome 4 Leagues, or 
thereabouts. Sunday the 25th, we weigh'd again, and row 'd 
up the River, it being calm, and got up fome 14 Leagues 
from the Harbour's Mouth, where we mor'd our Ship. On 
Monday OB. the 26th, we went down with the Yawl, to Ne*- 
coes, an Indian Plantation, and view'd the Land there. On 
Tuefday the 27th, we row'd up the main River, with our 
Long-Boat, and 12 Men, fome 10 Leagues, or thereabouts. 
On Wednefday the 28th, we row'd up about 8 or to Leagues 
more. Thurfday the 29th, was foul Weather, with much 
Rain and Wind," which forc'd us to make Huts, and lie ftill. 
Friday the 30th, we proceeded up the main River, 7 or % 
Leagues. Saturday the .3 1 ft, we got up 3 or 4 Leagues more, 
and came to a Tree that lay crofs the River ; butbecaufe 
our Provifions were almoft fpent, we proceeded no farther^ 
but return'd downward before Night, and on Monday the 
id of November, we came aboard our Ship. Tuefday the 3d, 
we lay flill, to refrefh ourfelves. On Wednefday the 4th, we 
went 5 or 6 Leagues up the River, to fearch a Branch that 
run out of the main River towards the N. W. In which 
Branch we went up 5 or € Leagues \ but notliking the Land, 
return'd on board that Night about Midnight, I and call'd 
that Place Swampy-Branch. Thurfday, November the 5th, we 
ftay'd aboard. On Friday the 6th, we went -up Greens-River, 
the Mouth of it being againft the Place at which rode our 
Ship. On Saturday the 7th, we proceeded up the faid River, 


of North-Carolina. 

6 7 

fome 14 or 15 Leagues in all, and found it ended. in feveral 
finall Blanches ; The Land, for. the moft part, being marfhy 
and Swamps, we returned towards our Ship, and got aboard 
it in the Night. Sunday November the 8th, we lay Hill, and 
on Monday the 9 th, went again up the main River, being well 
ftock'd with Provifions, and all things necefTary, and pro- 
ceeded upwards till Thurfday noon, the 12th, at which 
time we came to a Place, where were two Wands in the 
Middle of the Rivera and by reafon af the Crookednefs of 
the River at that Place, feveral Trees lay crofi both Bran- 
ches, which ftop'd the PaiTage of each Branch fo that we 
could proceed no farther with our Boat * but went up 
the River fide by Land, fome 3 or 4 Miles, and found the; 
River wider and wider. So we return'd, leaving it, as far 
as we could fee up along Reach, running N.E. we judging 
ourfelvesnear fifty Leagues North from the River s Mouth. 
In our Return, we view'd the Land on both Sides the River, 
and found as good Trafts of dry, - well-wooded, pleafant, 
and delightfol Ground, as we have feen any where 111 the 
World, with abundance of long thick Grafs on it, the Land 
beine very level, with fteep Banks on both Sides the River, 
,and in fome Places very high, the Woods ftor'd every where, 
'with great Numbers of Deer and Turkies, we never going 
on Shoar, but wefawof each Sort-, as alfo great Store of 
Partridges, Cranes, and Conies, in feveral Places y we like- 
wife heard feveral Wolves howling in the Woods, andfaw 
where they had torn a Deer in Pieces. Alfo in the River we 
faw ereat Store of Ducks, Teal, Widgeon-, and m the 
Woods, great Flocks of Parrakeeto's. The Timber that the 
Woods afford, for the moft part, confifts of Oaks of four or 
five Sorts, all differing in Leaves, but each bearing very good 
Acorns. We meafur'd many of the Oaks m feveral Places, 
which we found to be, in Bignefs, fome Two, fome Three, 
and others almoft Four Fathom in Height, before you come to 
Boughs or Limbs-, forty, fifty, fixty Foot, and fome more 5.. 
andthofe Oaks very common in the upper Parts ot both Ri- 
vers; alfo a very tall large Tree of great Bignefs, which 
fome call Cyprus, the right Name we know not, growing in 
Swamps. Likewife Walnut, Birch, Beech, Maple, Afh, 
Bay, Willow, Alder, and Holly; and in the lowermoft 
Parts innumerable Pines, tall and good for Boards or Malts, 




A Description 


>: i! :' i 

growing, for the moft part, in barren and fandy, but in fome 
Places up the River, in good Ground, being mixt amongft 
Oaks and other Timbers* We faw Mulberry-Trees, Multi- 
tudes of Grape* Vines, and fome Grapes which we eat of. 
We found a very large and good Trad of Land, on the N. W. 
Side of the River, thin of Timber, except here and there a 
very great Oak, and full of Grafs, commonly as high as a 
Man's Middle, and jn many Places to his Shoulders, where we 
faw many Deer, and Turkies; one Deer having very large 
Horns, and great Body, therefore Stag-Park. It be* 
ing a very pleafant and delightful Place, we travell'd in it 
feveral Miles, but faw no End thereof. So we return'd to 
our Boat, and proceeded down the River, and came to ano- 
ther Place, fome twenty five Leagues from the River's Mouth 
on the fame Side, where we found a Place, no lefs delightful 
than the former \ and as far as we could judge, both Trafts 
came into one. This lower Place we call'd Bj>cly Trim, be* 
caufe we found many Rocks and Stones, of feveral Sizes, up- 
on the Land, which is not common. . We fent our Boat down, 
the River before us •, ourfelves travelling by Land, many 
Miles. Indeed we were fo much taken with the Pleafantneft 
of the Country, that we travell'd into the Woods too far to 
recover our Boat and Company that Night. Thenext day- 
being Sunday, we got to our Boat \ and on Monday the i5th 
of November, proceeded down to a Place on the Eaft-Side 
of the River, fome 23 Leagues from the Harbour's Mouth, 
which we call'd Turky-Ouarterj , becaufe we kill'd feveral 
Turkies thereabouts *, we view'd the Land there, and found 
fome Ti'a&s of good Ground, and high, facing upon the Ri- 
ver about one Mile inward, but backwards fome two Miles, 
all Pine Land, but good Pafture Ground: We return'd to 
-our Boat, and proceeded down fome 2 or 3 Leagues, where 
we had formerly view'd, and found it a Trad of as good 
'Land, as any we have feQa, and had as good Timber on it. 
The Banks on the River being high, therefore we call'd it 
High- Land- Point. Having view'd that, we proceeded down 
the River, going onShoar in feveral Places oa both Sides, it 
being generally large Marfhes, and many Of them dry, that 
they may more fitly be calld Meadows. The Wood- 
Land againft them is, for the moll; part, Pine, and in fome 
Places as barren, as ever we faw Land, but in other Places 


of North-Carolina. 

good Pafture-Ground. On Tuefday, November the 17th, we 
pot aboard our Ship, riding againft the Mouth of Greens, 
River, where our Men were providing Wood, and 'fitting 
the Ship for the Sea: In the interim, we took a View of 
the Country on both (ides of the River there, finding fome 
good Land, but more bad, and the belt not comparable to 
that above. - Friday the 20th was foul Weather , yet in the 
Afternoon we weigh'd, went down the River about two 
Leagues, and came to an Anchor againft the Mouth of Hil- 
ton's River, and' took a View of the Land there on both 
fides, which appear'd to us much like that at Green's River. 
Monday the 23d, we went, with our Long-Boat well vidhi- 
all'd and mann'd, up Hilton's River •, and when we came 
three Leagues, or thereabouts, up the fame, we found 
this and Green's River to come into one, and fo continu'd 
for four or five Leagues, which makes a great Ifknd betwixt 
them. We proceeded ftill up the River, till they parted a- 
eain, keeping up Hilton's River on the Larboard lide, and 
followed the faid River five or fix Leagues farther, where we 
found another large Branch of Greens River to come into 
H'lton's, which makes another great Ifland. On the Star- 
board fide going up, we proceeded ftill up the River fome 
four Leagues, and return'd,. taking a View of the Land on 
both fides, and then judg'd ourfelves to be from our Ship 
fome 18 Leagues W. and by N. One League below this 
Place, came four Indians in a Canoe to us, and fold us feve- 
•ral Baskets of Acorns,which we fatisfy'd them for,and fo left 
them \ bat one of them follow'd us on the Shoar fome two 
or three Miles, till he came on the Top of a high Bank, 
facing on the River \ and as we row'd underneath it, the 
Fellow fhot an Arrow at us, which very narrowly mifs^d 
one of our Men, and ftuck in the upper edge of the Boat} 
but broke in pieces, leaving the Head behind. Hereuppn, 
we prefently made to the Shoar, and went all up the Bank 
(except Four to guide the Boat) to look for the Indian^ but 
could not find him: At la ft, we heard fome ling, farther 
in the Woods, which we look'd upon as a Challenge to us, 
to come and fight them. We went towards them with all 
Speed \ but before we came in Sight of them, heard two 
Guns go off from our Boat -, whereupon we retreated, as 
fait as we could, to fecure our Boat and Men. When we 

L came 

- • • • • 



A Description 

m i 

'' : 

came to them, we found all well, and demanded the P^ea- 
fon of. their firing the Guns: They told us, that an Indian 
came creeping along the Bank, as they fuppos'd, to fhooc 
at them y and therefore they fhot at him at a great diftance, 
with fmall Shot, but thought they did him no Hurt } for 
they faw him runaway. Prefently after our Return to the 
Boat, and while we were thus talking, came two Indians to us, 
with their Bows and Arrows, crying Bonny, Bonny. We 
took their Bows and Arrows from them, and gave them 
Beads, to their Content-, then we led them, by the Hand, 
to the Boat, and fhew'd them the Arrow-head flicking in 
her Side, and related to them the whole Paflage ; which 
when theyunderftood, both of them fhew'd a great Con- 
cern, and fignifyd to us, by Signs, that they knew nothing 
of it •, fo we let them go, and mark'd a Tree- on the Top 
of the Bank, calling the Place Mount-Skerry. We look'd up 
the River, as far as we could difcern, and faw that it 
widen'd, and came running dire&ly down the Country : 
So we return'd, viewing the Land on both fides the River, 
and finding the Banks fteep in fome places, but very high 
in others. The Bank-fides are generally Clay, and as fome 
of our Company did affirm, fome Marl. The Land and 
Timber up this River is no way inferiour to the belt 
in the other, which we call the main River. So far as 
we could difcern, this feem'd as fair, if not fairer, than 
the former, and we think runs farther into the Country, 
becaufe a ftrong Current comes down, and a great deal 
more Drift- Wood. But, to return to the Bufinefs of the 
Land" arid Timber: We faw feveral Plots of Ground clear'd 
by the Indians, after their weak manner, cbmpafs'd round 
with great Timber Tree?, which they are no-wife able to 
fell, and fo keep the Sun from Corn-Fields very much.} 
yet neverthelefs, we faw as large Corn-ftalks, or larger, 
than we have feen any where elfe : So we proceeded down 
the River, till we found the Canoe the Indian was in, who 
fhot N at us. In the Morning, we went on Shoar, and cut 
the fame in pieces. The Indians perceiving us coming to- 
wards them, ran away. Going to his Hutt, we pull'd' it 
down, broke his Pots, Platters, and Spoons, tore the Deer- 
Skins and Matts in pieces, and took away a Basket of A- 
corns •, and afterwards proceeded down the River 2 Leagues, 

of North-Carolina. 

7 1 

or thereabouts, and came to another Place of Indians, bought 
Acorns and feme Corn of them, and went downwards 2 
Leagues more. At laft, efpying an Indian peeping oyer a 
high Bank, we held up a Gun at him *, and calling to him, 
Sherry y prefently feveral Indians came in Sight of us, and 
made great Signs of Friendfhip, faying Bonny, Bonny. Then 
running before us, they endeavour'd to perfuade us to come 
on fhoar } but we anfwer'd them with ftern Countenances, 
andcall'd out, Sherry, taking up our Guns, and threatning 
to fhoot at them, but they ftill cry'd Bonny, Bonny. And 
when they faw they could not prevail , nor perfuade 
us to come on Ihoar, two of them came off to us in a Canoe, 
one paddling with a great Cane, the other with his Hand. As 
foon as they overtook us, they laid hold of our Boat, fweat- 
ingand blowing, and told us, it was Bonny on fhoar,andat lail 
perfuaded us to go on fhoar with them. As foonas we landed, 
feveral Indians, to the Number of near 40 lufty Men, came to 
us, all in a great Sweat, and told us Bonny : We fhew'd 'em the 
Arrow-Head in theBoat-Side,and a Piece of the Canoe we had 
cut in Pieces : Whereupon, the chief Man amongft them 
made a long Speech, threw Beads into our Boat, which is a 
Signof great Love and Friendfhip, and gave us to under- 
ftand, that when he heard of the Affront which we had re- 
ceiv'd, itcaus'd him to cry, and that he and his Men were 
come to make Peace with us, alluring us,' by Signs, that they 
would tye the Arms, and cut off the Head, of the Fellow 
who had done us that Wrong*, And for a farther Teftimony 
of their Love and Good-Will towards us, they prefented us 
with two very handfome, proper, young IndianWomen, the 
tailed that ever we faw in this Country *, which we fup- 
pos'd to be the King's Daughters, or Perfons of Diftin&ion 
amongft them. Thofe young Women were fo ready to come 
into our Boat *, that one of them crowded in, and would 
hardly be perfuaded to go out again. We prefented the King 
with a Hatchet and feveral Beads, and made Prefents of 
Beads alfo to the young Women, the, chief Men, and the 
reft of the Indians, as far as our Beads would go. They 
promis'd us, in four Days, to come on board our Ship, and 
fo departed from us. When we left the Place, which was 
foon after, we call'd it Mount- Bonny, becaufe we had there 
concluded a firm Peace. Proceeding down the River 2 or 3 
Leagues farther, we came to a Place where were 9 or 1-0 Ca- 

L 2 noes 


A D 


noes all together. We went alhoar there, and found feveral 
Indians; but molt of them were the fame which had made 
Peace with us before. We ftaid very little at that Place, but 
went directly down the River, and came to our Ship, before 
day. Thurfday the 26th of November, the Wind being at 
South, we could not go down to the River's Mouth ; but on 
Friday the 27th, we weigh'd at the Mouth of H : dton\ Ri- 
ver, and got down a League towards the Harbour's Mouth. 
On Sunday the 29th, we got down to Crane-IJland, which is 
4 Leagues or thereabouts, above the Entrance of the Har- 
bour's Mouth. On. Tuefday the ift of December, we made a 
Purchafeof the River and Land of Cape-Fair, of Wat^Coofa^ 
and fach other Indians, as appear'd to us to be the chief of 
tbofe Parts. They brought us Store of frefh Fifh aboard, as 
Mullets, Shads,, and other forts very good. This River is all 
.frefh Water, fit to drink. Some 8 Leagues within the 
Mouth, the Tide runs up about 35 Leagues, hutftops and 
rifes a great deal farther up. It flows at the Harbour's Mouth, 
S. E. and N. W. 6 Foot at Neap-Tides, and 8 Foot at Springs 
Tides. The Channel on the Ea ft fide, by the C^e-Shoar, 
is the belt, and lies clofe aboard the Cape-Land, being 3 Fa-* 
thorns at high Water, in the fhalloweft Place in the Channel, 
juft at the Entrance •, But as foon as you are palt that Place, 
half a Cables Length inward, you have 6 or 7 Fathoms, a 
fair turning Channel into the River, and fo continuing 5 or 5 
Leagues upwards. Afterwards the Channel is more difficult, 
in fome Places 6 or 7 Fathoms, in others 4 or 5, and in others 
but 9 or 10 Foot, efpecially where theRiver is broad. When 
the River comes to part, and grows narrow, there it is all 
Channel from fide to fide, in molt Places •,, tho' in fome you 
ihall have 5, 6, or g Fathoms, but generally 2 or 3, Sand 
and 03ze. We vievv'd the G*/w-Land,and judg'd it to be little 
worth, the Woods of it being fhrubby and low, and the Land 
iandy and barren •, in fome Places Grafs and Rufhes, in 
others nothing but clear Sand: A Place fitter to ltarve 
-Cattle, in our Judgment, than to keep 'em alive ; yet the In- 
dians, as we underltand, keep the EngUJh Cattle down there, 
and fuffer them not to go off of the faid Caps, ('as we fuppofe) 
becaufe the Country Indians fhall have no Part with them ; 
and therefore 'tis likely,theyhave fallen out about them,which 
Jhall have the greateft Share. They brought on board our 


of North-Carolina. 


Ship very good and fat Beef feveral times, which they fold us 
at a very reafonable Price ; alfo fat and very large Swine, 
good and cheap ; but they may thank their Friends of Nexv- 
England, who brought their Hogs to fo fair a Market. Some 
oflhe Indians brought very good Salt aboard us, and made- 
Signs, pointing to both fides of the River's Mouth* thatthere 
was great Store thereabouts. We faw up the River, feveral 
good Places for the fetting up of Corn or Saw-Mills. la 
that time, as our Bufinefs cati'd us up and down the River and 
Branches, we kilt'd of wild Fowl, 4 Swans, 10 Geek, 29 
Cranes, 10 Turkies, 40 Ducks and Mallards, 3 dozen of 
Parrakeeto's, and .6 dozen of other fmall Fowls, as Curlues 
and Plover, &c. 

Whereas there was a Writing left in a Poll, at the Point 
©f Cape-Fair River, by thofe New- England-Men, that left- 
Cattle, with the Indians there, the Contents whereof tended 1 
not only, to the Difparagement of the Land about the faid Ri- 
ver, but alfo to the great Difcouragement of.all fuch as mould 
hereafter come into thofe Parts to fettle : In anfwer to that 
fcandalous Writing, We,, whofe Names are underwritten, 
do affirm, That we have feen, facing both fides the River 
and Branches of Cape-Fair aforefaid, as good Land, and as 
well timbered, as any we have feen in any-other Part of the 
World, fufficient to accommodate Thoufands of our En* 
glijh Nation, and lying commodioufly by. the faid River's 

On Friday the 4th of December, the Wind being fair, we 
put out to Sea, bound for Barbados ; and, on the 6th of 
February, \66\, came to an Anchor in Carlijle-Bay -, it ha- 
ving pleas'd God, after feveral apparent Dangers both by 
Sea and Land, to bring us all in Safety to our long-wiftYdr 
for and much-defir'd Port, to render an Account of our, 
Difcovery ; the Verity of which we do auert. 

Anthony Long* ., 
William Hilton, . 
Feter Fabian. 

Thus you have an Account of the Latitude, Soil, and Ad- 
vantages of Cape-Fair, or Clarendon-River, which was fettled 
in the Year 1661, or thereabouts ; and had it not been for 
the irregular Pra&ices of fome of that Colony againft the * 



A Description 

: i 

Indians, by fending away fome of their Children, (ast 
have been told ) under Pretence of inftru&ing 'em in Learn- 
ing, and the Principles of the Chriftian Religion , Which 
fo difgufted the Indians, that tho' they had then no Guns, 
yet they never gave over, till they had entirely rid them- 
selves of the Englifh, by their Bows and Arrows \ with 
which they did not only take off themfelves, but alfo their 
Stocks of Cattle \ And this was fo much the more ruinous 
to them, in that they could have no Afliftance from South- 
Carolina, which was not then planted , and the other Plan- 
tations were but in their Infancy. Were it not for fuch ill 
Practices, I fay, it might, in all Probability, have been, at 
this day, the belt Settlement in their Lordlhips great Pro- • 
vince of Carolina. 
Albemarl The Sound of Albemarl, with the Rivers and Creeks of 
sound and that Country, afford a very rich and durable Soil. The 
*i vers ' Land, in molt Places, lies indifferent low, (except in Chu- 
won, and high up the Rivers) but bears an incredible Burden 
: of Timber \ the Low-Grounds being cover'd with Beech ; 
and the High-Land yielding lofty Oaks, Walnut-Trees, and 
other ufeful Timber. The Country, in fome Plantations, 
s has yearly produc'd Indian Corn, or fome other Grain, ever 
fince this Country was firft feated, without the Trouble of 
Manuring or Dreffing , and yet (to all appearance; it feems 
not to be, in the leaft, impoverifiYd, neither do the Plan- 
ters ever mifs of a good Crop, unlefs a very unnatural Sea- 
fon vifits them, which feldom happens. 

Of the Corn of Carolina. 

What HPHE Wheat of this Place is very good, feMom yielding lefs 
1 than thirty fold, provided the Land is good where it 
is fown ; Not but that there has been Sixty- fix Increafe for 
one meafure fown in Piny-Land, which we account the mean- 
eft Sort. And I have been inform'd, by People "of Credit, 
that Wheat which was planted in a very rich Piece of Land, 
brought a hundred and odd Pecks, for one. If our Planters, 
when they found fuch great Increafe, would be fo curious as 
to make nice Observations of the Soil, and -other remarkable 
. Accidents, they would foon be acquainted with f!he Nature 
of the Earth and Climate, and be better qualified to ma- 

/ nage 

I. . - . ■ I ' ■ "- ■ " ■■ — 

of North-Carolina. 


nage their Agriculture to more Certainty, and greater An- 
Vantage ; whereby they might arrive to the Crops and Har- 
ve(>s .of Rabylon, and thofe other fruitful Countries fo much 
talk'd of. For I mull confefs, 1 never faw one Acre of 
Land manag'd as it ought to be in Carolina, fince I knew it •, 
and were they as negligent in their Husbandry in Europe, as 
they are in Carolina, their Land would produce nothing but , 
Weeds and Straw. . ..:■„. . ' , n 

They have try'd Rye, and it thrives very well ; but hi-fye. 
ving fuch Plenty of Maiz, they -do not regard it, becaufe 
it makes black Bread, unlefs very conoufly handled. 

Barley has been fowed in fmall quantities, arid does better Barky. 
than can be expeded ; becaufe that Grain requires the 
Ground to be very well work'd with repeated Ploughings, 
which our general Way of breaking the Earth with Hoes r 
can, by no means, perform, tho' in feveral Places we have a 
light, rich, deep, black Mould, which is the particular Soil 
in which Barley belt thrives. .-. • 

The naked Oats thrive extraordinary well •, and the others 
would prove a very bold Grain ; but the Plenty of other 
Grains makes them not much coveted. » Vr4^ 

The Indian Com, ov Maiz,, proves the moftufeful Grain in m& 
the World : and had it not been for the Fruitfulnefs of this 
Species, it would have proved very difficult to have fettled 
fome of the Plantations in America. It is very nouriming, 
whether in Bread, fodden, or otherwife i And thofe poor 
Christian Servants in Virginia, Maryland, and the other 
northerly Plantations, that have been forced to live wholly 
upon it, do manifeftly prove, that it is^he molt nouriming 
Grain, for a Man to fubfift on, without any other Victuals. 
And this AfiertVm is made good by the i\^n>-31aves, who, 
in many Places, eat nothing but this Indian Corn arid Salt. 
Pigs and Poultry fed with this Grain, eat the fweeteft of ail 
others. It refutes no Grounds, unlefs the barren Sands, 
and when planted in good Ground, will repay the Planter 
feven or eight hundred fold ; befides the Stalks bruis d ,and> 
boil'd, make very pleafant Beer, being fweet like the Sugar- 

X There are feveral forts of Rice, fome bearded, others fe* 
not, befides the red and white ; But the white Rice is the 
belt. Yet there is a fori; of perfum'd Rice in the Eajt- 

Iff(UeJ 9 , 





Of the Corn 

Indies, which gives a curious Flavour, in the Dreffing. And 
with this fort America is not yet acquainted ; neither can I 
learn, that any of it has been brought over to Europe; the 
Rice of Carolina being efteenfd the beft that comes to that 
Quarter of the World. It is of great Increafe, yielding 
from eight hundred to a thoufand-fold, and thrives belt in 
wild Land, that has never been broken up before. 

Buck- Wheat is of great Increafe in Carolina ; but we make 
no other ufe of it, than inftead of Maiz, to feed Hogs and 
Poultry-: And Guinea Corn, which thrives well here, fcrves 
for the fame ufe. 

Of the Pulfe-kind, we have many forts. The firft is the 
Bufhel-Bean, which is a fpontaneous Produft. They are fo 
called, becaufe they bring a Bufhel of Beans for one that is 
planted. They are fet in the Spring, round Arbours, or at 
the Feet of Poles, up which they will climb, and cover the 
Wattling, making a very pretty Shade to fit under. They 
continue flowering, budding, and ripening all the Summer 
long, till the Frolt approaches, when they forbear their 
Fruit, and die. The Stalks they grow on, come to the 
Thicknefs of a Man's Thumb-, and the Bean is white and 
mottled, with a purple Figure on each ilde it, like an Ear. 
They are very flat, and are eaten as the Windfor-Bean. is, be- 
ing an extraordinary well-relilh'd Pulfe, either by themielves, 
or with Meat. 

We have the Indian Rounceval, or Miraculous Peafe, fo call'd 
from their long Pods, and great Increafe. Thefe are latter 
Peafe, and require a pretty long Summer to ripen in. They 
-are very good ; and fo are the Bonavis, Calavancies, Nanti- 
cokes, and abundance of other Pulfe, too tedious here to 
name, which we found the Indians poilefs'd of, when firft we 
fettled in America •, fome of which forts afford us two Crops 
in one Year } as the Bonavis and Calavancies, befides (everal 
others of that kind. 

Now I am launch'd into a Difcourfe of the Pulfe, I muft 
Eng.BM». acquaint you, that the European Bean planted here, will, in 
time, degenerate into a dwlrfifh fort, if not prevented by a 
yearly Supply of foreign Seed, and an extravagant rich Soil ; 
yet thefe Pigmy-Beans are the fweeteft of that kind I ever 
met withal. 




Peafe and 




As for all the forts of Englrjh Peafe that we have yet made p«/ e . 
tryal of, they thrive very well in Carolina. Particularly, 
the white and gray Rovncival, the common Field-Peafe, and 
Sickle-Peafe yield very well, and are of a good Reliih. As 
for the other forts, I have not feen any made tryal of as 
yet , but queftion not their coming to great Perfection 
with us. 

The Kidney-Beans were here before the Englift came, Qdncj- 
being very plentiful in the Indian Corn-Fields. Bean. 

The Garden-Roots that thrive well in Carolina, zxz Roots. 
Carrots, Leeks, Parfnips, Turneps, Potatoes, of feveral de- 
licate forts, Ground Artichokes, Radilhes, Horfe-Radifh, 
Beet, both forts, Onions, Shallot, Garlick, Cives, and the 

The Sallads are the Lettice, CurlM, Red, Cabbage, and Sa- Sa u a(lu 
voy. The Spinage round and prickly, Fennel, fweet and 
the common Sort, Samphire in the Marines excellent, fo is 
the Dock or Wild-Rhubarb, Rocket, Sorrel, French and 
Englifiy CrefTes of feveral Sorts, Purflain wild, and that of ^ Pur ^ 
a larger Size which grows in the Gardens •, for this Plant teflon in 
never met withal in the Indian Plantations, and is, therefore, Indian 
fuppos'd to proceed from Cow-Dung, which Beafb they keep fields* 
not. Parfley two Sorts-, Afparagus thrives to a Miracle, 
without hot Beds or dunging the Land, White-Cabbage from 
European or New-England Seed, for the People are negligent 
and unskilful , and don't take care to provide Seed of their 
own. The Colly-Flower we have not yet had an Opportu- 
nity to make Tryal of, nor has the Artichoke ever appear'd x 
amongft us, that I can learn. Coleworts plain and curl'd, 
Savoys -\ befides the Water-Melons of feveral Sorts, very 
good, which ihouki have gone amongft the Fruits. Of Musk- 
Melons we have v«ry large and good, and feveral Sorts, as 
the Golden, Green, Guinea, and Orange. Cucumbers long, 
ihort, and prickly, all thefe from the Natural Ground, and 
great Increafef without any Helps of Dung or Refle&ion. 
Pompions yellow and very large, Burmillions, Calhaws, an 
excellent Fruit boil'd \ Squaflies, Simnals ,. Horns, and 
Gourds i befides many other Species, of lefs Value, too tedi- 
ous to name. 

Our Pot-herbs and others of ufe, which we already poflefs, poulerfo, 
are Angelica wild and tame, Balm, Buglofs, Borage, Burnet, and other] 

M Clary,/ '' *&/W» 

Of the Herbs 



Clary, Marigold, Pot-Marjoram, and other Marjorams, Sum- 
mer and Winter Savory, Columbines, Taniey, Wormwood, 
Nep, Mallows feveral Sorts, Drage red and white," Lambs 
Quarters, Thyme, Hyfibp of a very large Growth, fweet 
Bazil, Rofemary, Lavender : The more Phyfical, are Car- 
dims Bemdittus, the Scurvy-grafs of America, I nerer here 
met any of the European fort ; Tobacco of many forts, Dill, 
Carawa, Cummin, Anife, Coriander, all forts of Plantain of 
England, and two forts fpontaneous, good Vulneraries ; E- 
lecampane, Comfrey, Nettle, the Seed from England, none 
Native •, Monks Rhubarb, Burdock, Afarum wild in the 
Woods, reckon'd one of the Snake-Roots ; Poppies in the 
Garden, none wild yet difcover'd -, Wormfeed, Feverfew, 
Rue, Ground-Ivy fpontaneous, but very fmall and fcarce, 
Aurea virga, four forts of Snake-Roots, befides the common 
Species, which are great Antidotes againft that Serpent's 
Bite, and are eafily rais'd in the Garden ; Mint; James-Town- 
Weed, fo called from Virginia, the Seed it bears is very like 
Weed, the that of an Onion , it is excellent for curing Burns, and af- 
seediike fwaging Inflammations, but taken inwardly brings on a fort 
omonseed. f drunken Madnefs. One of our Marfli- Weeds, like a 
Dock, has the fame Effeft, and pofTefles the Party with Fear 
and Watchings. The Red-Root whofe Leaf is like Spear- 
Mint, is good for Thrufhes and fore Mouths ; Camomil, 
but it mult be kept in the Shade, otherwife it will not thrive \ 
Houfleek firft from England \ Vervin ; Night-Shade, feveral 
kinds •, Harts-Tongue'-, Yarrow abundance, Mullein the 
fame, both of the Country \ Sarfaparilla, and abundance 
more I could name, yet not the hundredth part of what re- 
mains, a Catalogue of which is a Work of many Years, and, 
without any other Subject, would fwell to a large Volume, 
and requires the Abilities of a skilful Botanift : Had not 
the ingenious Mr. Banifter (the greateft Virtuofo we ever had 
on the Continent) been unfortunately taken out of this 
World, he would have given the bell Account of the Plants 
of America, of any that ever yet made fuch an Attempt in 
thefe Parts. Not but we are fatisfy'd, the Species of Vege- 
tables in Carolina, are fo numerous, that it requires more than 
one Man's Age to bring the chiefelt Part of them into regular 
">■ GMTes *, the Country being fo different in its Situation and 
Soil, that what one place plentifully affords, another is ab- 




folutely a ftrangerto; yet we generally obferve, that the 
greateft Variety is found in the Low Grounds, and Savanna's. 

The Flower-Garden in Carolina is as yet arriv'd but to a F/onw « 
very poor and jejune Perfection. We have only two forts of 
Rofes ; the Clove- July-Flowers, Violets, Princes Feather, 
and Tres Colore s. There has been nothing more cultivated 
in the Flower-Garden, which, at prefent, occurs to my Me- 
mory -, but as for the wild fpontaneous Flowers of this Coun- 
try, Nature has been fo liberal, that I cannot name one 
tenth part of the valuable ones; And fince, to give Speci- 
mens, would only fwell the Volume, and give little Satisfa- 
ction to the Reader, I (hall therefore proceed to the Trefent 
State of Carolina, and refer the Shrubs and other Vegetables of 
larger Growth, till hereafter, and then mail deliver them and 
the other Species in their Order. 

the Trefent State of Carolina. 

WHen we confider the Latitude and convenient Situation 
of Carolina, had we no farther Confirmation thereof, 
our Reafon would inform us, that fuch a Place lay fairly to be 
a delicious Country, being placed in that Girdle of the World 
which affords Wine, Oil, Fruit, Grain, and Silk, with o- 
ther rich Commodities, befides a fweet Air, moderate Cli- 
mate, and fertile Soil •, thefe are the Blefiings (under Hea- 
ven's Protection) that fpin out the Thread of Life to its ut- 
moft Extent, and crown our Days with the Sweets of Health 
and Plenty, which, when join'd with Content, renders the 
PofTeflors the happieft Race of Men upon Earth. 

The Inhabitants of Carolina, thro' the Richnefs of the Soi\,The Prcfefit 
live an eafy and pleafant Life. The Land being of feveral-^ °f 
forts of Compoft, fomeftifF, others light, fome marl, others Carolina * 
rich black Mould ; here barren of Pine, but affording Pitch, 
Tar, and Mafts •, there vaftly rich, efpecially on the Frefhes . 
of the Rivers, one part bearing great Timbers, others being 
Savanna's or natural Meads, where no Trees grow for feveral 
Miles, adorn'd by Nature with a pleafant Verdure, and beau- 
tiful Flowers, frequent in no other Places, yielding abun- 
dance of Herbage for Cattle, Sheep, and Horfe. The Coun- 
try in general affords pleafant Seats, the Land (except in 
fome few Places) being dry and high Banks, parcelfd out 
into moft convenient Necks, (by the Creeks) eafy to be fen-j^b of 
ced in for fecuring their Stocks to more ftrid Boundaries,!^. 

M 2 whereby, 


The Prefent State 

of Land. 

Land in 
end Mary 





whereby, with a fmall trouble of fencing, almoft every Man 
may enjoy, to himfelf, an entire Plantation, or rather Park. 
Thefe, with the other Benefits of Plenty of Fifh, Wild-Fowl, 
Venifon, and the other Convenie ( ncies which this Summer- 
Country naturally furnifhes, has indue'd a great many Fami- 
lies to leave the more Northerly Platations, and fit down un- 
der one of the mildeft Governments in the World; in a 
Country that, with moderate Induftry, will afford all the 
NecefTaries of Life. We have "yearly abundance of Strangers 
come among us, who chiefly ftrive to go Southerly to fettle, 
becaufe there is a vaft TradT: of rich Land betwixt the Place 
we are feated in, and Cape-Fair, and upon that River, and 
more Southerly, which is inhabited by none but a few Indians, 
who are at this time well affe&ed to the English, and very de* 
firous of their coming to live among them. The more 
Southerly, the milder Winters, with the Advantages of pur- 
chafing the Lords Land at the molt eafy and moderate Rate 
of any Lands in America, nay (allowing all Advantages there- 
to annex'd) I may fay, the Univerfe does not afford fuch an- 
other •, Befides, Men have a great Advantage of choofing 
good and commodious Trads of Land at the firft Seating of 
a Country or River, whereas the later Settlers are forced 
to purchafe fmaller Dividends of the old Standers, and 
fometimes at very confiderable Rates; as now in Virginia 
and Maryland, where a thoufand Acres of good Land cannot 
-be bought under twenty Shillings an Acre, beiides two- Shil- 
lings yearly Acknowledgment for every hundred Acres; 
which Sum, be it more or lefs, will lerve to put the Mer- 
chant or Planter here into a good pofture of Buildings, 
Slaves, and other Neceflaries, when the Purchafe of his 
Land comes to him on fuch eafy Terms. And as our Grain and 
Pulfe thrives with us to admiration, no lefs do our Stocks of 
Cattle, Horfes, Sheep, and Swine multiply. 

The Beef of Carolina equalizes the bell that our neighbour- 
ing Colonies afford ; the Oxen are of a great fize when they 
are fuffer'd to live to a fit Age. I have feen fat and good 
Beef at alL times of the Year, but Olhber and the cool Months 
are the Sealbns we kill our Beeves in, when we intend them 
for Salting or Exportation •, for then they are in their prime 
of Flefb,all coming from Grafs,we never ufing any other Food 
for our Cattle. The Heifers bring, Calves at eighteen os 





twenty Months old, which makes fuch a wonderful Increafe, 
that many of our Planters, from very mean Beginnings, have 
rais'd themfelves, and are now Matters of hundreds of fat 
Beeves, and other Cattle. 

The Veal is very, good and white, fo is the Milk very plea- Veal* 
fant and rich, there being, at prefent, confiderable Quanti- 
ties of Butter and Gheefe made, that is very good, not only, 
ferving our own Neceffities,, but we fend out a great deal ar 
mong our Neighbours. 

The Sheep thrive very well at prefent, having molt com- sheep. 
monly two Lambs at one yeaning : As the Country comes 
to be open'd, they prove ftill better, Change of Pafture being 
agreeable to that ufeful Creature. Mutton is (generally) ex- 
ceeding Fat, and of a good Relilh ; their Wool, is very fine;, 
and proves a good Staple* 

The Horfes are well-fhap'd and fwift ; the belt of them Horfes^ 
would fell for ten or twelve Pounds in England. They prove 
excellent Drudges, and will travel incredible Journeys. They 
are troubled with very few Diftempers, neither do the 
cloudy-fac'd grey Horfes go blind here, as in Europe. As 
for Spavins, Splints, and Ring-Bones, they are here never met 
withal, as I can learn. Were we to have our Stallions- and 
choice of Mares from England, or any other of a good Sort, 
and careful to keep them on the Highlands* we could not 
fail of a good Breed , but having been fupply'd with our 
firft Horfes from the neighbouring Plantations, which were 
but mean, they do not as yet come up to the Excellency of 
the Englijb Horfes •, tho 3 we generally find, that the Colt 
exceeds, in Beauty and Strength, its Sire and Dam. 

The Pork exceeds any in Europe -, the great Diverfity and ■ y ™ W!> ■ 
Goodnefs of the Acorns and Nuts which the Woods afford, " 
making that Flefh of an excellent Tafte, and produces great- 
Quantities ; fo that Carolina (if not the chief) is not inferior^ 
in this one Commodity, to any Colony in the hands of the. 

As for Goats, they have been found to thrive and increafe Geats. 
well, but being mifchievous to Orchards and other TreeSj 
makes People decline keeping them. 

Our Produce for Exportation to Europe? and -the. -Wands in-Vttineu- 
America, are Beef, Pork, Tallow, Hides, Deer-Skins, Furs* 
Pitch, Tar, Wheat, lndian-Cata* Peafe,, Malts, Staves, 


The Trefent State 

Heading, Boards, and all forts of Timber and Lumber for 
Madera and the Weft-Indies ; Rozin^ Turpentine, and feve- 
ral forts of Gums and Tears, with fome medicinal Drugs, 
are here produc'd •, Befldes Rice, and feveral other foreign 
Grains, which thrive very well. Good Bricksand Tiles are 
made, and feveral forts of ufeful Earths, as Bole, Fullers- 
Earth, Oaker, and Tobacco-pipe-Clay, in great plenty ; 
Earths for the Potters Trade, and fine Sand for the Glafs- 
makers. In building with Bricks , we make our Lime of 
Oyfter-Shells, tho' we have great Store of Lime-ftone, to- 
wards the Heads of our Rivers, where are Stones of all 
forts that are ufeful, befldes vaft Quantities of excellent 
Marble. Iron-Stone we have plenty of, both in the Low- 
Grounds and on the Hills; Lead and Copper has been found, 
fo has Antimony heretofore •, But no Endeavours have been 
us'd to difcover thofe Subteraneous Species ; otherwife we 
might, in all probability, find out the beft of Minerals, 
which are not wanting in Carolina. Hot Baths we have an 
account of from the Indians that frequent the Hill-Country, 
where a great likelihood appears of making Salt-peter, be- 
SaJt-peter. cau f e t jj e E ar th, in many places, is ftrongly mix'd with a 
nitrous Salt, which is much coveted by the Beafts, who come 
at fome Seafons in great Droves and Herds, and by their 
much licking of this Earth, make great Holes in thofe Banks, 
which fometimes lie at the heads of great Precipices, where 
their Eagernefe after this Salt haftens their End, by falling 
down the high Banks, fo that they are dafh/d in Pieces. 
It malt be confefs'd, that the moll noble and fweeteft Part 
of this Country, is not inhabited by any but the Savages ^ 
and a great deal of the richeft Part thereof, has no Inhabi- 
tants but the Beafts of the Wildernefs : For, the Indians are 
not inclinable to fettle in the richeft Land,, becaufe the Tim- 
bers are too large for them to cut down, and too much bur- 
then'd with Wood for their Labourers to make Plantations 
of; befldes, the Healthfulnefs of thofe Hills is apparent, by 
the Gigantick Stature, and Gray-Heads, fo common amongft 
the Savages that dwell near the Mountains. The great 
Creator of all things, having molt wifely diffused his Blef- 
lings, by parcelling out the Vintages of the World, into fiich 
Lots, as his wonderful Forefight faw molt proper, requifite, 
and convenient for the Habitations of his Creatures. To- 

ofC AROL.iN A. 


wards the Sea, we have the Convenient-/ ©f Trade, 1-racfpor- 
tation and other Helps the Water affords ; but oftentimes, 
thofe Advantages are attended with indifferent Land, a thick 
Air and other Inconveniences ; when backwards, near the 
Mountains, you meet with the richeft Soil, a fweet, thin 
Air dry Roads, pleafant ffnall murmuring Streams, and 
feveral beneficial Productions and Species, which are un- 
known in the European -World. One Part of this Country 
affords what the other is wholly a Stranger to. 

We have Chalybeate Waters of feveral Taftes and different Chaly- 
Qualities j fome purge, others work by the other Emundo- beate 
ries. We have, amongft the Inhabitants, a Water, that is,"**"- 
inwardly, a great Aperfive, and, outwardly, cures Ulcers, 
Tettars, and Sores, by wafbing therewith. 

There has been a Coal-Mine lately found near the Manna- Coal-Mm 
kin Town, above the Falls of 7^-River in Krglnia, which in Virgi- 
proves very good, and is us'd by the Smiths, for their Forges i ma - 
and we need not doubt of the fame amongft us, towards the 
Heads of our Rivers ;, but the Plenty of Wood, (which is 
much the better Fuel) makes us not inquifitive after Coal- 
Mines. Moft of the French, who lived at that Town on French 
James-River, areremov'd to Trent-KvJZV, in North-Carolina, XtfugKS- 
where the reft were expected daily to come to them, when I 
came away, which was in Augufi, 1708. They are much ta- 
ken with the Pleafantnefs of that Country, and, indeed, are 
a very induftrious People. At prefent, they make very good 
Linnen-Cloath and Thread, and are very well vers'd in cul- 
tivating Hemp and Flax, of both which they raife very con- 
fiderable Quantities-, and defign to try an EfTay of the Grape, 
for making of Wine. ;-r': 

As for tbofe of our own Country in Carolina, iome or the Planters*. 
Men are very laborious, and make great Improvements in 
their Way ; but I dare hardly give 'em that Character in ge- 
neral. The eafy Way of living in that plentiful Country, 
makes a great many Planters very negligent, which, were 
they otherwife, that Colony might now have been in a far 
better Condition than it is, (as to Trade, and other Advan- 
tages) which an uniyerfal Induftry would have led them in*- 
to. _, . 


The Prefent State 

Women The Women are the raoft induftrious Sex in that Place 
goodifouf-ahWi by their good Houfwifry, make a great deal of Cloath 
mves - of their own Cotton, Wool and Flax •, fome of them keep- 
ing their Families (though large) very decently apparel'd, 
both with Linnens and Woollens, fo that they have not>c- 
cafion to run into the Merchant's Debt, or lay their Money 
out on Stores for Cloathing. . 
Wtives of The Chriftian Natives of Carolina are a ftraigh t,clea n-limb'd 
Carolina. People ; the Children being feldom or never troubled with 
Rickets, or thofe other Diftempers, that the Europeans are 
vifited withal. 5 Tis next to a Miracle, to fee one of them 
deform'd in" Body. The Vicinity of the Sun makes Impref- 
fion on the Men, who labour out of doors, or ufe the Wa- 
Semifuh ter. As for thofe Women, that do notexpofe themfelves 
to the Weather, they are often very fair, and generally as 
well featur d, as you (hall fee any where, and have very brisk 
charming Eyes, which fets them off to Advantage. They 
marry very young jjj fome at Thirteen or Fourteen £ and She 
thatftays till Twenty, is reckon'd a flale Maid; which is a 
very indifferent Charader in that warm Country. The Wo- 
-men are very fruitful ; molt Houfes being fall of Little Ones. 
It has been obfervM, that Women long marry'd, and with- 
out Children, in other Places, have remov'd to Carolina, and 
become joyful Mothers. They liave very eafy Travail ia 
their Child-bearing, in which they are fo happy, as feldom 
to mifcarry. Both Sexes are generally fpare. of Body, and 
not Cholerick, nor eafily call down at Difappointments and 
LolTes, feldom immoderately grieving at Misfortunes, unlefs 
for the Lofs of their nearelt Relations and Friends, which 
feems to make a more than ordinary ImprefFion upon them. 
Many of the Women are very handy in Canoes, and will ma- 
nage them with great Dexterity and Skill, which they be- 
come accuftomed to in this watry Country. They are ready 
to help their Husbands in any fervile Work, as Planting, 
when the Seafon of the Weather requires Expedition \ Pride 
feldom banifhing good Houfwifry. The Girls are not bred 
up to the Wheel, and Sewing only \, but the Dairy and Af- 
v fairs of theHoule they are very well acquainted withal -, fb 
that you mail fee them, whilft very young, manage their Bu- 
nxtives linefs with a great deal of Conduct and Alacrity. The Chil- 
docfc. dren of both Sexes are very docile, and learn any thing with 

a great 

Wot Paf- 

Good. ' 



of C A R. O L I N A. 


a great deal of Eafe and Method •, and thofe that have the 
Advantages of Education, write good Hands, and prove 
good Accountants, which is moft coveted, and indeed molt 
neceflary in thefe Parts. The young Men are commonly of a 
bafhful, fober Behaviour } few proving Prodigals, to con-^ Prodi- 
fume what the Induftry of their Parents has left them, but& aIs ' 
commonly improve it. The marrying fo young, carries a 
double Advantage with it ; and that is, that the Parents 
fee their Children provided for in Marriage, and the young 
married People are taught by their Parents, how to get their 
Living-, for their Admonitions make great Impreffions on 
their Children. 1 had heard (before I knew this new World) 
that the Natives of America were a (hort-liv'd People, which, 
by all the Obfervations I could ever make, proves quite con- 
trary j for thofe who are born here, and in other Colonies, 
live to as great Ages as any of the Europeans,z\\Q Climate being Great Agt 
free from Confumptions, which Diftemper, fatal to England^. Ame * 
they are Strangers to. And as the Country becomes more ncans ° 
clear'd of Wood, it ftill becomes more healthful to the In- 
habitants, and lefs addicted to the Ague ; which is incident 
to moft new Comers into America from Europe, yet not mor- 
tal. A gentle Emetick feldom milles of driving it away, but 
if it is not too troublefome, 'tis better to let the Seafoning 
have its own Courfe, in which cafe, the Party is commonly 
free from it ever after, and very healthful. - 

And now, as to the other Advantages the Country af- 
fords, we cannot guefs at thematprefent, becaufe, as I faid 
before, the belt Part of this Country" is not inhabited by the 
Englifl}) from whence probably will hereafter fpring Producti- 
ons that this Age does not dream of, and of much more Ad- 
vantage to the Inhabitants than any things we are yet ac- 
quainted withal: And as for feverai Productions of other 
Countries, much in the fame Latitude, we may expect, with 
good Management, they will become familiar to us, as Wine, 
Oil, Fruit, Silk, and other profitable Commodities, fuch as 
Drugs, Dyes, &c. And at prefent the Curious may have a 
large Field to fatisfy and divert thernfelves in, as Collections collem- 
of ftrange Beafts, Birds, Infects, Reptiles, Shells, Fi(hes,cw. 
Minerals, Herbs, Flowers, Plants, Shrubs, intricate Roots, 
Gums, Tears, Roiins, Dyes, and Stones, with feverai other 
that yield Satisfaction and Profit to thole, whofe Inclinations 

£J tend 


The Prefent State 




tend that Way. And as for what may be hop'd for, to- 
wards- a happy Life and Being, by fuchasdefign to remove 
thither, I (hall add this ; That with prudent Management, 
I can affirm, by Experience, not by Hear-fay, That any Per- 
fon, with a fir all Beginning, may live very ccmfortably, 
Prorvifiovs and not only provide for the NecefTaries of Life, but like- 
wife for thofe that are to fucceed him :; Provifions-being very, 
plentiful, and of good Variety, to accommodate genteel 
Houfe-keeping i andthe neighbouring Indians are friendly,and 
in many Cafes ferviceable to us, inmaking us Wares to catch 
Fimin, for a fmall matter, which proves of great Advantage 
to large Families, becaufe thofe Engines take great Quanti- 
ties of many Sorts of Fifh, that are very good and nourinV 
ing : Some of them hunt and fowl for usut reafonable Rates,, 
the Country being as plentifully provided with all Sorts of 
Game, as any Part of America •, the poorer Sort of Planters 
often get them to plant for them, by hiring.thern for that 
Seafon, or for fo much Work, which commonly cbmes very 
reafonable. Moreover, it is remarkable, That no Place on 
the Continent of America, has feated an Englifh Colony fo 
free from Blood-fhed, as Carolina y but all the others have 
been moredamag'd and difturb'd by the Indians, than they 
have-i which is worthy Notice, when we confider how oddly 
it was firft planted with Inhabitants. 

TheFifhing-Trade in Carolina might be carried on to great 
Advantage, confidering how many Sorts of excellent Fifh 
our Sound and Rivers afford, which cure very well with Salt, 
as has beenexperienced by fome fmall Quantities, which have 
been fent abroad, and yielded a good Price. As for the 
Whale- fi(hing,it is no otherwife regarded than by a few People 
who live on the Sand-Banks j and thofe only work on dead 
Fifh caff, on fhoar, none being ftruek on our Coaft, as they are 
to the Northward} altho' we have Plenty of Whales there. 
Great Plenty is generally the Ruin of Induftry. Thus our 
Merchants are not many, nor have thofe few there be, apply'd 
themfelves to the European Trade. The Planter fits con- 
tented at home, whilft his Oxen thrive and grow fat, and his 
Stocks daily increafe \ The fatted Porkets and Poultry are 
eafily rais'd to his Table, and his Orchard affords him Li- 
quor, fo that he eats, and drinks away the Cares of the 
World, and defires no greater Happinefs, than that which 





he daily enjoys. Whereas, not only the Enropean,but alfo the 
fndian-Tiade, might be carried on to a great Profit, becaufe 
we lie as fairly for the Body of Indians, as any Settlement in 
Englijh- America 5 And for the fmall Trade that has been car- Indian- 
ried on in that Way, the Dealers therein have throve as fall Irate* 
as any Men, and thefooneft rais'd themfelves of any People 
I have known in Carolina. 

Laftly, As to the Climate, it is very healthful ; onr Sum- climate. 
meTiS not fo hot as in other places to the Eaftward in the summer. 
lame Latitude •, neither are we ever vifited by Earthquakes, jv Earth- 
as many places in Italy and other Summer-Countries are. quakes. 
Our Northerly Winds, in Summer, cool the Air, and free 
os from peftilential Fevers, which Spain, Barbary, and tjie 
neighbouring Countries in Europe, &c. are vifited withal. 
Our Sky is generally ferene and clear, and the Air very SergKCe 
thin,, in comparifon of many Parts of Europe, where Con- 
lumptions and Catarrhs reign amongft the Inhabitants. The 
Winter has feveral Fittsof (harp Weather, efpecially when 
the Wind is at N. W, which always clears the Sky, though 
never fo thick before. However, fuch Weather is very a- 
greeable to European Bodies, and makes them healthy. The 
N. E. Winds blowing in Winter, bring with them thick 
Weather, and, in the Spring, fometimes, blight the Fruits , 
"but they very feldom endure long, being blown away by 
AVefterly Winds* and then all becomes fair and clear again. 
Oar Spring, in Carolina, is very beautiful, and the molt plea- spring. 
fant Weather a Country can enjoy. The Fall is accompa-F4#„ 
nied with cool Mornings, which come in towards the latter 
end of Augufi, and fo continue (moft commonly) very mo- 
derate Weather till about Chriflmas; then Winter comes 
on apace. Tho* thefe Seafons are very piercing , yet the 
Cold is of no continuance. Perhaps, you will have cold 
Weather for three or four days at a timej then pleafant 
warm Weather follows, fuch as you have in England, about 
the latter end of April or beginning of May. In the Year 
1707. we had the fevereft Winter in Carolina, that ever was 
known fmce the Englijh came to fettle there ; for our Rivers, 
that were not above half a Mile wide, and frefh Water, were 
frozen over ; and fome of them, in the North-part of this 
Country, were paffable for People to walk over. 

N 2 



The Frefent State 


One great Advantage of North-Carolina is, That we are not 
No iron- a Frontier, and near the Enemy • which proves very charge- 
UiU able and troublefome, in time of War, to thofe Colonies that 
are fo feated. Another great Advantage comes from its be- 
WMrVir-ing near Virginia, where we come often to a good Market 
ginia. at the Return of ,the <7«/«^- Ships for Negro's, and the Rem- 
nant of their Stores, which is very commodious for the /»- 
, d.'an-Trade ; beiides, in War-time, we lie near at hand to 
go under their Convoy, and to fell our Provifions to the To- 
bacco-fleets j for the Planting of Tobacco generally. in thofe 
Colonies, prevents their being fupplyed with Stores, fuffi- 
cient for victualling their Ships. 
Nuejfmes As for the Commodities , which are neceflary to carry 
for Caro- over to this Plantation, for Ufe and Merchandize, and are, 
llfl a. therefore, requillte for thofe to have along with them, that 
intend to transport themfelves thither •, they are Guns, Pow- 
der and Shot, Flints, Linnensof.all forts, but chiefly ordi- 
nary Blues, Ofnabrugs, Scotch and Irijh Linnen, and fome 
fine : Mens and Womens Cloaths ready made up , fome 
few Broad-Cloaths, Kerfeys and Druggets'; to which you 
muft add Haberdajhers- Wares , Hats about Five or Six Shil- 
lings apiece, and a few finer; a few Wiggs, not long, and 
pretty thin of Hair; thin Stuffs for Women ; Iron- Work, 
as Mails, Spades, Axes, broad and narrow Hoes, Frows 
Wedges, and Saws of all forts, with other Todls for Carpen- 
ters, Joiners, Coopers, Shoemakers, Shave-locks, &c. all 
which, and others which are neceflary for the Plantations, 
you may be inform'd of, and buy at very reafonable Rates* 
of Mr. James Gilbert, Ironmonger, in Mitre-Tavern-Yard* 
near Aldgate. You may alfo be ufed very kindly, for your 
Cuttlery-Ware, and other advantageous Merchandizes, and 
your Cargo's well forted, by Capt. Sharp, at the Blue-gate in- 
Cannon- fireet. ; and for Ear then- Ware, Window-Glafs, Grind- 
Stones, Mill-Stones, Paper, fnk- Powder, Saddles, Bridles, 
and what other things ycu are minded to take with you, for 
Pleafure or Ornament. 

And now, I mail proceed to the reft of the Vegetables, 
that are common in Carolina, in reference to the Place where 
I left off, which is the Natural Hijlory of that Country. 


Of the Vegetables of Carolina. 
■. - - 

TH E fpontaneous Shrubs of this Country, are, the Lark- 
heel-Tree; three forts of Hony-Suckle-Tree, the firft 
of which grows in Branches, as our Piemento-Tree does, 
that is, always in low, moift Ground; the other grows in 
clear, dry Land, the Flower more cut and lacerated \ the 
third, which is the moll beautiful, and, I think, the moft 
charming Flower of its Colour, 1 ever faw, grows betwixt 
two and three Foot high, and for the moft part, by the fide 
of a fwampy Wood, or on the Banks of our Rivers, but ne- 
ver near the Salt-Water. All the Sorts are white - y the laft 
grows in a great Bunch of thefe fmall Hony-Suekles fet up- 
on~T>ne chief Stem, and is commonly the Bignefs of a large 
Turnep. Nothing can appear more beautiful than thefe 
Bufhes, wlren in their Splendour, which is in April and Mayt 
The next is the Honey-Suckle of the Forefl ; it grows about 
a Foot high, bearing its Flowers on fmall Pedeftals, feverafc 
of them ftanding on the main Stock, which is the Thicknefs 
of a Wheat-Straw. We have alfo the Wood-bind, much. 
the fame as in England, Princes-feather, very large and 
beautiful in the Garden ; Tres-Colores, branch'd Sun-flower „ 
Double Poppies, Lupines, of feveral pretty forts, fpontane- 
ous ; and the SenfibU Plant is faid to be near the Mountains 3 . 
which I have not yet feen. Saf-Flower; (and I believe, 
the Saffron of England would thrive here, if planted) the 
yellow Jeflamirt is wild in our Woods, of a plealant Smelk 
Ever-Greens are here plentifully found, of a very quick. 
Growth, and pleafant Shade -, Cyprefs, or white Cedar, the 
Pitch Pine, the yellow Pine, the white Pine with long 
Leaves •, and the fmaller Almond-Pine, which laft bears Ker- 
nels in the Apple* tailing much like an Almond ; and in. 
fome years there falls fuch plenty, as to make the Hogs fat, 
Horn-Beam ; Cedar, two forts •, Holly, two forts ; Bay- 
Tree, two forts; one the Dwarf- Bay, about twelve Foot 
high , the other the Bignefs of a middling Pine-Tree, a- 
bout two Foot and half Diameter y Laurel-Trees, in Height 
equalizing the lofty Oaks \ the Berries and Leaves of this 
Tree dyes a Yellow ; ; the Bay-Berries yield a Was, which 
foeildes, its Ufe in Chirurgery, makes Candles that, in burn-- 

The Natural Hiftory 


; ing, give a fragrant Srriell. The Cedar-Berries are infufed, 
and made Beer of, by the Bermudians, they are Carminative, 
and much.of theQuality of Juniper-Berries ; Yew and Box I 
never faw or heard of in this Country : There are two forts 
of Myrtles, different in Leaf and Berry •, the Berry yields. 
Wax that makes Candles, the moft lafting, and of the fweet- 
eft Smell imaginable. Some mix half Tallow with this Wax, 
others ufe it without Mixture ; and thefe are fit for a Lady's 
Chamber, and incomparable to pafs the Line withal, and 
other hot Countries, becaufe they will ftand, when, others 
will melt, by the exceffive Heat, 4own in the Binacles. fi- 
ver-green Oak, two forts } Gall-Berry-Tree, bearing a black 
Berry, with which the Women dye their Cloaths and Yara 
black-, 'tis a pretty Ever-green, and very plentiful, grow- 
ing always in low fwampy Grounds, and amongfl Ponds. 
We have a Prim or Privet, which grows on the dry, barreri, 
ftndy Hills, by the Sound fide •, it bears a fmaller fort than 
that in England, and grows into a round Bufh, very beauti- 
ful. Laft of Bufhes, (except Savine, which grows every 
where wild) is the famous Yaupon, of which I find two forts, 
if not three. I fhall fpeak firft of the Nature of this Plant, 
and afterwards account for the different Sorts. This Tau* 
pan, call'd by the South- Carolina Indians, Cajfena, is a Bufh, 
that grows chiefly on the Sand-Banks and Iflands, bordering 
oh the Sea of Carolina \ on this Coaft it is plentifully found, 
and in no other Place that I know of. It grows the moft 
like Box, of any Vegetable that I know, being very like it 
in Leaf; only dented exactly like Tea, but the Leaf fome- ' 
what fatter. I cannot fay, whether it bears any Flower, 
but a Berry it does, about the Bignefs of _ a Grain of Pep- 
per, being firft red, then brown when ripe, which is in 
December \ Some of thefe Bufhes grow to be twelve Foot 
high, others are three or four. The Wood thereof is 
brittle as Myrtle, and affords a light afh-colour'd Bark. 
There is fometimes found of it in Swamps and rich low 
Grounds, which has the fame figured Leaf, only it is larger, 
and of a deeper Green j This may be occaflon'd by the Rich- 
nefs that attends the low Grounds thus fituated. The third 1 ' 
Sort has the fame kind of Leaf, but never grows a Foot high, 
and is found both in rich, low Land, and on the Sand-Hills. 
I don't know that ever 1 found any Seed, or Berries on the 



9 1 


ilon is made : Cattle and Sheep delight in this mnt very 
much ™nd fo do the Deer, all which crop it very fliort and 
"rowie?hc eoii! wherefoever they meet with it. I. have 
tSlanted the Sand-Bank and ^^^MM 
that the firft Year,the ^^^Mi^^^iKS 
Year thev throve as well as in their native Sml. Jjap nan. 
year tney uiruvc ■* aDDrov'd by a the Savages on 

is the Indian Tea, usd ana appiuv u u/ . weffward 

thetloaftof *rtti* and from them lent tc » f hc Wcttwaid 
Indians, and fold at a confutable ^^M^^Mcuring^ 
cure after the fame way, as they do for themielves , wiucn s^ 
h thus • They take this Plant (not only the Leaves, but the 
fma ^er* Twigs along with them; and bruife it in a Mortar, 
[m it blcZes blaclim, the Leaf ^W*' 
Th-=n thev rake it out, put it into one or tlieir eartnen rots 
SSviSSMbSv&i itfmoaks-, ftirringitaU the time 
Jill it is cur'd. Others take it, after it is bruis d, and put 
ft into a Bowl to which they put live Coals, and cover them 
ith ^ the r«A till they ha've done fmoaking j often ^urmng 
them over. After all, they fpread it upon then Mats, and 
dryTt in the Sun. to 'keep 'for Ufe. ^SmWflL fRT . 
S P L have this Plant very V^^H oat ^^\?A 
?nd hold it in great Efteem. Sometimes they cure itas he 
MUm do i or elfe beat it to a Powder, fo mix it, as Coffee 
vet before they drink it, they' filter the fame. They pretei 
[t above all Liquids, to drink with Phyfick, to carry the fame 
fifc^ndfpSlily Ihrtf tbe Palfages, for which it is admi. 

^ctmutoak 1 : is* fv^' lofty Tree, clear of Boughs and ^, 

Foot through all clear Timber v and are the largelt Oaks we 
have, yielding the faireft Plank. They grow c uefly : « Am 
Land, that if ftiff ' and rich. I have ftta of them Jo high, 
that a good Gun could not reach a Turkey, tho loaded with 
Swan-Shot: They are call'd Chefnut, becaufe of the Large- 
•nefs and Sweetnefs of the Acorns. i \ 

White Scaly-bark Oak^ This is ufed, as the former, u****, 
buying Sloops and Ships. Tho' it bears a large Acorn 
ye i rfever gmws to the Bulk and Height of the Chefnut 

9 2 

The Natural Hifiory 

$gi Oah 


Oak. It is fo call'd, becaufe of a fcaly, broken, white Bark 
that covers this Tree, growing on dry Land. 

We have Red Oak, fometimes, in good Land, very large 
and lofty. 'Tis a porous Wood, and ufed to rive into Rails 
for Fences. 'Tis not very durable ; yet forae ufe this, as 
well as the two former, forPipe and~ Barrel-Staves. It makes 
good Clap boards. 

Spanilh . Spanijh Oak is free to rive, bears a whitifh, fmooth Bark i 

*«*. and rives very well into Clap-boards. It is accounted dura- 
ble, therefore fome ufe to build Veflels with it for the Sea • 
it proving well and durable. Thefe all bear good Maft for 
the Swine. 

Baftard-S/><M(/k is an Oak betwixt the Spanijh and Red Oak • 
the chief Ufe is for Fencing and Clap-boards. It bears good* 

Black oat. The next is Black Oak, which is efteem'd a durable Wood, 
under Water •, but fometimes it is ufed in Houfe-work. It 
bears a good Maft for Hogs. 

VAnttlron. White Iron, or Ring-Oak, is fo call'd, from the Durabi- 
lity and lafting Quality of this Wood. It chiefly grows oa 
dry, lean Land, and feldom fails of bearing a plentiful Crop 
of Acorns. This Wood is found to be very durable, and is 
efteem'd the belt Oak for Ship-work that we have in Caro- 
lina •, for tho' Live Oak be more lafting, yet it feldom al- 
lows Planks of any conffderable Length, j 

turhyOah Turkey-Oak is fo call'd from a fmall Acorn it bears,which 
the wild Turkeys feed-on. 

Live Oak. - Live-Oak chiefly grows on dry, fandy Knolls. This is 

an Ever-green, and the molt durable Oak all America affords. 

,The Shortnefs of this Wood's Bowl, or Trunk, makes it 

unfit for Plank to build Ships withal. There are fome few 

Trees, that would allow a Stock of twelve Foot, but the 

Firmnefs and great Weight thereof, frightens our Sawyers 

from the Fatigue that attends the cutting of this Timber. 

A Nail once driven therein, 'tis next to an Impofllbiliurto 

draw it out. The Limbs thereof are fo cur'd, that tn6y 

'ferve for excellent Timbers, Knees, &c. for Veflels of any 

fort. The Acorns thereof are as fweet as Chefhuts, and the 

Indians, draw an Oil from them, as fweet as that from the 

Olive, tho' of an Amber-Colour. With thefe Nuts,. or A- 

^orns, fome have counterfeited the Cocoa, whereoi they 





have made Chocolate, not to be diftinguifh'd by a good Pa- 
late. Window-Frames, Mallets, and Pins for Blocks,are made 
thereof, to an excellent Purpofe. I knew two Trees of this 
Wood among the Indians, which were planted from the A- 
corn, and grew in the Frefhes, and never faw any thing more 
beautiful of that kind. They are of an indifferent quick 
Growth^ of which there are two forts. The Acorns make 
very fine Pork. 

Willow-Oak is a fort of Water-Oak. It grows in VondsWUhwOai 
and Branches, and is ufeful for many things. It is fo call'd, 
from the Leaf, which very much refembles a Willow. 

The Live Oak grows in the frelh Water Ponds and Frejh-roa- 
Swamps, by the River fides, and in low Ground overflownw onk. 
with Water ; and is a perennial Green. 

Of Am we have two forts, agreeing nearly with the En-Jp. 
glifi in the Grain. One of our forts is tough, like the JE»- 
gl'jh, but differs fomething in the Leaf, and much more in 
the Bark. Neither of them bears Keys. The Water-Afh is 
brittle. The Bark is Food for the Bevers. 

There are two forts of jElm \ the firft grows on our High-E/ W . 
Land, and approaches our Englifa. The Indians take the 
Bark of its Root, and beat it, whilft green, to a Pulp •, and 
. then dry it in the Chimney, where it becomes of a reddifh 
•Colour. This they ufe as a Sovereign Remedy to heal a 
Cut or green Wound, or any thing that is not corrupted. 
It is of a very glutinous Quality, The other Elm grows in 
low Ground, of whofe Bark the Englifr and Indians make 
Ropes • for as foon as the Sap rifes, it ftrips off, with the 
greateft eafe imaginable.- It runs in March, ox there- 

The Tulip-Trees, which are, by the Planters, call'd Pop- fulip-Tree 
Jars, as neareft approaching that Wood in Grain, grow 
to a prodigious Bignefs, forne of them having been found 
One and twenty Foot in Circumference. I have been in- 
form'd of a Tuiip-Tree, that was ten Foot Diameter j and 
another, wherein a lufty Man had his Bed and Ho?€hold 
Furniture, and liv'd in it, till his Labour got him a more 
fafhionable Manilon. He afterwards became a noted Man, 
in his Country, for Wealth and Conduct. One of thefe 
forts bears a white Tulips the other a party-colour 5 d,mottled 
one. The Wood makes very pretty-Wainfcot, Shingles for 

n tierce 





The Natural Hifiory 



h ] 

Houfes, and Planks for feveral Ufes. It is reckon'd very laft- 

■iji| ■ efpecially, under Ground, for Mill- Work. The Buds, 

J made into an Ointment, cure Scalds, Inflammations, and 

Burns. I faw feveral Bufhels thereon. The Cattle are apt 

to eat of thefe Buds, which give a very odd Tafte to the 

BjwA Beech is here frequent, and very large. The Grain feems 

exactly the fame as that in Europe. We make little Ufe 
thereof, fave for Fire-Wood. 'Tis not a durable Timber. 
It affords a very fweet Nut, yet the Pork fed thereon (tho' 
fweet) is very oily, and ought to be harden id I with Mian 
, Corn, before it is kill'd. Another fort call d Buck-Beech is 

Buck Beech . v- , 

here found. , , . r „ 

Horn-Beam grows, in fome Places, very plentifully ; yet 
the Plenty of other Wood makes it unregarded. O 

The Vertues of Saffafras are well known in Europe. This 
Wood fometimes grows to be above two Foot over, and 
is very durable and halting, ufed for Bowls, Timbers, Pofts 
for Houfes, and other Things that require ftanding in the 
Ground 'Tis very light. It bears a white Flower, which 
is very cleanfing to the Blood, being eaten in the Spring, 
• with other Satiating. The Berry, when ripe, is black ; 'tis 
very oily, Carminative, and extremely prevalent in Clyfters 
for the Colick. The Bark of the Root is a Spccifick to 
thofe affiled with the Gripes. The fame in Powder, and a 
I ot'on made thereof, is much ufed by the Savages to mu ni- 
dify old Ulcers, and for feveral other Ufes; benig highly 

richSoil. !t flowersthe firft in the Woods; its white Blof- 
fom makin- the Foreft very beautiful. It has a fine Grain, 
tiiMMtm Ufe/within doors; but isnotdurabk. 
The Bark of this Root infufed, is held an infallible Remedy 
acainft the Worms. . ' , r 

Li ,H ° Laurel, before- mentioned j as to its Bignefs and Ufe, I 
have feen Planks fawn of this Wood; but us not found du- 
rable in the Weather; yet pretty enough for many other 

TT/"" n 

Bay and Laurel generally delight in a low^ampy Ground. 
- I know no Ufe they make of them, but for Fire- Wood, ex- 
cepting what I fpoke of before, amongft the Ever-Greens. 



A famous Ever-Green I muft now mention, which was*™'- 
forgotten amongft the reft. It is in Leaf like a JefTamine/ s 
but larger, and of a harder Nature. This grows up to a 
large Vine, and twifts itfelf round the Trees it grows near, 
making a very fine Shade. I never faw any thing of that 
Nature outdo it, and if it be cutaway clofe to the Ground, 
it wjll prefently fpring up again, it being impofllble to de- 
ftroy it, when once it has got Root. 'Tis an ornamental 
Plant, and worth the Tranfplanting. Its Seed is a black 


The Scarlet Trumpet-Vine bears a glorious red Flower, trumpet- 
like a Bell, or Trumpet, and makes a Shade inferiour to none Vine. 
that I ever faw ^ yet it leaves us, when the Winter comes, 
and remains naked till the next Spring. It bears a large Cod, 
that holds its Seed. \ • 

The Maycock bears a glorious Flower, and Apple of ariMajwk, 
agreeable Sweet, mixt with an acid Tafte. This is alfo a 
Summer-Vine. Mho- 

The Indico grows plentifully in our Quarters. Trees. 

The Bay-Tulip-Tree is a fine Ever-green which grows Buy-tulips. 
frequently here. -:,':[? 

The fweet Gum-Tree, fa call'd, becaufe of the fragrant sweet 
Gum it yields in the Spring-time, upon Inciiion of the Bark, Gum. ■ 
or Wood. It cures the Herpes and Inflammations *, being 
apply'd to the Morphew and Tettars. ? Tis an extraordinary 
Balfarn, and of great Value to thofe who know how to ufe 
it. No Wood has fcarce 3 better Grain , whereof fine Ta- 
bles, Drawers, and ot'aer Furniture might be made. Some 
of it is curioully cuffd. It bears a round Bur^ with a fort 
of Prickle, which is the Seed. 

Of the Black G una there grows, with us, two forts •, both Black 
fit for Cart-Naves.. The one bears a black, well-tafted <*«»"■• 
Berry, which the IrJ.ians mix with their Pulfe and Soup.s, it 
giving 'em a pretty Flavour, and fcarlet Colour. The Bears 
crop thefe Trees.for the Berries, which they mightily covet, 
yet -kill'd in that Seafon, they eat very unfavory •, which 
muft be occafioa'd by this Fruit, becaufe, at other times, 
when-they feed on Mail;, Bears-Flefh is a very weli-tafted , 
Food. The oth'sr Gum bears a Berry in fhape like the other, 
tho 5 bitter -and ill-tafted. This tree (the Indians report) 

O 2 



The Natural Hifiory 



is never wounded by Lightning. It has no certain Grainy 
and it is alYnoft impoffible to fplit Or rive it. 
ivUuGum The white Gum, bearing a fort of long bunch'd Flowers, 
is the mod: curled and knotted Wood I ever fa w, which 
would make curious Furniture, in cafe it was handled by a 
good Workman. 
sedCedar. The red fort of Cedar is an Ever-green, of which Caro- 
lina affords Plenty. That on the Salts, grows generally on 
the Sand-banks ; and that in the Frefhes is found in the 
Swamps. Of this Wood, Tables, Wainfcot, and other Ne- 
ceffaries, are made, and efteemed for its fweet Smell. It is 
as durable a Wood as any we have, therefore much ufed in 
Pofb for Houfes and Sills v likewife to build Sloops, Boats T 
&c. by reafon the Worm will not touch it, for feveral Years-. 
The Veflels built thereof are. very durable, and good Swim- 
mers. Of this Cedar, Ship-loads may be exported; It has 
been heretofore fo plentiful in this Settlement, that they 
have fenced in Plantations with it, and the Coffins of the 
Dead are generally made thereof. 
whhe White Cedar, fo call'd, becaufe it- nearly approaches 

€edar. tne other Cedar, in Smell, Bark, and Leaf ;; Only this grows 
taller, being as ftrait as an Arrow. It is extraordinary 
light, and free to rive. 'Tts good for Yard, Top-Malts, 
Booms and Bbltfprits, being very tough." The belt Shingles 
for Houfes are made of this Wood, it being no Strain to 
the Roof, and never rots. Good Pails and other Veflels^ 
free from Leakage, are likewife made thereof. The Bark 
of this and the red Cedar, the Indians ufe to make their Ca- 
bins of,_which prove firm, and refift all Weathers. 
Crirefs. Cyprefs is not an Ever-green with us, and is therefore 
call'd the bald Cyprefs, becaufe the Leaves, during the Win- 
ter-Seafon, turn red, not recovering their Verdure till the 
Spring. Thefe Trees are the largeft for Height and Thick- 
jiefs, that we have in this Part of the World j fomeof them 
holding thirty-fix Foot in Circumference. Upon Incilion, 
they yield a fweet-foielUng Grain, tho' not in great Quan- 
tities •, and the Nuts which thefe Trees bear plentifully, 
yield a raoft odoriferous Balfam, that infaHifrly cures all new 
"and preen Wounds, which the Inhabitants are well acquain- 
ted withal. Of thefe great Trees the Pereaugers and Ca- 
noes are fcoop'd and made ; which fort of Veflels are chiefly 




to paTs over the Rivers, Creeks, and Bays ; and to trknfport 
Goods and Lumber from one River to another. Some are 
fo large, as to carry thirty Barrels, tho' of one entire Piece 
of Timber. Others, that are fplit down the Bottom, and 
a piece added thereto, will carry eighty, or an hundred. 
Several have gone out of our Inlets on the Ocean to Vir- 
ginia, laden with Pork, and other Produce of the Country. 
Of thefe Trees-curious Boats for Pleafure may be made, and 
other neceffary Craft. Some Years ago, a foolifn Man in 
Alhemarl and his Son, had got one of thefe Canoes deck'd. 
She held, as I take it, fixteen Barrels. He brought her to 
the Colle&ors, to be clear'd for Barbados \ but the Officer 
took him for a Man that hadloft his Senfes, and argu'd the 
Danger and Impoflibility of performing fuch a Voyage, in a 
hollow Tree ; but the Fellow would hearken to no Advice 
of that kind, till the Gentleman told him, if he did not 
value his own Life, he valu'd his Reputation and Honefty, 
and fo flatly refus'd clearing him*, Upon which, theda- 
noe was fold, and, I think, remains in being flill. This 
Wood is very lafting, and free from the Rot. A Canoe of 
it will outlaftfour Boats, and feldom wants Repair. They 
lay, that a Cheft tnade -of this Wood,, will fuller no Moth* 
crVermine, to abide therein. 

The Locuft, for its enduring the Weather, is chofen for Two forts,. 
all forts of Works that are expofed thereto. It bears a Leaf °/,f ocu fi. 
neareft the Liquorice-Plant. 'Tis a pretty tall Tree. Of 

white and : 
yellow ', is. 

this the Indians make their choiceft Bows, it being VQvy"rareifvax-- 
tough and flexible. We have little or none of this Wood in nifh'd* 

The Honey-Tree bears as great a Refemblance to the Lo- HomyTree. 
cult, as a Shallot does to an Onion. It is of that Species, * ie«<jL 
but more prickly. They bear a Cod, one fide whereof 
contains the Seed, the other the Honey \ They will bear in. 
five Years, from the Kernel. They were firft brought (by. 
the Indian Traders) and propagated, by their Seed, at the 
Apamaticks in Virginia. Laft Year, I planted the : Seed, and. 
had them fprung up before I came from thence, which was- 
in Augvft. Of the Honey, very good Metheglin is made, 
there being Orchards planted in Virginia for-, that in> 


9 3 

The Natural Hifiory 


sovorlVooi The Sorrel, or Sowr- Wood-Tree, is fo call'd, becaufe 
the Leaves taft'e like Sorrel. Some are about a Foot or ten 
Inches Diameter. I am unacquainted with its Vertues at 

prefent. , 

Of Pines, there are, in Carolina, at leaft, four forts. The 
Pitch-Pine, growing to a great Bignefs, molt commonly has 
but a fhort Leaf. Its Wood (being replete with abundance 
of Bitumen) is fo durable, that it ieems to fuffer no Decay, 
tho' expofed to all Weathers,, fortnany Ages-, and is ufed 
in feveral Domeftick and Plantation Ufes. This Tree affords 
the four great NecefTaries, Pitch, Tar, Rozin, and Turpen- 
tine •, which two lalt are extrafted by tapping, and the Heat 
of the Sun, the other two by the Heat of the Fire. 

The white and yellow Pines are faw'd into Planks for feve- 
ral Ufes. They make Malts, Yards, and a great many o- 
ther Neceflaries therewith, the Pine being the moll ufeful 
Tree in the Woods. 

The Almond-Pine ferves for Malts very well. As tor the 
Dwarf-Pine, it is for Shew alone, being an Ever-green, as 

they all are. ' . , 

The Hiccory is of the Walnut-kind, and bears a Nut as 
thev do of which there are found three forts. The firft is 

J ' . i. . i .., u:.-„ "CJ7>y-«^Tr Tf- Jo not 1 ct 

the befi 

r i 

tire-mod. JJJ which we call the common white Hiccory. It is not a 
durable Wood ; for if cut down, and expofed to the Wea- 
ther, it will be quite rotten, and fpoil'din three Years; as 
will HkeWife the Beech of this Country. Hiccory Nuts have 
verv hard Shells, but excellent fweet Kernels, with which, 
'in a plentiful Year, the old Hogs, that can crack them, 
fatten themfelves, and make excellent Pork. Thefe Nuts 
are eotten in great Quantities, by the savages, and laid 
^pforstores, of which they make feveral Dimes and Ban- 
quets One of thefe I cannot forbear mentioning j it .is 
this • They take thefe Nuts, and break them very frnall be- 
. twixt two Stones, till the Shells aad Kernels are indifferent 
fms'll • And this Powder you are prefeuted withal in tneir 
Sb^ in little wooden Dimes-, the Kernel diflblves in 
■your Mouth, and the Shell is fpit out This taltes as well 
as any Almond. Another Difli is the Soup which they 
make of thefe Nuts, beaten, and put «f? Vemfon-Broth, 
which difTolves the Nut, and thickens, whillt the Shell pre- 
cipitates, and remains at the bottom. This Broth taltes 



™ the Heart thereof being very red, firm and durable , of <> 
Sh'fchW.1 king-Sticks, Moltar. Peftils and toote 
fine Turnery-wares are made .T^-thud is ca » a tnc *£ 
; nf r barkM Hiccory, from its brittle and icaly Bark. It beais 
a £ut with bitler Kernel and a/oft Shell, liKe . W 
Walnut Of this Wood, Coggs for Mills are made, m 

fuppofe, that Name was, at firft, to diftinguifh u trom the 
Hkcories, it having a blacker Bark. This Tree grows, m 
Sod S to a prodigious Bignefs. The Wood is very 
firm and durable, of which Tables and Chefts of Drawers 
aremade, and prove very welk Some of this is very knotty 
which would make the belt Returns for England tho the 
Mafters of Veffels refufe it, not undemanding its Goodnefs. 
'Tis a very good and durable Wood, to bottom Veffels for 
the Sea withal 5 and they fay, that it is never eaten by the 
Worm. The Nuts have a large Kernel, which is very oily, 
except lain by, a long time, to mellow. The Shell is very 
thick, as all the native Nuts of America are. When it has 
its yellow outward Coat on, it looks and fmells much like a 

^he Maple, of which we have two forts, isufed to makeM^. 
Trenchers, Spinning-wheels, &c. withal. 

Chinkapin is a fort of Chefnut, whofe Nuts are 1110ft com-Cbuila. 
monly very plentiful ; infomuch that the Hogs get fat with P iru 
them. They are rounder and fmaller than a Chefnut, but , 
much fweeter. The Wood is much of the Nature of Chef- 
nut, having a Leaf and Grain almoft like it. It is ufed to 
timber Boats, Shallops, &c. and makes any thing that is to- 
endure the Weather. This and the Hiccory are very tough 
Rods ufed to whip Horfes withal ; yet their Wood, m Sub- 
fiance is very brittle. This Tree the Vine much delights 
to twift about. It's good Fire-Wood, but very fparkling,, 
as well as Saffafras. ,. ■ ., 

The Birch grows all on the Banks of our Rivers, very high *trt*. 
up. I never faw a Tree on the Salts. It. differs fpme thing, 
in Bark, from the European Birch Its Buds in April are eaten 
by' the Parrakeetos, which refort, from all Parts,, at that 
Seafon-, to feed thereon. Where this Wood grows, we are, 



The Natural Hiftory 






■ ll'OOi. 

not yet feated •, and as to the Wine, or other Profits it 
would yield, we are, at prefent, Strangers to. 

The Willow, here, likewife differs both in Bark and Leaf. 
It is frequently found on the Banks of frefh Water, as the 
Birch is. 

The Sycamore, in thefe Parts, grows in a low, fwampy 
Land, by River-fides. Its Bark is quite different from the 
Englijh, and the molt beautiful I ever faw, being mottled 
and clowded with feveral Colours, as white, blue, &c. It 
bears no Keys but a Bur like the fweet Gum. Its Ufes I am 
ignorant of. 

I never faw any Afpin, but in Rapahannock-River, from 
whence I brought one, (that was prefented me there as a great 
Prefent) but it died by the way. 

Of Holly we have two forts •, one having a large Leaf, the 
other a fmaller. They grow very thick in our. low Woods. 
Many of them are very ftrait, and two Foot Diameter. 
They make good Trenchers, and other Turnery- Ware. 

The Red-Bud-Tree bears a purple Lark-Heel, and is the 
belt Sallad, of any Flower I ever faw. It is ripe in April and 
May. They grow in Trees, generally final], but fome are a 
Foot Diameter. 

Pelletory grows on the Sand-Banks and Iilands. It is ufed 
to cure the Tooth-ach, by putting a Piece of the Bark in the 
Mouth, which being very hot, draws a Rhume from the 
Mouth, and caufes much Spittle. The Indians ufe it to 
make their Compofition, which they give to their young Men 
and Boys, when they are hufquenaw'd, of which you fhall 
hear farther, when I come to treat of the Cuftorns, &c. of 
that People. 

Arrow- Wood, growing on the Banks, is ufed, by the In- 
r, for Aitows and Gun-Sticks. It grows as ftrait, as if 


plain'd, and rs of all Sizes. 'Tis as tough and pliable, as the 
fmalleft Canes. 

■Ckfriut. The Chefnut-Tree of Carolina, grows up towards the hilly 
Part thereof, is a very large and durable Wood, and fit for 
Houfe-Frames, Palifado's, Sills, and many other Ufes. The 
Nut is fmaller than thofe from Portugal, but fweeter. 

4/ik-Vine. This is no Tree, but call'd the Oak- Vine, by reafon it 
bears a fort of Bur as the Oak does, aad generally runs up 
thofe Trees. It's fo porous, that you fuck Liquors thro' a 
Length of two Foot. Prickly,- 





Prickly-Alh grows up like a Pole •, of which the Indians 
and Ewlijb make Poles to fet their Canoes along in Shoal- 
Water. It's very light, and fall of Thorns or Prickles, bear- 
ing Berries in large Clatters-, of a purple Colour, not much 
unlike the Alder. The Root of this Tree is Catbartick 
and Emetick, ufed in Cachexies. 

The Poifon Vine is fo called, becaufe it colours the Hands W* 
of thofe who handle it. What the Effcds of it may be, 1 
cannot relate \ neither do I believe, that any has made an 
Experiment thereof. The Juice of this will ftain Linnen, 
never to waft out. It marks a blackifh blue Colour, which is 
done only by breaking a bit of the Vine off, and writing 
what you pleafe therewith. I have thought, that the Eaft- 
Jndia Natives fet their Colours, by fome fuch Means, into 
their fineft Callicoes. It runs up any Tree it meets withal, 
and clafps round about it. The Leaves are like Hemlock, 
and fall off in Winter. 

Of Canes and Reeds we have many forts. The hollow Reed, cme% mi 
or Cane, fuch as Angling-Rods are made of, and Weavers Heeds. 
ufe, we have great Plenty of, though none to the Northward 
of fames-River in Virginia. They always grow in Branches 
and low Ground. Their Leaves endure the Winter, in 
which Seafon our Cattle eat them greedily. We have them 
(towards the Heads of our divers) fo large, that one Joint 
will hold above a pint of Liquor. 

The fmall Bamboo is next, which is a certain Vine, like Bamboo, 
the reft of thefe Species, growing in low Land. They fel- 
dom, with us, grow thicker than a Man's little Finger, 
and are very tough. Their Root is a round Ball, which ' 
the Indians boil as we do Garden-Roots, and eat them. When 
thefe Roots have been fome time out of the Ground, they 
become hard, and make good Heads to the Canes, on which 
feveral pretty Figures may be cut. There are feveral o- 
thers of this kind, not thoroughly difcover'd. fin , Pa i fflete 

Tliat Talmeto grows with us, which we call the dwarfifli **"*>*»• 
fort; but the Palmeto-Tree I have not yet met withal in 
North-Carolina, of which you have a Defcnption elfewhere. 
We mail next treat of the Spontaneous Fruits of this 
Country •, and then proceed to thofe that have been tranf- 
planted from Europe, and other Parts. 

The Natural Hifiory 

Per fm- 

Among the natural Fruits, the Vine firft takes place, 
of which I find fix forts, very well known. The firft is 
the black Bunch-Grapes, which yield a Crimfoa Juice. Thefe 
grow common, and bear plentifully. They arc of a good 
Relifh, though not large, yet well knit in the Clutters. 
They have a thickifh Skin, and large Stone, which makes 
them not yield much Juice. There is another fort of Black- 
Grapes like the former, inallrefpe&s, fave that their Juice 
is of a light Fie fh- Col our, inclining to a White. I once 
faw a Spontaneous white Bunch-Grape in Carolina; but 
the Cattle browzing on the Sprouts thereof in the Spring, 
it died. Of thofe which we call Fox-Grapes, we have four 
forts } two whereof are called Summer-Grapes, becaufe 
ripe in July •, the other two Winter-Fruit, becaufe not ripe 
till September or OBoher. The Summer Fox-Grapes grow 
not in Clutters, or great Bunches, but are about live or fix 
in a Bunch, about the Bignefs of a Damfon, or larger. 
The black fort are frequent, the white not fo common- 
ly found. They always grow in Swamps, and low moiffc 
Lands, running fometimes very high, and being fhady, and 
therefore proper for Arbours. They afford the largeft Leaf 
I ever faw, to my remembrance, the Back of which is of a 
white Horfe-flefh Colour. This Fruit always ripens in the 
Shade. I have tranfplanted them into my Orchard, and find 
they thrive well, if manured : A Neighbour of mine has 
done the fame •, mine Were by Slips, his from the Roots, 
which thrive to Admiration, and bear Fruit, tho' not fo 
juicy as the European Grape, but of a glutinous Nature* 
However, it is pleafant enough to eat. 

The other Winter Fox-Grapes, are much of the fame Big- 
nefs. Thefe refufe no Ground, fwampy or dry, but grow- 
plentifully on the Sand-Hills along the Sea-Coaft, and 
elfewhere, and are great Bearers. I have feen near twelve 
Bufhels upon one Vine of the black fort. Some of thefe, when- 
thoroughly ripe, have a very pretty vinous Tafte, and eat 
very well, yet are glutinous. The white fort are clear and 
tranfparent, and indifferent fmall Stones. Being removed by 
the Slip or Root, they thrive well in, our Gardens, and 
make pleafant Shades. 

Terfimmon is a Tree, that agrees with all Lands and Soils. 
Their Fruit, when ripe, is nearefl: our Medlar \ if eatea 




before, draws your Mouth up like a Purfe, being the greateft 
Aftringent I ever met withal, therefore very ufeful in fome 
Cafes. The Fruit, if ripe, will prefently cleanfe a foul 
Wound, but caufes Pain. The Fruit is rotten, when ripe, 
and commonly contains four flat Kernels, calPd Stones, 
which is the Seed. 'Tis faid, the Cortex Peruvianm comes from 
a Perjimmon-Tree, that grows in New-Spain. I have try'd 
the Drying of this Bark, to imitate it, which it does tolerably- 
well, and agrees therewith. It is binding enough to work 
the fame Effect. The Tree, in extraordinary Land, comes 
fometimes to two Foot Diameter, though not often. There 
are two forts of this Fruit ; one ripe in Summer, the other 
when the Froft vifitsus. 

We have three forts of Mulberries, befides the different Multity: 
Bignefs of fome Tmees Fruit. The firfl is the common red 
Mulberry, whofe Fr#k is the earlieft we "have, (except the 
Strawberries^ and "very fweet. Thefe Trees make a very 
fine Shade, to lit under in Summer-time. They are found 
wild in great Quantities, wherever the Land is light and 
rich-, yet their Fruit is much better when they ftandopen. " 
They are ufed inftead of Raifins and Currants, and make 
feveral pretty Kickfhaws. They yield a tranfparent Crim- 
foil Liquor, which would make good Wine \ but few Peo- 
ples Inclinations in this Country tend that way. The 
others are a fmooth-leav'd Mulberry, fit for the Silk- Worm. 
One bears a White Fruit, which is common ^ the other bears 
a fmall black Berry, very fweet. They would perfuade 
me. there, that the black Mulberry with the Silk- Worm 
fmooth Leaf, was a white Mulberry, and changed its Fruit. 
The Wood hereof is very durable, and where the Indians 
cannot get Locuft, they make ufe of this to make their Bows, 
This Tree grows extraordinary round and pleafant to the 
Eye. -. 

The Hiccory, Walnut, Chinkapin and Chefnut, with their 
Fruits, we have mention'd before. 

The Hazle-Nut grows plentifully in fome places of this^R^. 
Country ^ efpecially, towards the Mountains , but owx% mu 
are not fo good as the Englifh Nuts, having a much thic- 
ker Shell (like all the Fruits of America^ that I ever met 
withal) which in Hardnefs exceeds thofe of Europe. 

P 2 - The 


The Natural Hifiory 



The Cherries of the Woods grow to be very large Trees. 
One fort, which is rarely found, is red? and not much un- 
like the Cornel-Berry. But the common Cherry grows high, 
and in Bunches, like Englijh Currants, but mnch larger. 
They are of a bitterifh fweet Relifh, and are equally valua- 
ble with our fmall Black-Cherries, for anlnfufion inspi- 
rits. They yield a crimfon Liquor, and are great Bearers. 
lasbernes. Our Rasberries are of a purple Colour, and agreeable Re- 
lifh, almoft like the Englijh - 7 but I reckon them not quite 
fo rich. When once planted, 'tis hard to root them out. 
They run wild all over the Country, and will bear the 
fame Year you tranfplant them, as I have found by Ex- 

The Hurts, Huckle-Berries, or Blues of this Country^ 
are four forts, which we are well acquainted withal; but 
more Species of this fort, and all others,- Time and Enquiry 
mull difcover. The firit fort is the fame Blue or Bilberry, 
that grows plentifully in the North of England; and in 
other Places, commonly on your Heaths, Commons, and 
Woods, where Brakes or Fern grows. 

The fecond fort grows on a fmall Bufh in our Savannas and 
Meads, and in. -the Woods. They are larger than the com- 
mon Fruit, and have larger Seed. 

The third grows on the fmgle Stem of a Stick thatrgrows 
in low good Land, and on the Banks of Rivers. They grow 
three or four Foot high, and are very -pleafant like the firfb 
iort, but larger. 

The fourth fort grows upon Trees, fome ten and twelve 
Foot high, and the Thicknefs of a Man's Arm , thefe are 
iound in the Runs and low Grounds, and are very plea- 
fant, .and bear wonderfully. The Enghjh fometimes dry 
them : in the Sun, and keep them to ufe in the Winter, inftead 
of Currants. The Indians get many Buihels, and dry them 
on Mats* whereof they make Plum-Bread, and many other 
Eatables. They are good in Tarts, or infufed in Liquors. 

In the fame Ground, commonly grows the Piemento, or 
All -Spice- Tree, whofe Berries differ in ihape from 
thofe in t\e Weft* Indies, being Taper or Conick, yet- not 
mfenour to any of that fort.. This Tree grows much like 
the Hurts, and is- of the fame Biguefs. I. have known it 
tranfplant'ed to high Land,, where it thrives. 


to. - \ 



Oar Dew-Berries are very good. But the Black-Berries^- 
are bitterilh, and not fo palatable, as in England. _ v£ ' 

The Sugar-Tree ought to have taken place before. It is SugarTreet 
found in no other parts of Carolina or America, that 1 ever 
learnt but in Places that are near the Mountains. It s molt 
like one fort of Maple, of any Tree, and may be rank'd 
amongft that kind. This Tree, which, I am told, is of a 
very tedious Growth, is found very plentifully towards the 
Heads of fome of our Rivers. The Indians tap it, and 
make Gourds to receive the Liquor, which Operation is done 
at diftind and proper times, when it belt yields its Juice, of 
which, when the Indians have gotten enough, they carry it 
home, and boil it to a juit Cbnfiitence of Sugar, which- 
grains of itfelf, and ferves for the, fame Ufes, as other Su- 
gar does. .... r 

The Pa-pau is not a large Tree. Lthink, I never faw one a Papail ,_ 
Foot through •, but has the broadeft Leaf of any Tree in 
the Woods, and bears an Apple abouttheBignefsofa Hen s 
Eeg yellow, foft, and as fweet, as any thing can well -be, 
Thiy make rare Puddings -of this Fruit. The Apple con- 
tains a large Stone. ■ s'rl-I . uruv ■ 

The wild Fig grows in Virginia, up in the Mountains, zsWMBg, 
I am inform'd by a Gentleman of my acquaintance, who 
is a Perfon of Credit, and a great Traveller in America. 
I fhall be glad to have an Opportunity to makeTryal what 
Improvement might be made of this wild Frnit, ; ■ ■ ' ■ 

The wild Plums of America are of feveral forts. Thofe^™^ 
which I can give an account of from my own Knowledge, 
I will, and leave the others till a farther Difcovery. The 
moft frequent ts that which we call the common Indian 
Plumf of which there are two forts^ if not more. One of 
thefe is ripe much fooner than the other, and differs in 
the Bark \ one of the Barks being, very fcaly, like our 
American Birch, Thefe Trees, when in Bloffom, fmell as 
fweet as any Jeffamine, and look as white as a Sheet, be- 
ing fomething prickly. You may make it grow to what 
Shape you pleafe } they -are very ornamental about a Houfe, 
and make a wonderful fine Shew at a Diftance, in the Spring, 
becaufe of t-hfeir white Livery. Their Fruit is red, and very, 
palatable to the lick. They are of a quick Growth, and 
will bear -from the Stone in five Years, on their Stock. The 




The Natural Hifiory 

of Ame- 



.•das Cur- 


| April 

$ti Haws. 

Engiifli large black Plum thrives well, as does the Cherry, 
being grafted thereon. 

The American Damfons are both black and white^ and a- 
bout the Bignefs of an European Damfon. They grow any 
where, if planted from the Stone or Slip \ bear a white 
Bloffom, and are a good Fruit. They are found on the 
Sand-Banks all along the Coaft of America, i have planted 
feveral in my Orchard, that came from the Stone, which 
thrive well araongfl: the reftof my Trees. But they never 
grow to the Bignefs of the other Trees now fpoken of. Thefe 
are plentiful Bearers. 

There is a third fort of Plum about the Bignefs of the 
Damfon. The Tree is taller, ieidom exceeding ten Inches 
in Thicknefs. The Plum feems to tafte phyfically, yet I 
never found any Operation it had, except to make their 
Lips fore, that eat them. The Wood is fomething porous, 
but exceeds any Box, for a beautiful Yellow. 

There is a very pretty, bufhy Tree, about feven or eight 
Foot high, very fpreadiug, which bears a Winter-Fruit, that 
is ripe in O&cber. They call 'em Currants, but they are 
nearer a Hurt. I have eaten very pretty Tarts made there- 
of. They dry them inftead of Currants. This Bum is very 
beautiful. » ■ ■ \ . . 

The Bermudas Currants grow in the Woods on a Bum, 
much like the European Currant. Some People eat them very 
much-, but for my part, I can fee nothing inviting in them, 
and reckon them a very indifferent Ft uit. 

We have another Currant, which grows on the Banks of 
Rivers, or where only Clay hath been thrown up. This 
Fruit is red, and gone almoft as foon as come. They 
are a pretty Fruit whilft they Jail, and the Tree (for 
'tis not a Bufh) they grow upon, is a very pleafant Ve- 

getable. *. 

The Haw-thorn grows plentifully in fome parts of this 
Country. The Haws are quite different from thofe in Eng- 
land, being four times as big, and of a very pleafant agree- 
able Tafte. We make no ufe of this Plant, nor any other, for 
Hedges, becaufe Timber is- fo plentiful' at prefent. In my 
Judgment, the Honey-Locuft would be the fitteft for 
Hedges-, becaufe it is very apt to Ihoot forth many Sprouts 
and Succours from the Roots j befides, it is of a guickGrowth, 
and very prickly- ( > Til€ 

of C A R O L 1 N A. 


The Black Haw grows on a (lender Tree, about the-He §ht £<£ 
of a Quince-Tree, or fomething higher, and bears thablack 
Haw which People eat, and the Birds covet alio. What 
Vertues the Fruit or Wood is of, I cannot refolveyou, at 

PI Tnus have I given an Account of all the Spontaneous 
Fruits of Carolina, that have come to my Knowledge, ex- 
cepting Services, which I have feen in the Indians Hands, ^^/^ 
and eat of them, but never faw, how nor where they grew. 
There may very well be expected a great many more Fruits* 
which are the natural Product of this Country, when 
we confider the Fruitfulnefs of the Soil and Climate, and 
account for the vaft Trad of Land, (great part of which is- 
not vet found out) according to the Produdt of that which is 
already difcover'd, which (as I once hinted before) is not 
as vet arriv'd to our Knowledge, we having very little or 
no Correfpondence amongft the mountainous Parts of this 
Province, and towards the Country of Mejfiajippi, all which; 
we have ftrange Accounts of, and fome very large ones, with 
refped to the different and noble Fruits, and feveral other 
Ornaments and Bleffings of Nature which Mefliafippi poffefles £ 
more to be coveted, than any of thofe we enjoy, to the . 
Eaftward of the Mountains: Yet when I came to difcourfe 
fome of the Idolizers of that Country, I found it to be rather 
Novelty, than Truth and Reality, that induced thofe Per- 
fons to allow it fiich Excellencies above others. It may be a 
brave and fertile Country, as I believe it is - y but I cannot be 
perfuaded , that it can be near fo advantageous as ours, 
which is much better fituated for Trade, being faced all 
along with the Ocean, as the Englifi America is; when the 
other is only a direct River, in the midft of a wild unknown 
Land, greateft part of whofe Product muft be fetch'd, or 
brought a great way, before it can come to a Market. More- 
over, fuch great Rivers commonly allow of more Princes Ter- 
ritories than one-, and thus nothing but War and Contention 
accompanies the Inhabitants thereof. 

. But not to trouble our Readers with any more of this, we 
will proceed, in the next place, to fhew, what Exatkk Fruit* 
we have, that thrive well in Carolina; and what others, 
it may reafonably befappos'-d, would do there, were they 
brought thither and planted* In purfuance of which, I will 


The Natural Hifiory 



Tet down a Catalogue of what Fruits we have; I mean Spe- 
cies : For fliould I pretend to give a regular Name to every 
one ; it's neither poffible for me to do it, nor for any one 
to underftand it, when done ; if weconfider, that the chiefeft 
part of our Fruit came from the Kernel, and fome others 
from the Succours, or Sprouts' of the Tree, Firft, we will 
begin with Apples; which are the 

Golden Rufet. 

, I Summer. 

■Harwy-jippie, I cannot tell, whether the lame as in %tim 
land. s 

Winter Queening. 
Leather Coat. 

The Golden Ruflet thrives well. 

The Pearmains, of both forts, are apt to fpeck, and rot 
on the Trees ; and the Trees are damaged and cut off by 
the Worm, which breeds in the Forks, and other parts 
thereof; and often makes a Circumpofition, by deftroying 
the Bark round the Branches, till it dies. 

Harvey-Apple; that which we call fo, is efteem'd very 
good to make Cider of. 

Winter Queening is a durable Apple, and makes good 
Cider. ' ■ 

Leather-Coat ; both Appleand Tree ftand well. 

The Juniting is early ripe, and foon gone, in thefewarm 

Codlin; no better, and fairer Fruit in. the World; yet 
the Tree fufFers the fame Diftemper, as the Pearmains, or 
rather worfe; the Trees always dying before they come to 
their Growth. 

The Redftreak thrives very well. 

Long-ftalk is a large Apple, with a long Stalk, and makes 
good Summer Cider. 


of C A R O L I N A. 


Webeatthefirft of our Codlin Cider, againft reaping our 
Wheat, which is from the tenth of June, to the five and 

Lady-Finger, the long Apple, the fame as in England, and 
full as good. We have innumerable forts ; fome call'd Rope- 
Apples which are fmall Apples, hanging like Ropes of Oni- 
ons-, Flattings, Grigfons, Cheefe- Apples, and a great num- 
ber of Names, given according to every ones Difcretion. 

The Warden-Pear here proves a good eating Pear; and p<?<£ " ; 
is not fo long ripening as in England. 

Katharine excellent. 


And feveral others without Name, The Bergamot we - 
have not , nor either of the Bonne Chreftiennes, though 
I hear , they are all three in Virginia. Thofe forts Of Pea'rs 
which we have, are as well relifht, as ever I eat any where ; 
but that Fruit is of very fliort Continuance with us, for they 
are gone almoft as foon as ripe. 

I am not a Judge of the different forts of Quinces, which Quinces* 
they call Brunfwick, Portugal, and Barbary -, But as to the 
Fruit, in general, I believe no Place has fairer and better 
relifht. They are very pleafant eaten raw. Of this Fruit, 
they make a Wine , or Liquor, which they call Quince- 
Drink, and which I approve of beyond any Drink which that 
Country affords , though a great deal of Cider and fome 
Perry is there made. The Quince-Drink moft commonly 
purges thofe that firft drink it, and cleanfes the Body very 
well. The Argument of the Phyficians, that they bind Peo- . 
pie, is hereby contradicted, unlefs we allow the Quinces to 
differ in the two Countries. The leaft Slip of this Tree 
ftuck in the Ground, comes to bear in three years. - [ 

All Peaches, with us, are Handing; neither have weanyPe#&». 
Wall-Fruit in Carolina, for we have Heat enough, and there- 
fore do not require it. We have a great many forts. of thia 
Fruit, which all thrive to Admiration, Peach-Trees coming 
to Perfection (with us) as eafiiy as the Weeds. A Peach 
falling on the Ground, brings a Peach-Tree that fliall bear in 
three years, or fometimes fooner. Eating Peaches in our 
Orchards makes them come up fo thick from the Kernel, that 
we are forced to take a great deal of Care, to weed them out; 
otherwife-they make our Land a Wildernefs of Peach-Trees. 

Q, They, 


The Natural Hifiory 


They generally bear fo full, that they break great part of their ' 
Limbs down. We have likewife very fair Ne&arines, efpeciall^ 
the red, that clings to the Stone , the other yellow Fruit, 
that leaves the Stone , of the kit, I have a Tree, that, molt 
Years, brings me fifteen or twenty Bufhels. I fee no Fo- 
reign Fruit like this, for thriving in all forts of Land, and 
bearing its Fruit to Admiration. I want to be fatisfy'd a-, 
bout one fort of this Fruit, which the Indians claim as their 
own, and affirm ? they had it growing amongft them, be- 
fore any Europeans came to America. The Fruit I will de- 
fcribe, as exactly as I can. The Tree grows very large, 
moft commonly as big as a handfome Apple-tree-,the Flowers 
are of a reddifh, murrey Colour-, the Fruit is rather more 
downy, than the yellow Peach, and commonly very large 
and foft, being very full of Juice. They part freely from 
the Stone, and the Stone is much thicker than all the other 
Peach Stones we have, which feems to me, that it is a Sponr 
taneous Fruit of America; yet in. thofe Parts of America, that 
we inhabit, I never could hear that any Peach-Trees were 
ever found growing in the Woods •, neither have the foreign 
Indians, that live remote from theEnglifa any other fort. And 
Xhofe living amongft us have a hundred of this fort' for one 
other •, they are a hardy Fruit , and are feld'om damaged 
by the North-Eaft Blafts, as others are. Of this fort we 
make Vinegar ; wherefore we call them Vinegar-Peaches, 
and fometimes iWi<?»-Peaches. 

This Tree grows to a vaft Bignefs, exceeding moft Apple- 
Trees. Th^y bear well, tho' fometimes an early Spring 
comes on in February, and perhaps, when the Tree' is fully 
blown the Cloudy North-Eaft-Winds which attend the end 
of, that Month, or the beginning of March, deftroy moft 
of the Fruit. The biggeft Apricock-Tree I ever faw, as 
they told me, was grafted on a Peach-Stock,, in the Ground. 
I know of no other fort with us, than the Common, We 
generally raife this Fruit from the Stone,, which never fails 
to bring the fame Fruit. Likewife our Peach-Stones effed 
the fame, without fo much as once miffing, to produce the 
fame fort that the Stone came from.. • 

Damfon, Damazeen, and a large round black Plum are all 

1 have met withal ia Carolim. They thrive well enough $, 

- ' " * , the. 


it i 

the laft to Admiration, and becomes a very large Tree, if 
in ftiff Ground \ otherwife they will not do well. 

Of" Figs we have two forts; One is the low Bufti-Fig,^- 
which bears a large Fruit. If the Winter happens to have 
much Froft, the tops thereof die, and in the Spring 
Iprout again, and bear two or three good Crops. . 

The Tree-Fig is a lefler Fig, though very fweet. The 
Tree grows to a large Body and Shade, and generally brings 
a good Burden *, efpecially, if in light Land. This Tree 
thrives ho where better, than on the Sand-Banks by the Sea. 

We have the common red and black Cherry, which bear Cherries, 
well. I never faw any grafted in this Country, the com- 
mon excepted, which was grafted on an Indian Plum-flock, 
and bore well. This is a good way, becaufe our common 
Cherry-Trees are very apt to pot Scions all round the Tree* 
for a great Diftance, which mult needs be prejudicial to 
the Tree and Fruit. Not only our Cherries are apt to do 
fo, but our Apples and molt other Fruit-Trees, which may 
chiefly be imputed to the Negligence and Unskilfulnefs of 
the Gardener. Our Cherries are ripe a Month fooner than \ 

in Virginia. 

Goosberries I have feen of the fmaller fort, but find they &we*y 
do not do fo well as in England, and to the Northward. 
Want of Drefling may be fome Reafon for this. 

Currants, White, Red, and Black, thrive here, as well Cmam. 
as any where. • 

Rasberries, the red and white, I never faw any Trial **&• 
made of. But there is no doubt of their thriving to Ad- 
miration, fince thole of the Country do fo well. 
• The Mulberries are fpontaneous. We have no others, than Mulberry* 
what I have already mentioned in the Clafs of Natural Fruits 
of Carolina. 

Barberry red, with Stones, and without Stones, grow B*rberrj„ 

Strawberries, not Foreign, but thofe of the Country, *»*»wr- 
grow here in great Plenty. Laft April I planted a Bed of J * 
two hundedFoot in Length, which bore the fame Year. 

Medlars we have none. Medlar. 

All forts of Walnuts from England, France, and Maderas % Wdm$. % 
thrive well from ftie Nut. 

Q "2. No. 






The Natural Hiftory 

No Filberts, but Hazle-Nuts - 7 the Filbert-NufplanteT 
becomes a good Hazle-Nut, and no better. 

As for that noble Vegetable the Vine, withoutdoubt it 
may (m this Country) be improved, and brought to the fame 
Perfection, as it is, at this Day, in the fame Latitude in, 
Europe, fince the chiefefb part of this Country is a deep 
rich, black Mould, which ,is up towards the Freflies and 
Heads of our Rivers, being very rich and mix'd wifh 
Flint, Pebbles, and other Stones. And this.fort of Soil fc 
approv'd of (by all knowing Gardeners and Vigneroons ) as 
a proper Earth, in which the Grape chiefly delights - 
and what feems to give a farther Confirmation hereof is' 
that the largefr. Vines, that were ever difcover'd to grow- 
wild, are found in thofe Parts, oftentimes in" fuch Plenty 
and are fo interwoven with one another, that 'tis impoffible: 
to pafs through them. Moreover, in thefe Freflies, to- 
wards the Hills, the Vines are above five times bigger than 
thofe generally with us, who are feated in the Front-parts 
©f this Country, adjoining to the Salts. Of the wild 
Vines, which are raoft of them great Bearers, feme Wine 
has been made, which I drank of. It was very ftrong and 
well relifht :, but what detains them all from offering at 
great quantities, they add, that this Grape has a large Stone 
and a thick Skin, and confeqaently yields but a fmall Quan- 
tity of Wine. Some Ehays of this Nature have been made 
by that Honourable Knight, Sir Nathanaekjohnfw, in South 
Caroling who, as I am inform'd, has rejected all Exotick 
Vines, and makes his Wine from the natural black Grape- 
©f Carolina, by grafting it upon its own Stock. What Im- 
provement this may arrive to, I cannot tell; but in other 
Species, I own Grafting and Imbudding yields fpeedy Fruit 
tho' I never found that it made them better. 

New planted Colonies are generally attended with a 
Force and Neceffity of Planting the known and approved 
Staple and Produd of the Country, as well as all the Pro- 
*ifio.ns their Families fpend. Therefore .we can en terrain. 
but fmall hopes of the improvement of the Vine, till fome- 
skilful m, dreffing Vines mail appear amongft us, and go, 
gboufc it, with a Refolution, that Ordering the Vineyard 
&al be one haif of their Employment- If this be begua 
m± earned on, with that Affiduit^ and Refolution which it 



requires, then we may reafonably hope to fee this a Wine- 
Country ; for then, when it becomes a general Underta- 
king, every one will be capable to add fomething to the 
common Stock, of that which he has gain'd by his own Ex- 
perience. This way would foon make the Burden light, and 
a great many fhorter and exa&er Curiofities, and real 
Truths would be found out in a fhort time. The trim- 
ming of Vines, as they do in France, that is, to a Stump, 
muft either here be not follow'd, or we are not fenfible of 
the exadt time, when they ought to be thus pruned ^ for 
Experience Jnas taught us, that the Enropean Grape, fuffer'd 
to run and expand itfelf at large, has been found to bear 
as well in America, as it does in Europe \ when, at the 
fame time, the fame fort of Vine trimm'd to a Stump, 
as before fpoken of, has born a poor Crop for one Year 
or two ; and by its fpHling, after-cutting, emaciated, and 
in three or four Years, died. This Experiment, I believe, 
has never fail'd - for I have trimrn d the natural Vine the 
French way, which has been attended, at laft, with the 
fame Fate. Wherefore, it feems moft expedient, to leave 
the Vines more Branches here, than in Europe, or let t hem- 
run up Trees, as fame do, in Lombard}, upon Elms. The 
Mulberries and -Chinkapin are tough, -and trimni'd to what 
you pleafe, therefore fit Supporters of the Vines. Gelding 
and plucking away the Leaves, to haften the .ripening of 
this Fruit, may not be unneceflary, yet we Jee the natu- 
ral wild Grape generally ripens in the Shade. Nature in.- 
this, and many others, may prove a'fure- Guide. The 
Twitting of the Stems to make the Grapes ripe together,, 
lofes no Juice, and may be .beneficial, if done in Seafon. 
A very mgmtions French Gentleman, and another from 
Switzerland^ with whom I frequently converfe, exclaim 
againfr, that ftrid cutting of Vines, the.genex'ally appro- 
ved Method of France and Germany, and fay, that they 
were both out in their Judgment, till of late T Experience 
hasi taught. them >otherwife. Moreover', the French in North 
Carolina, allure me, that if we fhould trim our Apple and o- 
ther Fruit-'Trees, as they do in Europe, we fhould. fpoil 
them. As* for; Apples and -Plums, i have found by Expe- 
rience, what they affirm to be true. The- French, from the- 
Mannakin. Town, oa the Freftes of Jamet Eiver in Virginia^ 


The Natural Hiftory, 

had, for themoft part, removed themfelves to Carolina, to 
live there, before I came away ; and the reft were follow- 
ing, as, their Minifter, (Monfieur Philip de Rixbourg) told 
me, who was at Bath-Town, when I was taking my leave 
of my Friends. He affur'd me, that their Intent was to 
propagate Vines, as far as their prefent Circumftances 
would permit •, provided, they could get any Slips of Vines, 
that would do. At the fame time, I had gotten fome 
Grape-Seed* which was of the Jefuits white Grape from 
Madera. The Seed came up very plentifully, and, I hope, 
will not degenerate, which if it happens not to do, the 
Seed may prove the belt way to raife a Vineyard, as cer- 
tainly it is molt eafy for Tranfportation. Yet I -reckon 
we mould have our Seed from a Country, where the 
Grape arrives to the utmoft Perfection of Ripenefs. Thefe 
French Refugees have had fmall Encouragement in Virginia, 
becaufe, at their firft coming over, they took their Mea- 
fures of Living, from, Europe ; which was all wrong ; for 
the fmall Quantities of ten, fifteen, and twenty Acres to 
a Family did not hold out according to their way of Reckon- 
ing, by Reafon they made very little or no Fodder j and 
the "Winter there being much harder than with us, their 
Cattle fail'd -, chiefly, becaufe the Englijh took up and fur- 
vey'd all the Land round about them •, fo that they were 
hemm'd in on all Hands from providing more Land for them- 
felves or their Children, all which is highly prejudicial in 
America, where the generality are bred up to Planting. 
One of thefe French Men being a Fowling, foot a Fowl in the 
River, upon which his Dog went down the Bank- to bring it 
to his Matter > but the Bank was fo high and fteep, that he 
could not get up again. Thereupon, the French Man went 
down, to help his Dog up, and.breaking the Mould away, 
accidentally, with his Feet, he difcover'd a very rich Goal- 
Mine. This Adventure he gave an Accouut of amdngft the 
Neighbourhood, and prefently one of the Gentlemen of that 
Part furvey'd the Land, and the poor French Man jgot no- 
thing by his Difcovery. The French axe ^goodi Neighbours 
amongft us, and give Examples of Induftry,: which is much 
wanted in this Country. They make good Flax, Hemp, 
Linnen-Cloth and Thread ; which they exchange amongft 
the Neighbourhood for other Commodities, for which they 
hav-e occafion. We 



~T^ have hitherto made no Tryal ot foreign Herbage • but, 
a Sniff i would thrhre well; efpeciaTly, Mf^ and 

I &m t* ajSJJ p fertf afford 800d 

L We f °wraSreat of the Beafts which you U *« 
aaTccountof, as they have been difcoverd.- 

Btffilo, or wild Beef. 




WddCat^ . 






The Beafts of Carolina are the 

Water -Rat: 
Rabbet^ two forts, 
■ Fallow-Deer. 
Squirrel, four forts* 

■ Fox. : ' ' • ■ 

Lion, and.Jachall on m &&& 
Rats, two forts. 
Mice, wo forts, i \>u, t i' 

■*' w r* .-, : 'Motes. 'icm^r _ 

Musk-Rat. Weafel, Dormouft, 

i°V um - Bearmoufe, liW 

on his Back, as the Cattle MM W£ h|schief 

He feldom appears amongft $e j^£ »gg^ for the 
Haunt being in the Land ^ot ^^J^jjj^g kiil'd 
moftpart, * -plain Country y yet i naj & „ ffi } Led 3 

on'the Hilly Fart ^f*^S?S^2^SS they can 7™ ifti 
Qfvaft Mountains f^^^iffi^^!^^?"^: 

^nmp npqr us. 1 have eaten or tneir Meat, uai. wk w Virg.i» 

1 16 

The Natural Hiftory ' 


of their Tranfportation, and make Beds to lie on. They 
fpin the Hair into Garters, Girdles, Safhes, and the like, it 
being long and curled, and often of a chefhut or red "Colour. 
Thefe Monfters are found to weigh (as I am informed by 
a Traveller of Credit) from 1600 to 2400 Weight. 

The Bears here are very common, though not fo large as 
in Groenland, and the more Northern Countries oi'Ruflia. 
The Flefh of this Beafb is very good, and nburifhing, and 
not inferiour to the belt Pork in Tafte. It ftands betwixt 
Beef and Pork, and the young Cubs are a Difh for the great- 
eft Epicure living. I prefer their Flelh before any Beef, 
Veal, Pork, or Mutton ; and they look as well as they eat, 
fheir fat being as white as Snow, and the fweeteft of any 
Creature's in the World. If a Man drink a Quart thereof 
melted, it never, will rife in his Stomach. We prefer it a- 
bove all things, to fry Fifh and other things in. Thofe that 
are Strangers to it, may judge otherwife-, But I who have 
eaten a great deal of Bears Flelh in my Life-time (fince my 
being an Inhabitant in America) do think it equalizes, if not 
excels, any Meat I ever eat in Europe. The Bacon made 
thereof is extraordinary Meat ; but it mult be well faved, 
otherwife it will ruft. This Creature feeds upon all forts of 
wild Fruits. When Herrings run, which is in March, the 
Flefh of fuch of thofe Bears as eat thereof, is nought, all 
thatSeafon, and eats filthily. Neither is it good, when he 
feeds on Gum-berries, as I intimated before* They are 
great Devourers of Acorns, and oftentimes meet the Swine 
in the Woods, which they kill and eat, efpecially when they 
are hungry, and can find no other Food. Now and then they 
get into the Fields of Indian Corn, or Maiz,, where they 
make a fad Havock, fpoiling ten times as much as they eat. 
The Potatos of this Country are fo agreeable to them, that 
they never fail to fweep 'em all clean, if they chance to 
come in their way. They are feemingly a very clumfy Crea- 
ture, yet are very nimble in running up Trees, and 
traversing every Limb thereof. When they come down, they 
run Tail foremoft. At catching of Herrings, they are molt 
expert Fifhers. They lit by the Creek-fides, (which are 
very narrow) where the Fifh run in; and there they take 
them up, as fait as it's poflible they can dip their Paws into 
the Water. There is one thing more to be conjlder'd of 



1 17 

this Creature, which is, that no Man, either Chriftian or /*-■ 
dian, lias ever kill'd a .She-bear with Young. 

It is fuppofed, that the She-Bears, after Conception, hide 
themfelve-s in fome fecret and undifcoverable Place, till 
they bring forth their Young, which, in all Probability, can- 
not belong ; otherwise, the Indians^ who hunt the Woods 
like Dogs, would, at fome time or other, have found them 
out. Bear-Hunting is a great Sport m America, both with 
the Ettglifi and Indian. Some Years ago, there were kill'd 
five hundred Bears, in' two Counties of Virginia, in one 
Winter - and but two She-Bears amongft them all, which 
were not with Young, as I told you of the reft. The Eng- 
lish have a breed of Dogs fit for this fport, about the fize 
of Farmers Curs, and, by Praftice, come to know the Scent 
of a Bear, whiph as foon as they have found, they run 
him, by the Nofe, till they come up with him, and then 
bark and fnap at him," till he trees, when the . Huntfmaa 
moots him out of the Trees, there being, for the moft part, 
two or three with Guns, left the firft mould mifs, or not 
quite kill him. Though they are not naturally voracious, ; 
yet they are very fierce when wounded. The Dogs often 
bring him to a Bay, when wounded, and then the Huntf- 
men make other Shots, perhaps with the Piftols that are 
ftuck in their Girdles. If a Dog is apt to fallen, and run. 
into a Bear," he is not good, for the belt Dog in Europe is 
nothing in their Paws •, but if ever they get liim in their 
Clutches, they blow his Skin from his Fleih, like a Bladder, 
and often kill him ; or if he recovers it, he is never good 
for any thing after; As the Paws of this Creature, are held 
for the beft bit about him, lb is the Head efteem'd the 
worft, and always thrown away, for what reafon I know- 
not. I believe, none ever made Trial thereof, to know how 
it eats. The OiJ of the Bear is very Sovereign for Strains, 
Aches, and old Pains. The fine Fur at the bottom of the 
Belly, is ufed for making Hats, in fome places. The Fur - 
itfelf is fit for feveral Ufes § as for making Muffs, facing 
Caps, &c but the black Cub-skin is preferable to all forts 
of that kind, for Muffs. Its Grain is like Hog-Skin. 

The Panther is of the Cat's kind ; about the height of a VmUr. 

very large Greyhound of a reddiih . Colour, the fame as a 

Lion. He climbs. Trees with the greateft Agility imaginable, 
- — ~ R ■ 

1 1 

The Natural Hifiory 


is very ftrong-limb'd, catching a piece of Meat from any 
Creature he ftrikes at. His Tail is exceeding long ; his 
Eyes look very fierce and lively, are large, and of a grayifti 
Colour ', his Prey is, Swines-flelh, Deer, or any thing he can 
take } no Creature is fo nice and clean, as this, in his Food,, . 
When he has got his Prey, he fills his Belly with the 
Slaughter, and carefully lays up the Remainder, covering it 
very neatly with Leaves, which if any thing touches, he 
never eats any more of it. He purrs as Cats do - 7 if taken 
when Young, is never to be reclaim'd from his wild Na- 
ture. He hollows like a Man in the Woods, when kill'd, 
which is by making him take a Tree, as the leaftCur will 
prefently do; then the Huntfmen fhoot him ; if they do not 
lillhim outright, he is a dangerous Enemy; when wounded, 
efpecially to the Dogs that approach him. This Beaft is 
the greataft Enemy to the Planter, of any Vermine in Carolina. 
His Flefh looks as well as any Shambles-Meat whatfoever - r 
•a great many People eat him, as choice Food \ but I never 
tailed of a Panther, fo cannot commend the' Meat, by my 
own Experience. His Skin is a warm Covering for the /»- 
dians- in Winter, though not efteem'd amongft the choice: 
Furs. This -Skin drefs'd, makes fine' Womens Shooes, of 
Mens Gloves. - - / ~ , 

The Mountain-Cat, fo calfd, becaufe he lives in the 
Mountainous Parts of America. He is a Beaft of Prey, as 
the Panther is, and neareft to him in Bignefi and Nature. 

This Cat is quite different from thofe in Europe ; being 
more nimble and fierce, and larger; his Tail does not exceed 
four Inches. He makes a very odd fort of Cry in the Woods, 
In the Night. He is fpotted as the Leopard is, tho' fomeof 
them are not, (which may happen, when their Furs are out 
of Seafon) he climbs a Tree very dexteroufly, and preys as- 
the Panther does. He is a great Deftroyer of young Swine. I 
Iknew an Ifland, which was pqjfefs'd by -thefe Vermine, un- 
known to the Planter, who put thereon a confiderable Stock 
of Swine ; but never took one back -, for the wild Cats de~ 
i£roy'd them all. He takes moft of his Prey by Surprize, get- 
ting up the Trees, which they pafs by or under, and thence 
leaping, direclly upon them; Thus he takes Deer (which he: 
sannot catch by running}, and fattens his Teeth into their 
Statldsrs aad fiieks tfara They run with him, till they 



falldorfn for want of ftrength, and become a Prey to the 
Enemy. Hares, Birds, and all he meets, that he can con- 
quer, he deftroys. The Fur is approv'd to wear as a Sto- 
macher, for weak and cold Stomachs. They are likewife 
-ufed to line Muffs, and Coats withal, in cold Climates. 

The Wolf of Carolina, is the Dog of the Woods. The« 
Indians had no other Curs, before the Chriftians came a- 
mongft them. They are made domefhck. W T hen wild, 
they are neither fo large, nor fierce, as the European Wolf. 
They are not'Mair-flayers •, neither is any Creature in Caro- 
lina, unlefs wounded. They go in great Droves in the Night, 
to hunt Deer, which they do as well as the belt Pack of 
Hounds. Nay, oneofthefe will hunt down a Deer. They 
are often fo poor, that they, can hardly run. When they 
catch no Prey, they go to a Swamp, and fill their Belly full 
of Mud ; if afterwards they chance to get any thing of Flefh, 
they will difgorge the Mud, and eat the other. When 
they hunt in the Night, that there is a great many together, 
they make the molt hideous "and frightful Noife, that ever - 
'was heard. The Fur makes gopd Muffs. The Skin drefs d 
taa Parchment makes the beft Drum-Heads, and if tanu'd 
makes the beft fort of Shooes for the Summer-Countries. 

Tygers are never met withal in the Settlement \ but are 7^ 
more to the Weftward, and are not numerous on this Side 
the Chain of Mountains. I once faw one, that was larger ■ 
that a Panther,, and feem'd to be a very bold Creature. 
The Indians that hunt in thofe Quarters, fay v they are 
feldom met withal. It feems to differ from the Tyger of 
Afia and Africa. ' . 

Polcatsor Skunks in America, are different from thofe mpohau 
Europe. They are thicker, and of a great many Colours-, 
not all alike, but each differing from another in the parti- 
cular Colour. They fmell like a Fox, but ten times ftronger. 
When a Dog encounters them, they pifs upon him, and he 
will not be fweet again in a Fortnight or more. The /«* 
dians love to eat their Flefh, which has no manner of ill 
Smell, when the Bladder is out. I know no-ufe their 
Furs are put to. They are eafily brought up tame. 

There have been feen fome Otters from the Weftward of otter:* . 
Carolina, which were of a white Colour, a little inclining to 
a yellow. They live on the fame Prey here, as in Europe, 
and are the fame in all other Refpeftsj fo I ftiall lnjift no 

aj" farther 

The Natural Hiftory 

farther on that Creature. Their Furs, if black, artr valu- 

Severs are very numerous in Carolina, their being abun- 
dance of, their Dams in all Parts of thb Country, where -I 
have travel'cu They are the moft induftrious and greatelfc 
Artificers (in building their Dams and Houfes) of any four- 
footed Creatures in the World. Their Food is chiefly the 
Barks of Trees and Shrubs, i)lz.. Saflafras, Afh, Sweet-Gum, 
and feveral others. If you take them young, they become 
very tame and domeftick, but are very mifchievous in. fpoil- 
ing Orchards , by breaking the Trees, and blocking up> 
your Doors in the Night, with the Sticks and Wood, they 
bring thither. If they eat any thing that is fait, it kills; 
them. Their Flefli is a fweet Food ; efpecially, their Tail,. 
which is held very dainty. There Fore-Feet are open, like - 
a Dog's; their Hind-Feet webb'd like a Water-Fowl's. The 
Skins are' good Fu*s for feveral Ufes, which every one knows- . 
The Leather is very thick \ I have known Shooed made 
thereof in Carolina, which lafted well. It mafces the befr 
Hedgers Mittens that can be.ufed. 

Musk Rats frequent frefh Streams and no other ; as the 
Bever does. He has a Cod of Musk, which is valuable* 
as islikewife his Fur. 

The Pojfum is found no where but in America. He is the 
Wonder of all the Land-Animals, being the fize of a Badger, . 
and near that Colour. The Male's Pizzle is placed retro- 
grade y and in time of Coition, they differ from all other 
Animals, turning Tail to Tail, as Dog and Bitch when ty'd* 
The Female, doubtlefs, breeds her Young at her Teats ;for 
I have feen them ftick fall thereto* when they have been no 
bigger than a fmall Rasberry, and feemingly inanimate. Shs 
has a Paunch, or falfe Belly, wherein fhe carries her Young, 
after they are from thofe Teats, till they can fhift fop 
themfelves. Their Food is Roots, Poultry, or wild Fruits.' 
They have no Hair on their Tails, but a, fort of a Scale, of 
hard Cruft, as the Bevers have. If a Cat has nine Lives* 
this Creature furely has nineteen \ for if you break every Bone 
in their Skin, and malh their Skull, leaving them for Dead* 
you may come an hour after, and they will begone quite 
away, or perhaps you meet them creeping away. They are 
^wy.ltupid Creature, utterly .neglecting their Safety. They. 


ofC AR0L1NA. 



¥r\ ^, fa n f anv thin? I have, for Necefllty in 

Z WiuWsf enVAem.^Their Flelh is very white, 
the Wi aerneii, c me out of Con . 

M > Sfirt&e TheytS Trees, as the Raccoons do. 
The'" Fur ha is F n ; S nor ufed, fave that tbc<**» 

fpi The Khrf a'tk'grf/'colour; if taken young, {M 
S^or^S^|^f« ; 

s7t V Wat rVLfmucLn Oyfterl which they love, They 
„^h the Ovfcr when it opens, and nimbly pu .in their 
C and pluck onfthe Eilh. Sometimes the Oytter fonts, 
£d lioUstfo their Paw till the Wconres g«g 
are drown'd, tho' they fwim very well. The way that Mis 
Animal catches Crabs/which he great y admires, ancUhich 
„e plenty ia C«B«, U worthy -f Rema Wh»h 
intends to make a Prey ot the ie t-im,. & 
where Handing on the Land, he lets his Tarl W&^*£ 
Wfli-rr This the Grab takes tor a Bait, ana raiipab ius 
n,ws therein which as foon as the.***™ perceives, he of 
Sudde ^Xings forward, a confutable way, on the 
, a n \ kC the Crab along with him. As foon as the 

Sing The Chief of his other Food is all fortsof w Id 
Fruits ereen Corn, and fuch as the Bear delights in, Thi»- 
Sd helSarenrachofaBignefs. The Fur makes good; 
Hats andSngs. The Skin dtefs'd makes fine Womeaa.. 

Sb Thl'Mmx is an Animal much' like the .j/g^Filliniartt^. 
or PolcM He is long, (lender, and every way foap'd like 


The Natural Hiftory 


from you in the Night, when afleep, as I can tell by Expe- 
rience ; for one Winter, by Misfortune, I ran my VelTel 
a-ground, and went often to the Banks, to lull wild Fowl, 
which we did a great many. One Night, weTiad a mind to 
fleep on the Banks (the Weather being fair) and -wrapt up 
the Geefe which we had kill'd, and not eaten, very care- 
fully, in the" Sail of a Canoe, and folded it feveral Doubles, 
and for their better Security, laid 7 em all Night under my 
Head. In the Morning when I wak'd, a Minx had eaten 
thro' every Fold of the Canoe's Sail, and thro' one of the - 
Geefe, molt part of which was gone. Thefe are likewife 
found high up in the Rivers, in whofe iides they live •, which 
is known by the abundance of Frelh-Water Mufcle-Shells 
(fiich as you have in England) that lie at the Mouth of 
their Holes. This is an Enemy to the Tortois, whofe 
Holes in the Sand, where they hide their Eggs,' the Minx 
finds out, and fcratches up and eats. The Raccoons and 
Crows do the fame. The Minx may be made domeftick,' 
and were it not for his paying a Vifit now and then to the 
Poultry they are the greateft Deftroyers of Rats and Mice, 
that are in the World. Their Skins, if good of that kind, 
are valuable, provided they are kill'd in Seafon. 
Water' The Water-Rat is found here the fame as in England. The 
%#• Water-Snakes are often found to have of thefe Rats in 

their Bellies. 
fmeys. That which the People of Carolina call a Hare, is nothing 
but a Hedge-Coney. They never borough in the Ground, 
but much frequent Marines and Meadow-Land. They hide 
their Young in fome Place feeure from the Difcovery of the 
Buck, as the European Rabbets do, and are of the fame Co- 
lour •, but if you ftart one of them, and purfue her, flie 
takes into a hollow Tree, and there runs up as far as ihe 
can, in which Cafe the Hunter makes a Ere, and fmoaks 
the Tree, which brings her down, and fmothers her. At 
one time of the Year, great Bots or Maggots breed betwixt 
the Skin and the Flefh of thefe Creatures. They eat juft as 
the EngLJh ones do } but I never faw one of them fat. We 
lire the Marines,- and then kill abundance. 
Rabbet The ^ n &^-> or Ettropean Coneys are here found, tho' but 
Ecglilh. in one place that I ever knew of, which was in Trent- 
River, where they borough'd among the Rocks. I cannot 






believefthefe are Natives of the Country, any otherwife than 
that they might come from aboard fome Wreck ; the Sea not 
being far off. " I was told of feveral that were upon Bodies 
lfand by Rowah, which came from that Ship of Bodies - but 
I never faw any. However the Banks are no proper Abode 
of Safety, beeaufe of the many Minxes in thofe Quarters. I 
carried over fome of the tame fort from England to South Caro- 
lina, which bred three times going over, we having a long 
Paflage. I turn'd them loofe in a Plantation, and the young 
ones, and fome of the old ones bred great Maggots in their 
Tefticles. At laft, tha great Gull in September, 1700. brought 
a great deal of Rain, and drown'd them all in their Holes. 
I intend to make a fecond Tryal of them in North Carolina^ 
and doubt not but to fecure them. 

The Elk is a Monlter of the Venifon fort. His Skin is 
nfed almoft in the fame Nature as thejtejfe/b's. Some take 
him for the red Deer of America \ but he is not : For, if 
brought and kept in Company with one of that fort, of the 
contrary Sex, . he will never couple. His Flefh is not fo fweet 
as the leffer Deers. His Horns exceed (in Weight) all Crea- 
tures which the new World affords. They will often refort 
and feed with the Buffelo, delighting in the fame Range as 
they do. 

The Stags of Carolina are lodg'd in the Mountains. They^ 
are not fo large as in Europe, but much larger than any Fal- 
low-Deer. They are always fat, I believe, with fome deli- 
cate Herbage that grows on the Hills •, for we find all Crea- 
tures that graze much fatter and better Meat on the Hills, 
than thofe in the Valleys: I mean towards and near the ~ 
Sea. Some Deer on thefe -Mountains afford the occidental. 
Bewar, not coming from a Goat, as fome report. What fort 
of Beaft affords the oriental Beu>ar, I know not. The Tal- 
low of the Harts make incomparable Candies. Their Horns- 
and Hides are of the fame Value, as others of their kind; 

Fallow-Deer in Carolina, are taller and longer-legg'd, thani^ow. 
in Europe j but neither run To fait,- nor are fo well haunch'd. ^"^ 
Their Singles are much longer, and their Horns ftand for- 
ward, as the others incline backward \ neither do they beam, 
or bear their Antlers, as the Englifb Deer do. Towards the . 
Salts, they are not generally fo fat and good Meat, as on the: 
Hills. I have' known fome kilLU o&- the Salts in January^ 

* til "■'.' tfea-r- 



The Natural Hifiory 

Wox Squirt 


Small gray. 



that have had abundance of-Bots in their Throat, which keep 
them very poor. As the Summer, approaches, thefe Bots 
come out, and turn into the fineft Butterfly imaginable, be- 
ing very large, and having black, white, and yellow Stripes. 
Deer-Skins are one of the belt Commodities Carolina affords, 
to Ihip off for England, provided they be large. , 

Of Squirrels we have four Sorts. The frrft is the Fox- 
Squirrel, fo call'd, becaufe of his large Size, which is the 
Bignefsof a Rabbet of two or three Months old. His Co- 
lour is commonly gray} yet I have feen feveral pied ones, 
and fome reddifh, and black •, his chiefeft Haunts are in the 
Piny Land, where the Almond-Pine grows. There he pro- 
vides his Winter-Store •, they being a Nut that never fails 
of bearing. He may be made tame, and is very good Meat, 
when killed. 

The next fort of Squirrel is much of the Nature of the 
Englifiy only differing in Colour. Their Food is Nuts (of 
all forts the Country affords) and Acorns. They eat well - 7 
and, like the Bear, are never found with youngi 

This Squirrel is gray, as well as the others. He is the 
leaft of the Three. His Food is much the fame with the 
fmall gray Squirrels. He has not Wings, as Birds or Bats 
have, there being a fine thin Skin cover'd with Hair, as the 
reft of the parts are. This is from the Fore-Feet to the 
Hinder-Feet, which is extended and holds fo much Air, as 
buoys him up, from one Tree to another, that are greater 
diftances afundcr, than other Squirrels can reach by jumping 
or fpringing. He is made very tame, is an Enemy to a Corn- 
field, (as all Squirrels are) and eats only the germinating 
Eye of that Grain, which is very fweet. 

Ground Squirrels are fo call'd, becaufe they never delight 
in running upTrees,, and leaping from Tree to Tree. They 
are the fmalleft of all Squirrels. Their Tail is neither fo 
long not bufhy \ but -flattim. They are of a reddifh Co- 
lour, and fcriped down each Side with black Rows, which 
make them very beautifuL They may be kept tame, in a 
little Box with Cotton. They and the Flying-Squirrels 
ield^m fiir out ia Cold Wea .her, being tender Animals. 


of C A R O L I N A. 


The Fox of Carolina is gray, but fmells not as the Foxes in Fox. 
Great-Britain, and elfewhere. They have reddifh Hair about 
their Ears, and are generally very fat-, yet I never fa w any 
one eat them. When hunted, they make a forry Chace, be- 
caufe they run up Trees, when purfued. They are never to 
be made familiar and tame, as the Raccoon is. Their Furs, 
if in Seafon, are ufed for Muffs and other Ornaments. They 
live chiefly on- Birds and Fowls, and fuch fmall Prey. _ 

I have been inform'd by the Indians,-, t that oh a Lake of ii^lni 
Water towards the Head of Neus River, there haunts afakaii. 
Creature, which frightens them all from Hunting there- 
abouts. They fay, he is the Colour of a Panther, but cannbt 
run up Trees-, and that there abides with him a Creature 
like an Endifhman\ Dog, which runs falter than he can, and 
gets his ptey for him. They add, that there is no other 
of that Kind that ever they met withal ; and that they have 
no other way to avoid him, but by running up a Tree. The 
Certainty of this I cannot affirm by my own Knowledge, 
yet they all agree in this Story. As for Lions, I never faw 
any in America ; neither can I imagine, how they fhould 
come there. 

Of Rats we have two forts •, the Houfe-Rat, as in Europe ;^j. 
and the Marfh-Rat, which differs very much from the other, 
being morefrairy, and has feveral other Diftin&ions, too long 
here to name. 

Mice are the fame here, as thofe in England, that belong ^ve. 
to the Houfe. There is one fort that poifons a Cat, as foon 
as fhe eats of them, which has fometimes happen'd. Thefe 
Mice refort not to Houfes. 

TheDormoufe is the fame, as in England; andfois the Domoufe. 
Weafel, which is very fcarce. 

The Bat or Rearmoufe, the fame as in England. The p earmu fg, 
Indian Children are much addicted to eat Dirt, and fo are , 
fome of the Chriftians. But roafl a Bat on a Skewer, then 
pull the Skin off, and make the Child that eats Dirt, eat 
the roafl ed Rearmoufe; and he will never eat Dirt again. 
This is held as an infallible Remedy. I have put this a- 
mongft the Beafts^ as partaking of both Natures \ of the 
Bird, and Moufe-Kind. 

Having mention'd all the forts of terreftrial or Land- Ani- 
mals, which Carolina affords and are yet known to us, except 

S the 



The Natural Htftory 

the Tame and Domeftick Creatures (of whichlfhall givean 
Account hereafter, when I come to treat of the Ways and 
Manners of Agriculture in that Province J I mall now pro- 
ceed to the known Infeits of that Place. Not that I pretend 
to give an ample Account of the whole Tribe, which is too 
numerous, and contains too great a Diverfity of Species, 
many not yet difcovered, and others that have flipt my Me- 
mory at prefent-, But thofe which lean remember, I here 
prefent my Readers withal. 

Infe&S of Carolina. 

Ground Rattle-Snakes. 
Water-Snakes, four forts. 
Swamp Snakes three forts. 
Red-be/lied Land-Snakes. 
Red-backed Snake. 
Black Truncheon Snake* 
Green Lizard. 
Frogs, many forts. 


Long black Snake. 


Green Snake. 

Corn Snake. 

Vipers black and gray. 


Terebin Land and Water, 


£gg, °r Chicken-Snake* 

Mel-Snake, or great Loach. 

Brown Lizard. 

Rotten-wood Worm, &c. 

The Allegator is the fame, as the Crocodile, and differs 
only in Name. They frequent the fides of Rivers, in the 
Banks of which they make their Dwellings a great way un- 
der Ground •, the Hole or Mouth of their Dens lying com- 
monly two Foot under Water, after which it rifes till it be 
confiderably above the Surface thereof. Here it is, that this 
amphibious Monfter dwells all the Winter, fleeping away 
his time till the Spring appears, when he comes from his 
Cave, and daily fwims up and down the Streams. He al- 
ways breeds in fome frefh Stream, or clear Fountain of Wa- 
ter, yet feeks his Prey in the broad Salt Waters, that are 
brackifh, not on the Sea-fide, where I never met with any. 
He never devours Men in Carolina, butufes all ways to a= 
void them, yet he kills Swine and Dogs, the former as they 
come to feed in the Marines, the others as they fwim over 
she Cresks and Waters. They are very miichievous to the 




Wares made for taking Fifh, into Which they come to prey 
on the Fifh that arecaughtin the Ware, from whence they 
cannot readily extricate themfelves, and fo break the Ware in 
Pieces, being a very ftrong Creature. This Animal, ia 
thefe Parts, fometimes exceeds feventeen Foot long. It is 
impoffibleto kill them with a Gun, unlefsyOu chance to hie 
them about the Eyes, which is a much fofter Place, than the 
reft of their impenetrable Armour. They roar, and make 
a hideous Noife againft bad Weather, and before they come 
out of their Dens in the Spring. I was pretty muchfright- 
ned with one of thefe once; which happened thus: I had. 
built a Houfe about half a Mile from an Indian Town, on 
the Fork of iVezw-River , where I dwelt by my felf, ex- 
cepting a young Indian Fellow, and a Bull-Dog, that I had 
along with me. I had not then been fo long a Sojourner in 
America^ as to be throughly acquainted with this Creature. 
One of them had got his Neft direttly under my Houfe, 
which ftood on pretty high Land, and by a Creek-fide, in 
whofe Banks his Entring-place was, his Den reaching the 
Ground directly on which my Houfe ftood. I was fitting a- 
lone by the Fire-fide (about nine a Clock at Night, fome time 
in March) the Indian Fellow being gone to the Town, 
to fee his Relations ; fo that there was no body in the Houfe 
but my felf and my Dog ; when, all of a fudden, this ill-fa- 
vour'd Neighbour of mine, fet up fuch a Roaring, that he 
made the Houfe fhake about my Ears, and fo continued, like 
a Bittern, (but a hundred times louder, if poffible) for four 
or five times. The Dog ftared, as if he was frightned out 
of his Senfes } nor indeed, could I imagine what it was, ha- 
ving never heard one of them before. Immediately again I 
had another Leflbn ; and fo a third. Being at that time a- 
mongft none but Savages, I began to fufped, they were 
working fome Piece of Conjuration under my Houfe, to get 
away my Goods-, not but that, at another time, I have as 
little Faith in their, or any others working Miracles, by dia- 
bolical Means, as any Perfon living. At laft, my Man came 
in, to whom when I had told the Story, he laugh'd at me, 
and prefently undeceiv'd me, by telling me what it was that 
made that Noife. Thefe Allegators lay Eggs, as the Ducks 
do j only they are longer fhap'd, larger, and a thicker Shell, 
than they have. How long they are in hatching, I cannot 

S 2 tell. 


The Natural Hiftory 


tell^ but, as the Indians fay, it Is molt part of the Summer 
they always lay by a Spring-Side, the young living in and a- 
bout the fame, as foon ashatch'd. Their Eggs are laid in 
Neils made in the Marines, and contain twenty or thirty 
Eggs. Some of thefe Creatures afford a great deal of Musk. 
Their Tail, when cut of, looks very fair and white, feemingly- 
like the belt of Veal. Some People have eaten thereof and 
fay, it is delicate Meat, when they happen not to be musky,. 
Their Fleih is accounted proper for fuch as are troubled with 
the lame Diftemper, (a fort of Rhumatifm) fo is the Fat very 
prevailing to remove Aches and Pains, by Unclion. The 
Teeth of this Creature, when dead, are taken out to make 
Chargers for Guns/ being of feveral Sizes, fit for all- 
Loads. They are white, and would make pretty Snuff Boxes 
if wrought by an Artifr. After the Tail of the Aliegator is 
feparated from the Body, it will move very freely for four 
days-. ' 

The Rattle-Snakes are found on alt the Main of America, 
that 1 ever had any Account of} being fo calfd from the 
Rattle at the end of their Tails, which is a Connexion of 
jointed Coverings, of an excrCmentitious Matter, betwixt 
die Subitance of a Nail, and- a Horn, though each Teg-men is 
very thin. Nature feems to have defign'd thefe, on pur- 
pofe to give Warning of fuch an approaching Danger, as 
the venomous Bite of thefe Snakes is. Some of them grow 
fco a very great Bignefs, as fix Foot in Length, their Middle 
being the Thicknefs of the Small of a lufty Man's Leg. We 
have an Account of much larger Serpents of this Kind } but I 
never met them yet, although I have ften and kill'd abun- 
dance in my time. They are of an Orange, tawny, and 
blackifll Colour, on the Back} differing (as all Snakes do) 
in Colour, on the Belly} being of an Afh-Colour, inclining 
to Lead.. The Male is eafily diftinguifh'd from the Female 
oy a black Velvet-Spot on his Head } and befides, his Head 
is fmaller fhaped, and long. Their Bite is venomous, if not 
fpeedily remedied} efpecially, if the Wound be in a Vein 
Nerve, Tendon,, or Sinew} when it is- very difficult to cure. 
The Indians are the heft Phyficians for the Bite of thefe and 
all other venomous Creatures, of this Country. There are 
four forts of Snake-Roots already difcovet'd, which Know- 
ledge came from: the Indians ,w.ho have performed feveral great 


of C A R Q L 1 N A. 


Cares The Rattle-Snakes are accounted the peaceableft 
in the' World-, for they never attack any one, or injure 
them, unlefs they are trod upon, or molefted. icTfae : molt 
Danger of being bit by thefe Snakes, is for thofe that furvey 
Land in Carolina, yet I never heard of any Surveyor that 
was kill'd, or hurt by them. I have ^f*™ ™*?* 
ral of this Sort, and others ; yet it pleafed God, I never 
came to any harm. They have the Power, or Art (I know 
not which to call it) to charm Squirrels, Hares, Partridges, 
or any fuch thing, in fuch a manner, that they run direftly 
into their Mouths. This I have feen by a Squirrel and one of 
thefe Rattle-Snakes •, and other Snakes have, in fome meafure, 
the fame Power, The Rattte-Snakes have many fmall Teeth, 
of which I cannot fee they make any ufe; for they fwallow 
everything wholes but the Teeth which poifon, are only 
four- two on each fide of their Upper-jaws. Thefeare bent- 
like isickle, and hang loofe as if by a Joint. 1 o wards the 
fetting on of thefe, there is, in each Tooth, a little Hcue, 
wherein you may j aft get in the Point of a fmall Needle* 
And here it is, that the Poifon comes out, (which is- as 
green as Grafs) and follows the Wound, made by the Point ■ 
of their Teeth. They are much more venomous in the 
Months of June and July, than they are hi March, Afrtl or 
September. "The hotter the Weather, the more poifonou* 
Neither may we fuppofe, that they can renew their Poifon 

as oft as they will S f° r we have had a Perfon blt b > ? one ot 
thefe who never rightly recover'd it, and very hardly 
efcaped with Life-, a fecond Perfon bit in the fame Place 
bv the fame Snake, and received no more Harm, that it bit- 
ten with a Rat. They call their Skins every Year, and com- 
monly abide near the Place where the old Skin lies. Thefe 
caftSkinsareufedinPhyfick, and the Rattles are reckoned 
good to expedite the Birth. The Gall is made up into Pills,- 
with Clay, and kept for Ufej being given in-Peltilential 
Fevers and the Small-Pox. It is accounted a noble Remedy, . 
known to few, and held as a great Arcanum, Tins Snake 
has two Noftrils on each fide of his Nofe. Their Venom, I 
have Reafon to believe, effefts no Harm^ any otherwife man- 
when darted into the Wound by the Serpents Teetjn _ 

The Ground Rattle-Snake, wrong namU becaufe &«J& S< ™* 
nothing like Rattles. It refembles the Rattle-Snake a little Sml 

I go 

The Natural Hiftory 





in Colour, but is darker, and never grows to any conflderable 
Bignefs, not exceeding a Foot, or fixteen Inches. He is 
reckon'd amongft the worft of Snakes ; and ftays out the 
longeft of any Snake I know, before he returns rin the 
Fall of the Leaf) to his Hole. , v 

Of the Horn-Snakes I never faw but two, that I remember 
They are like the Rattle-Snake in Colour, but rather lighter! 
They hifs exa&ly like a Goofe, when any thing approaches 
them. They ftrike at their Enemy with their Tail, and kill 
whatfoever they wound with it, which is arm'd at the End 
with a horny Subftance, like a Cock's Spur. This is their 
Weapon. I have heard it credibly reported, by thofe who 
faid they were Eye-Witneffes, that a fmall Locuft-Tree 
about theThicknefs of a Man's Arm, being tfruck by one of 
thefe Snakes, at Ten a Clock in the Morning, then verdant 
and flourifhing, at four in the Afternoon was dead, and the 
Leaves red and wither'd. Doubtlefs, be it how it will they 
are very venomous. I think, the Indians do not pretend to 
cure their Wound. 

Of Water-Snakes there are four forts. Thefirft is of the 
Horn-Snakes Colour, though lefs. The next is a very long 
Snake, differing in Colour, and will make nothing to fwim 
over a River a League wide. They hang upon Birches and 
other Trees by the Water-Side. I had the Fortune once 
to have one of them leap into my Boat, as I was going up 
a narrow River ; the Boat was full of Mats, which I was glad 
to take out, to get rid of him. They are reckon'd poifo- 
nous. A third is much of an Englijh Adder's Colour, but 
always frequents the Salts, and lies under the Drift'sea- 
weed, where they are in abundance, and are accounted mif- 
chievous, when they bite. The lalt is of a footy black Co- 
lour, and frequents Ponds and Ditches. What his Qualities 
are, I cannot tell. 

Of the Swamp-Snakes there are three forts, which are 
very near akin to the Water-Snakes, and may be rank'd 
amongft them. 

The Belly of the firft is of a Carnation or Pink Colour •- 
his Back a dirty brown ; they are large, but have not much 
Venom in them, as ever I learnt. The next is a large Snake 
of a brown. Dirt Colour, and always abides in. the Mar/hes. 




The laft is mottled, and very poifonous. They dwell in 
Swamps Sides, and Ponds, and have prodigious wide Mouths, 
and (though not long) arrive to the Thicknefs of the Calf 
of a Man's Leg. 

Thefe frequent the Land altogether, and are fo ca\Yd,xed-Mj 
becaufe of their red Bellies, which incline to an Ora'ngef Lani- 
Colour. Some have been bitten with thefe fort of Snakes, Snakes - 
and not hurt} when others have fuffer'd very much by them. 
Whether there be two forts of thefe Snakes, which we 
make no Difference of, I cannot at prefent determine. 

I never faw but one of thefe, which I ftept over, and %ed-Bart 
did not fee him ; till he that brought the Chain after me^nakes. 
fpy'd him. He has a red Back, as the laft has a red Belly. 
They are a long, flender Snake, and very rare to be met 
withal. I enquired of the Jnd.ia.rt that was along with me, 
whether they were very venomous , who made Anfwer, 
that if he had bitten me, even the Indians could not have 
cured it. 

This fort of Snake might very well have been rank'd ftim&ack 
the Water-Snakes. They lie under Roots of Trees, and on? rm ™ em ° 
the Banks of Rivers. When any thing difturbs them, they m s ' 
dart into the Water (which is Salt) like an Arrow out of a 
Bow. They are thick, and the fhorteft Snake I ever faw. 
What Good, or Harm, there is in them, I know not. Some 
of thefe Water-Snakes will fwallow a black Land-Snake, half 
as long again as themfelves. 

The Scorpion Lizard, is no more like a Scorpion, than a scorpion 
Hedge-Hog-, but they very commonly call him a Scorpion. Li\ari» 
He-is of the Lizard Kind, but much bigger:, his Back is of a 
dark Copper- Colour ; his Belly an Orange j he is very nimble 
in running up Trees, or on the Land, and is accounted very 
poifonous. He has the moft Sets of Teeth in his Mouth and 
Throat, that ever I faw. 

Green Lizards are very harmlefs and beautiful, having a Green 
. little Bladder under their Throat, which they fill with Wind,L/^n£> 
and evacuate the fame at Pleafure. They are of a moft glo- 
rious Green, and very tame. * They refort to the Wails of 
Houfes in the Summer Seafon, and ftand- gazing on a Man, 
without any Concern otFear. There are feveral other Go- 
lours, of thefe Lizards \ but none fo beautiful as the green 

ones are. _ . 

J Off 

The i Natural Hlftory 



Of Frogs we have 'feveral forts :, the molt famous is the 
Bull-Frog, fo call'd, becaufe he lows exadHy like that Beaft, 
which makes Strangers wonder (when by the fide of a Marfh) 
what's the matter, for they hear the Frogs low, and can fee no 
Cattle j he is very large. I believe, I have feen one with 
as much Meat on him, as a Pullet, if he had been drefs'cT. 
The fmall green Frogs get upon Trees, <and make a Noife. 
There are feveral other colour'd fmall Frogs \ but the Com- 
mon Land-Frog is likeft a Toad, only he leaps, and is not 
poifonous. He is a great Devourer of Ants, and the Snakes 
devour him. Thefe Frogs baked and beat to Powder, and 
taken with Orrice-Root cures a Tympany. 
long Mack The long,' black Snake frequents the Land altogether, and 
is the nimbleft Creature living. His Bite has no more Ve- 
nom, than a Prick with a Pin. /; He is the belt Moufer that 
can be j for he leaves not one of that Vermine alive, where 
he comes. ' He alfo kills the Rattle-Snake, wherefoever he 
meets him , by twilling his Head about the Neck of the 
Rattle-Snake, and whipping him to Death with his Tail. 
This Whipfter haunts the Dairies of carelefs Houfewives, and 
never mifles to skim the Milk clear of the Cream. He is art 
excellent Egg-Merchant, for he does not fuck the Eggs, but 
fwallows them whole (as all Snakes do.) He will often fwal- 
low all the Eggs from under a Hen that fits, and coil himfelf 
under the Hen, in the Neil, where fometimes the Houfe- 
wife finds him. This Snake, for all his Agility, is fo brittle 
that when he is purfued, and gets his Head into the Hole of 
a Tree, if any body gets hold of the other end, he will 
twill, and break himfelf off in the middle. One of thefe 
Snakes, whofe Neck is no thicker that a Woman's little 
Finger, will fwallow a Squirrel j fo much does that part 
ftretch, in all thefe Creatures. 

The King-Snake4s thelongefl of all others, and not com- 
mon-, no Snake (they fay) will meddle with them. I think 
they are not accounted very venomous. The Indians make 
Girdles and Safhes of their Skins. 

Green- Snakes are very fmall, tho' pretty (if any Beauty 
be allow d to Snakes.) Every one makes himfelf very fami- 
liar with them, and puts them in their Bofom, becaufe there 
is no manner of Harm in them. 




of C A R O L I N A. 

The Corn-Snakes are but fmall ones \ they are of a brown Cow- 
Colour, mixed with tawny. There is no more hurt in this,-^'-'- 
than in the green Snake. -^ 

Ofthofe we call Vipers, there are two forts. People call Vipers. 
thefe Vipers, becaufe they fpread a very flat. Head at /any 
time when they are vex'd. One of thefe is a grayffh like the 
Italian Viper, the other black and fhortj and is ' reckon'd a- 
mongfl: the worft of Snakes, for Venom. 

Tortois, vulgarly calfd Turtle-, 1 have fank'd thefe fcfortm. 
mong the Infeds, becaufe they lay Eggs, and I did. not know 
well where to put them. Among us there are three forts. 
The firft is the green Turtle, which is not common, but is 
fometimes found on our Coaft, The next is the Hawks-bill, 
which is common. Thefe two forts are extraordinary Meat. 
The third is Logger-Head, which Kind fcarce any one covets, 
except it be for the Eggs, which of this and all other Turtles, 
are very good Food. None of thefe forts of Creatures Eggs 
will ever admit the White to be harder than a Jelly ; yet the 
Yolk, with boiling, becomes as hard as any other Egg. 

Of Terebins there are divers forts, all which, to be brief, Terebin. 
we will comprehend under the Diftin&ion of Land and Wa- 

The Land-Terebin is of feveral Sizes, but generally Round- Lani-iert-- 
Mouth'd, and not Hawks-Bill'd, as fome are. The Indians hm ' 
eat them. Molt of them are good Meat, except the very 
large ones ; and they are good Food too, provided they are 
not Musky. They are an utter Enemy to the Rattle-Snake, 
for when the Terebin meets him, he catches hold of him a 
little below his Neck, and draws his Head into his Shell, 
which makes the Snake beat his Tail, and twilt about with 
all the Strength and Violence imaginable, to get away-, 
but the Terebin foon difpatches him, and there leaves him. 
Thefe they call in Europe the Land Tortois ■■, their Food is 
Snails , Tad-pools, or young Frogs, Mulhrooms, and the 
Dew and Slime of the Earth and Ponds. 

Water Terebins are fmall ; containing about as much Meat Wctef-ie* 
as a Pullet 1 , and are extraordinary Food-, efpecially, m r ^ in - 
May and June. When they lay, their Eggs are very good ; 
but they have fo many Enemies that find them out, that the 
hundredth part -never comes to Perfection. The Sun and 

T Sand 

,. Si" I 
I:f: ! ( 

l ?4 

The Natural Hiftory 


Sand hatch them, which come oat the Bignefs of a fmall 

Chefnut, and feek their own Living. 

Brimftcne- We now come again to the Saakes. The Brimftone is fa 

Snake. cali'd, I believe, becaufe it is almoft of a Brimftone Golour. 

They might as well have cali'd it a Glafs-Snake, for it is as 

brittle as a Tobacco-Pipe, fo that if you give it the leaft 

Touch of a fmall Twigg, it immediately breaks into feveral 

Pieces. Some affirm, that if you let it remain where you broke 

it, it will come together again. What Harm there is in this 

brittle Ware, I cannot tell ; but I never knew any body hurt 

by them. 

Chicken- The Egg or Chicken-Snake is fo cali'd, becaufe it is fre- 

Snale. quent about the Hen-Yard, and eats Eggs and Chickens, 

they are of a dusky Soot Colour, and will roll themfelves 

round, and flick eighteen, or twenty Foot high, by the fide 

of a fmooth-bark'd Pine, where there manner of Hold, 

and there fun themfelves, and fleep all the Sunny Part of the 

Day. There is no great matter of Poifon in them. 

Wood- The Wood- Worms are of a Copper, mining-Colour, fcarce 

Worm, fo thick as your little Finger } are often found in Rotten-*- 

Trees. They are accounted venomous, in cafe they bite, 

though I never knew any thing hurt by them. They never 

exceed four or five Inches in length. 

The Reptiles, or fmall er hfetls, are too numerous to re- 
late here, this Country affording innumerable Quantities 
thereof; as the Flying-Stags with Horns, Beetles, Butter- 
flies, Grafhoppers, Locuft, and feveral hundreds of uncouth 
Shapes, which in the Summer-Seafon are difcovered here in 
Carolina^ the Defcription of which requires a large Volume, 
which is not my Intent at prefent. Befides, what the Moun- 
tainous Part of this Land may hereafter lay open to our 
View, Time and Induftry will difcover, for we that have fet- 
tled but aTmall Share of this large Province, cannot imagine, 
but there will be a great number of Difcoveries made by 
thofe that fhall come hereafter into the Back-part of this 
Land, and make Euquiries therein, when, at leaft, we con- 
fider that the Weflward of Carolina is quite different in Soil, 
Air, Weather, Growth of Vegetables, and feveral Animals 
too, which we at prefent are wholly Strangers to, and to 
feek for. As to a right Knowledge thereof, I fay, when an- 
other Age is come, the Ingenious then in being may ftand 




upon the Shonlders of thofe that went before them, adding 
their own Experiments to what was delivered down to them 
by their Predeceflbrs, and then there will be fomething to- 
wards a complete Natural Hiftory, which (in thefe days> 
would be no eafie Undertaking to any Author that writes 
truly and conipendioufly, as he ought to do. It is fufficient 
at prefent, to write an honeft and fair Account of any of 
• the Settlements, in this, new World, without wandring out 
of the Path of Truth, or befpattering any Man's Reputation 
any wife concern'd in the Government of the Colony y he 
that mixes Inve&ives with Relations of this Nature ren- 
dering himfelf fufpecled of Partiality in whatever he writes. 
For my part, I wifh all well, and he that has received any 
fevere Dealings from the Magiftrate or his Superiours, had 
beft examine himfelf well, if he was not firft in the Fault ; 
if fo, then he can juftly blame none but himfelf for what has 
happen'd to him. 

Having thus gone thro' the hfi&s, as in the Table, ex- 
cept the Eel-Snake, (fo call'd, though very improperly, be- 
caufe he is nothing but a Loach, that fucks, and cannot 
bite, as the Snakes do.) He is very large, commonly fixteen 
Inches, or a Foot and half long \ having all the Properties 
that other Loaches have, and dwells in Pools and Waters, as 
they do. Notwithftanding, we have the fame Loach as vou 
have, in Bignefs. 

This is all that at prefent I ihall mention, touching the jfe- 
fim, and fo go on to give an Account of the Fowls and Birds, 
that are properly found in Caroling which are thefe. 

Birds of Carolina. 

Eagle bald. 

Eagle gray. 

Fijhing Hawk. 

Turkey Buzzard, or Vulture, 

Hernng-taiPd Hawk. 









Black Birds, two forts. 

Buntings two forts, 






T % 

Birds in 
more beau; 
tiful than 
in Eu- 


Natural Hiftory 

Red Bird. 

Eafl- India Bat. 

Martins, two forts.. 

Diveling, or Swift. 


Humming Bird. 

The Tom-Tit, or Ox-Eye. 

Owls, two forts. 

Switch Owl. 

Baltimore bird. 

Throflle, no Singer. , 

Whippeo Will. - 

Reed Sparrow.. 

Weet bird. 

Rice bird. 

Cranes and Storks, 



Water Fowl are, 

Swans, called Trompeters* 

Swans, called Hoopers, 

Gtefe, three forts. 

Brant gray. 

Brant white. 

Sea-pies or pied- CwlneSc 


Great Gray Gulls. 

Old Wives, 

Sea Cock. 

Car lues, three fort?,* 


Kings- fijher. 

Loons, two forts. 

Bitterns, three forts* 

Hern gray. 

Hern white. 

Water TheafanU 

Little gray Gull. 

Link Fijher-, or D*ft&* 

Duels, as in England. 

Ducks black, all Summer. 

Ducks pied, build on Trees. 

Ducks whifiling, at Sapona^ 

Ducks fcarlet-eye at Efaw. 



Teal, two forts. 



Black FluftererS) or bald Cwt. 

Turkeys wild*. 

Fijher men. 


Raft Fowl. 







J 37 


Swaddle- bills. 



Bald Faces. 

Water Witeb^ or Ware 'Coot. 



Great bla k pied Gull. 


Blue Peter s. 


Runners. \ 

As the Eagle is reekon'd the King of Birds I have begun BM-2& 
With him. The firft I fhall fpeak of, is the bald Eagle ] fogfc. 
call'd, becaufe his Head, to the middle of his Neck, and his 
Tail, is as white as Snow. Thefe Birds continually breed 
the Year round y for when the young Eagles are juft down'd^ 
with a fort of white woolly Feathers,- the Hen-Eagle lays 
again, which Eggs are hatch'd by the Warmth of the young 
ones in the Neft, fo that the Flight of one Brood makes 
Room for the next, that are but juft hatch'd. They prey 
on. any living thing they can catch. They are heavy of Flight,, 
and cannot get their Food by Swiftnefs, to help which there 
ia-a Fifhawk that catches Fiftes, and fuffers the Eagle to take 
them from her , although fhe is long-wing'd and a fwifc 
Flyer, andean make far better way in her Flight than the; 
'Eagle can. Thebald Eagle attends the Gunners in Winter, 
with all the Qbfequioufnefs imaginable, and when he moots 
and kills any Fowl, the Eagle furely comes in for his Bird; 
and befides, thofe that are wounded,, and efcape the Fowler, 
fall to the Eagle's fhare. He is an excellent Artift at ilealing . 
young Pigs, which Prey he carries alive to his ISJeli, at which 
time the poor Pig makes fuch a Noife over Head, that Stran- 
gers that have heard them cry, and not feen the Bird and his 
Prey, have thought there were Flying S<5ws and Pigs in that 
Country. The Eagle's Nejt. is made of Twigs, Sticks and 
Rubbifh. It is big enough to fill a handfome Carts Bod y^, 
and commonly fo full of nafty Bones and CarcafTes that it 
ftinks moft ofFenfively. This Eagle is not bald, till heis one 
OK two years old. 

The gray Eagle is altogether the fame fort of Bird, as the Gny.£c> 
Eagle in Europe \ therefore, we fhall. treat no farther of£^- 

The Fiihing-Hawk is the Eagle's jackal* which- rnofi: com- sQT 
monly (though not always) takes his Prey for him. He is a m " 


The Natural Hiftory. 




large Bird, being above two thirds as big as the Eagle. He 
builds his Neil as the. Eagles do; that is, in a dead Gypr els- 
Tree, either (landing in, or hard by, the. Water. The Ea- 
gle and this Bird feldom lit on a living Tree. He is of a gray 
pied Colour , and the mofb dexterous Fowl in Nature at 
Catching of Fifh, which he wholly lives on, never eating 
any Flefh. 

The Turkey-Buzzard of Carolina is a fmall Vulture, which 
lives on any dead Carcafles.. They are about the Bignefs of 
the Fifhing-Hawk, and have a nafty Smell with them. They 
are of the Kites Colour, and are reported to be an Enemy to 
Snakes, by killing all they meet withal of that Kind. 

The Herring, or Swallow-taiPd Hawk, is about the Big- 
nefs of a Falcon, but a much longer Bird. He is of a deli- 
cate Aurora- Colour ; the Pinions of his Wings, and End of 
his Tail are black. He is a very beautiful Fowl, and never 
appears abroad but in the Summer. His Prey is chiefly on 
Snakes, and will kill the biggeft we have, with a great deal 
of Dexterity and Eafe. 

Gofhawks are very plentiful in Carolina. They are not 
feemingly fo large as thofe from Mufcovy \ but appear to be 
a very brisk Bird. 

The Falcon is much the fame as in Europe, and promifes 
to be a brave Bird, tho' I never had any of them in my Hand; 
neither did I ever fee any of them in any other Pofture than . 
on the Wing, which always happen'd to be in an Evening, 
and flying to the Weftward •, therefore, I believe, they have 
their Abode and Neft among the Mountains, where we may 
expect to find them, and feveral other Species that we are at 
prefent Strangers to. 

The Merlin is a fmall Bird in Europe, but much fmaller 
here; yet he very nimbly kills the fmaller forts of Birds, and 
fometimes the Partridge ; if caught alive, he would be a great 
Rarity, becaufeof his Beauty and Smalnefs. 
- The Sparrow-Haw k in Carolina is no bigger than a Field- 
fare in England. He flies at the Bulb, and fometimes kills a 
fmall Bird , but his chiefeft Food is P.eptiles, as Beetles, 
Grafhoppers, , and fuch fmall things. He is exactly of the 
fame Colour, as the Sparrow-Hawk in England, only has a 
blackilh Hood by his Eyes. 



of C A R O L 1 N A. 

,: ?9 

Hobbies are the fame here as in England, and are not often Hobby. 
unec withal. 

The Ring-tail is a fhort- winged Hawk, preying on Mice, Ringtail. 
,and fuch Vermine in the Mji fhes, as in England. 

Ravens, the fame as in England, though very few. J have ^w^*. 
not feen above fix in eight Years time. 

Crows are here lefs than in England. They are as good Crow. 
Meat as a Pigeon \ and never feed on any Carrion. They 
are great Enemies to the Corn-Fields^ and cry and build 
-almoft like Rooks. 

Of thefe we have two forts, which are the worft Vermine BUcU 
in America. They fly fometimes in fuch Flocks, that they Sirds. 
deftroy every thing before them. They (both forts; build 
in hollow Trees, as Starlings do. The firft fort is near as 
big as a Dove, and is very white and delicate Food. The 
other fort is very beautiful, and about the Bignefs of the 
Owfel. Part of their Head, next to the Bill, and the Pini-' 
ons of their Wings, are of an Orange, and glorious Crimfon 
Colour. They are as good Meat as the former, tho' very 
few here (where large Fowl are fb plenty) ever trouble 
themfelves to kill or drefs them. 

' Of the Bunting-Larks we have two forts, though the Heel B/i f/ g 
of this Bird is not fb long as in Europe. The firft of thefe ° r ** 
often accompany the Black-birds, and fing as the Bunting- 
Larks in England do, differing very little. The firft fort 
has an Orange-Colour on the Tops of their Wings, and are 
as-good Meat as thofe in Europe. The other fort is fomething 
lefs, of a lighter Colour -, nothing differing therein from 
thofe in England, as to Feathers, Bignefs, and Meat. 

The Pheafant of Carolina differs fome fmall matter f V om pka f m * 
the Englijh Pheafant, being not fo big, and having fome dif- 
ference in Feather ; yet he is not any wife inferiour in Deli- 
cacy, but is as good Meat, or rather finer. He haunts the 
back Woods, and is feidom found near the Inhabitants. 

The Woodcocks live and breed here, though they are not^oico;^ 
in great plenty , as I have feen t.hem in fome Parts of 
England, and other Places. They want one third of the 
Englijh Woodcock in Bignefs •, but differ not in Shape, or 
Feather, fave that their Breaft is of a Carnation' Colour; and 
they make a Noife fwhen they are on the WingJ like the 
Bells about a Hawk's Legs, They are certainly as dainty Meat, 

The Natural Hiffory 

, Swamps, and 

as any in. the World. Their Abode is in all Parts of this 
Country, in low, boggy Ground , Springs 

':?%». The Snipes here frequent the fame Places, as they do in 

England, and differ nothing from them. They are the only- 
wild- Bird that is nothing different from the Species of Eu- 
rope, and keeps with us all the Year, la fome Places, there 
are a great many of thefe Snipes. 
Tmriige. Our Partridges in Carolina, very often take upon Trees, 
and have a fort of Whittle and Call , quite different from 
thofe in England. They are a very beautiful Bird, and great 
Deftroyers of the Peafe in Plantations ; wherefore, they fet 
Traps, and catch many of them. They, have the fame Fea- 
ther, as in Europe - r only the Cock wants the Horfe-Shooe, 
in lieu of which he has a fair Half-Circle over each Eye. 
Thefe fas well as the Woodcock; are le'fs than the European 
• Bird, but far finer Meat. They might be eafily tranfportedl 
to any Place, becaufe they take to eating, after caught. 
Sloorhew. The Moorhens are of the black Game. I am inform'd,' 
that the gray Game haunts the Hills. They never come into 
the Settlement, but keep in the hilly Parts. 
3*/' Jays are here common, and very mifchievous, in devour- 

ing our Fruit, and fpoiling more than they eat. They are 
abundantly more beautiful, and finer feather'd than thofe in 
Europe, and not above half fo big. 

The Lap-wing or Green-Plover are here very common. 
They cry pretty much, as the English Plovers doj and dif- 
fer not. much in Feather, but want a third of their Big- 

The gray or whittling Plover, are very fcarce amongft us. 
I never faw any but three times, that fell and fettled on the 
Ground. They differ very little from thofe in Europe, as far 
as I could difcern. I have feen feveral great Flocks of them 
fly over head ', therefore, believe, they inhabit the Valleys 
near the Mountains. 
Tigeons. Our wild Pigeons, are like the Wood-Queefe or Stock- 
Doves, only have a longer Tail. They leave us in the Sum- 
mer. This fort of Pigeon fas I faid before) is the molt like 
our Stock-Doves, or Wood-Pigeons that we have in Eng- 
land ; only thefe differ in their Tails, which are very long, 
much like aParrakeeto's? You muft undtrftand, that thefe. 







Birds do not breed amongft us, (who are fettled at, and near 
the Mouths of the Rivers, as I have intimated to you before^ 
but come down (efpecially in hard Winters) amongil the In- 
habitants, in great Flocks, as they were feen to do in the 
Year 1707, which was the hardeft Winter that ever was 
known, fince Carolina has been feated by the Chriflians. And 
if that Country had fuch hard Weather, what muff, be ex- 
pected of the fevere Winters in Penfylvania, New-Tor^ and 
New-England^ where Winters are ten times (if poffible) 
colder than with us. Although the Flocks are, in fuch Ex- 
tremities, very numerous •, yet they are not to be raention'd in 
Comparifon with the great and infinite Numbers of thefe 
Fowl, that are met withal about a hundred, or a hundred 
and fifty, JN^iles to the Weftward of the Places where we at 
prefent live; and where thefe Pigeons comedown, in queft 
of a fmall fort of Acorns, which in thofe Parts are plenti- 
fully found. They are the fame we call Turky- Acorns, be- 
caufe the wild Turkies feed very much thereon-, And for the 
fame Reafon, thofe Trees that bear them, are call'd Turky- 
Oaks. I faw fuch prodigious Flocks of thefe Pigeons, in 
January or February, i70i-2,(which were in the hilly Country, 
between the great Nation of the Efaw Indians, and the plea-, 
fant Stream of Sapona, which is the Weft-Branch of Clarendon,, 
or Cape-Fair River) that they had broke down the Limbs of 
a great many large.Trees all over thofe Woods, whereon 
they chanced to lit and rooft; efpecialfy the great Pines, 
which are a more brittle Wood, than our forts of Oak are. 
Thefe Pigeons, about Sun-Rife, when we were preparing to 
march on our Journey, would fly by us in fuch vaft Flocks, 
that they would be near a-Quarter of an Hour, before they 
were all pafs'd by ; and as foon as that Flock was gone, a- 
nother would come , and fo fucceffively one after another, 
for great part of the Morning. It is obfervable, that when- 
ever thefe Fowl come in fuch Numbers, as I faw them then, 
they clear all before them, fcarce leaving one Acorn upon 
the Ground, which would, doubtlefs, be a great Prejudice to 
the Planters that mould feat there, becaufe their Swine 
would be thereby depriv'd of their Malt. When I faw fuch 
Flocks of the Pigeons I now fpeak of, none of our Company 
had any other fort of Shot, than that which is 'caft in Moulds* 
and was fo very large, that we could not -put above ten or a 


The Natural Hifiory 






doien of them into our largeft Pieces^ Wherefore, we made 
but an indifferent Hand of mooting them ; although we 
commonly kilfd a Pigeon for every Shot. They were very 
fat, and as good Pigeons, as, ever I eat. I enquired of the 
Indians that dwell'd in thofe Parts, where it was that thole 
Pigeons bred, and they pointed towards the vaft Ridge of 
Mountains, and faid, they bred there. Now, whether 
they make their Nefts in the Holes in the Rocks of thofe 
Mountains, or build in Trees, 1 could not learn , but they 
feem to me to be a Wood-Pigeon, that build in Trees, be-^. 
caufe of their frequent fitting thereon, and their Roofting 
on Trees always at Might, under which their Dung com- 
monly lies half a Foot thick, and kills every thing that 
grows where it falls. 

Turtle Doves are here very plentiful -, they devour the 
Peafe; for which Reafon, People make Traps and catch 


The Parrakeetos are of a green Colour, and Orange-Co- 
lour'd half way their Head. Of thefe and the Allegators, 
there is none found to the Northward of this Province. 
They vifit us firft, when Mulberries are ripe, which Fruit 
they love extremely. They peck the Apples, to eat the 
Kernels, fo that the Fruit rots and perifhes. They are mif- 
chievous to Orchards. They are often taken alive, and will 
become familiar and tame in two days : They have their 
Nells in hollow Trees, in low, fwampy Ground. Theyde^- 
vour the Birch-Buds in April*, and lie hidden when the Wea- 
ther is frofty and hard. 

The Thrufhes in America-, are the fame as in England, and 
red under the Wings. They never appear amongft us but 
in hard Weather, and prefendy leave us again. 

Of W r ood-peckers, we have four forts. The firft is as 
big as a Pigeon, being of a dark brown Colour, with a white 
Crofs on his Back, his Eyes circled with white, and on his 
Head ftands a Tuft of beautiful Scarlet Feathers. His Cry 
is heard a long way ; and he Hies from one rotten Tree to 
another, to get Grubs, which is the Food he lives on. 

The fecond fort are of an Olive-Colour , ftriped with 
yellow. They eat Worms as well as Grubs, and are about 
the Bignefs of thofe in Europe. 


. — 



The third is the fame Bignefs as the laft *, he is pied withTTj/r.i 
black and white, has a Crimfon Head, without a Topping, 
and is a Plague to the Corn and Fruit •, efpecially the Apples. 
He opens the Covering of the young Corn, fo that the Rain 
gets in, and rots it. 

The fourth fort of thefe Wood-peckers, is a black and Fourth. 
white fpeckled, or mottled; the fineft I ever faw. The 
Cock has a red Crown ; he is not near fo big as the others ; 
his Food is Grubs, Corn, and other creeping Infe&s. He is 
»not very wild, but will let one come up to him, then fliifts 
on the other lide the Tree, from your fight ; and fa dodges 
you for a long time together. He is about the fize of an Eng- 
iijh Lark. 

The Mocking-Bird is about as big as a Throilie in England^mcckir.^ 
but longer-, they are of a white, and gray Colour, and are 5,-rJ/. " 
held to be the Chorifters of America, as indeed they are. 
They fing'with the greateft Diverfity of Notes, that is pofli- 
ble for a Bird to change to. They may be bred up, and will 
fing with us tame in Cages; yet I never take any of their 
Nefts, altho' they build yearly in my Fruit-Trees, becaule 
I have their Company, as much as if tame, as to the flnging 
Part. They often fit upon our Chimneys la Summer, there 
being then no Fire in them, and fing the whole Evening and 
molt part of the Night. They are always attending our 
Dwellings; and feed upon Mulberries and other Berries and 
Fruits; efpecially the Mechoacan-berry, wtych grows here 
very plentifully. 

" There is another fort call'd the Ground-Mockirig-Bird.2<*-.M 
She is the fame bignefs, and of a Cinnamon Colour. This 
Bird fings excellently well, but is not fo common amongfl; us 
as the former. 

The Cat-Bird, fo nam'd, becaufe ft makes a Noife ex- Cat ' Bird ' 
adtly like young Cats. They have a blackifh Head, and an 
Afli-coloured Body, and have no other Note that I know of. 
They are no bigger than a Lark, yet will fight a Crow or any 
other great Bird. 

The Cuckoo of Carolina may not properly be fo call'd, be-cuch*. 
caufe fhe never ufes that Cry ; yet Ihe is of the fame Bignefs 
and Feather, and fucks the Small-Birds Eggs, as the Englijii 
Cuckoo does. 

U 2 A 


The Natural Hiftory 

Blue- Bird 








|) ' 





dia Bats. 


A Blue-Bird is the exafr Bignefs of a Robin-red-breaft. 
The Cock has the fame colour'd Breaft as the Robin has, and 
his Back, and all the other Part,sof him, are of as fine a Blue 
as can poffibly be feen. in any thing in the World. He has 
a Cry, and a Whittle. They hide themfelves all the Win- 

Bulfinches, in America , differ fomething from thofe in 
Europe, in their Feathers, tho' not in their Bignefs. I never 
knew any one tame, therefore know not, what they might be 
brought to. 

The Nightingales are different in Plumes from thofe in, 
Europe. They always frequent the low Groves, where they 
ling very prettily all Night. 

Hedge-Sparrows are here, though few Hedges. They 
differ fcarce.any thing in Plume or Bignefs, only I never 
heard this Whittle, as. the Engltjh one does ; efpecially after 

The Wren is the fame as in Europe, yet I never heard any 
Note fhe has in Carolina. 

Sparrows here differ in Feather from the English. We have 
feveral Species of Birds call'd Sparrows, one of them much re- 
fembling the Bird call'd a Corinthian Sparrow. 

The Lark with us reforts to the Savannas, or natural 
Meads, and green Marines. He is colour'd and heefd as 
the Lark is-, but his Breaft is of a glittering fair Lemon- 
Colour, and he is as big as a Fieldfare, and very fine Food. 

The Red-Birds (whofeCock is all over of a rich Scarlet 
Feather, with a tufted Crown on his Head, of the fame Co- 
lour) are the Bignefs of a Bunting-Lark, and very hardy, 
having a ftrong thick Bill. They will ling very prettily^ 
when^takeri old, and put in a Cage. They are good Birds 
to turn a-Cage with Bells j or if taught, as tlae Bulfinch is, I 
believe, would prove very docible. 

Eaft-Jndia Bats or Mufqueto Hawks, are the Bignefs of a 
Cuckoo, and much of the fame Colour. They are fo call'd, 
becaufe the fame fort is found in the Eaft-Indies. They ap- 
pear only in the Summer, and live on Flies, which they catch 
in the Air, as Gnats, Mufquetos, &c. 

Martins are here of two forts. The firft is the fame as in, 
England \ the other as big as a Black-Bird. They have white 
Throats and Breafts, with black Backs. The Planters put 





Gourds on Handing Poles, on purpofe for thefe Fowl to 
build in, becaufe they are a very Warlike Bird, and beat the 
Crows from, the Plantations. 

The Swift, or Diveling, the fame as in England. Swi fi' 

Swallows, the fame as in England. Sn-aUow. 

The Hummiog-Bird is the Miracle of all our wing'd Am-^ mw& ' 
mate} He is feather'd as a Bird, and gets his Living as the 
Bees, by fucking the Honey from each Flower. In fome of 
the larger fort of Flowers, he will bury himfelf, by diving 
to fuck the bottom of it, To that he is quite cover'd, and of- 
tentimes Children catch them in thole Flowers, and keep 
them alive for five or fix days. They are of different Colours, 
the Cock differing from the Hen. The Cock is of a green, 
red, Aurora, and other Colours mixt. He is much lefs than 
a Wren, and very nimble. His Neft is one of the g'reateft 
Pieces of Workmanfbip the whole Tribe of wing'd Animals 
can ftiew, it commonly hanging on a fingle Bryar, molt ar- 
tificially woven, a fmall Hole being left to go in and out at. ; 
The Eggs are the Bignefs of Peafe. 

The Tom-Tit T or Ox-Eyes, as in England. Tom-Tit,- 

Of Owls we have two forts 5 the fmaller fort is like ours in 0w j Sm 
England; the other fort is as big as a middling Goofe, and 
has. a prodigious Head. They make, a- fearful Hollowing in 
the Night-time, like a Man, whereby they Often make Stran- 
gers lofe their .way in the Woods. 

Scritch Owls, much the fame as in Europe. Scrhch 

The Baltimore-Bird , fo call'd from the Lord Baltimore, 0wls : 
Proprietor of z\\ Maryland, in which Province .many of them B B dt I r '' 
are found. They are the Bignefs of a Linnet, with yellow 
Wings, and beautiful in other Colours. 

Throttle, the fame Size and Feather as in Europe, but Wroflk. 
never could hear, any of them ling. 

TheWeet, fo call'd becaufe he cries always before Rain ; Wen Bird, 
he refembles nearett the Fire-tail. 

Cranes ufe the Savannas, Low Ground, and Frogs \ they Cranes ami 
are above five Foot-high, when extended ^ are of a Cream Storl ' s ' 
Colour , and have a Crimfon Spot on the Crown of their 
Heads. Their Quills are excellent for Pens • their Flefh makes 
the belt Broth, yet is very, hard to digeft. Among them often 
frequent Storks, which are here fee a, and no where bef/des 
in America, that I have yet heard of. The Cranes are eafi'ly 


? Baltimore- 


The Natutal Hifiory 

t St!OW- 



u luppoo- 

Zed Spar- 







bred up tame, and are excellent in a Garden to deitroy Frogs, 
Worms, and other Vermine. 

The Snow-Birds are molt numerous in the North Parts of 
America, where there are great -'Snows, . They vifit us fome- 
times in Carolina, when the -Weather is harder than ordinary. 
They are like the Stones Smach, or Wheat-Ears, and arede- 
licate Meat. 

Thefe Yellow- Wings area very -fmall Bird, of a Linnet's 
Colour, but Wings as yello.w as Gold. They frequent high 
up in our Rivers, and Greeks, and keep themfelves in the* 
thick Bufhes, very difficult to befeen in the Spring.: They 
fing very prettily, 

Whippoo-Willy fonam'd, becaufe it makes thofe Words ex- 
actly. They are the Bignefs of a Thrulh, and call their Note 
under a Bufh, on the Ground, hard to befeen, though yoa 
hear them never fo plain. They are more plentiful in Virgi- 
nia, than with. us in Carolina', for I never heard but one 
that was near the Settlement, and that" was hard-by an In- 
dian Town. 

Thisneareft refembles a Sparrow, and is the molt com-, 
mon Small-Bird we have, therefore we call them fo. They 
are brown, and red, cinnamon Colour, ftriped. 

Of the Swans we have two forts , the one we call Trom- ; 
peters; becaufe of a fort of trompeting Noife they make. 

Thefe are the largeft fort we have, which come in great 
Flocks in the Winter, and ftay, commonly, in the frefh Ri- 
vers till February, that the Spring comes on, when they go to 
the Lakes to breed. A Cygnet, that is, a Jaft Year's Swan, 
is accounted a delicate Dim, as indeed it is. They are known 
by their Head and Feathersy which are not fo white as Old 

The fort of Swans call'd Hoopers, aretheleaft. Theya- 
bide more in the Salt- Water, and are equally valuable, for 
Food, with the former. It is obfervable, that neither of 
thefe have a black piece of horny Fleih down the Head, and 
Bill, as they have in England. 

Of Geefe we have three forts, differing from each other 
only in fize, Ours are not the common GeeCe that are in the 
Fens in England? but the other forts, with black Heads and 




The gray BrantT^Ba^cle, h here very plentiful, as all <*£ 
other Water-Fowl are, in the Wintet-Seafon. They are 
the fame which they call Barnicles in Great-Britain, and are 
a very good Fowl, and eat well. ■ . T ^. 

There is alfo a white Brant, very plentiful m Amenca.^^ 
This Bird is all over as white as Snow, except the T_ ips 01 
his Wings, and thofe are black. They eat the Roots of Sedge 
and Grafs in the Marfhes and Savannas, which they tear up 
like Hogs. The belt way to" kill thefe Fowl is, to burn a 
Piece of Marlh, or Savanna, andasfoon as it is burnt, they 
will come in great Flocks to get the Roots, where you kill 
what you pleafe of them. They are as good Meat as the o- 
ther, only their Feathers are flubbed, and good for xittle. 

The Sea-Pie, or gray Curiae, is about the Bignefs of a very ****, or 
large Pigeon, but longer. He has a long Bill as other Cor««* 
lues have, which is the Colour of an Englijh Owfel s, that 
is, yellowy as are his Legs. He frequents the Sand-beaches 
on the Sea-fide, and when kill'd, is inferiour to no Fowl I 

ever eat ot. 

" WM mikt is fo called from his Cry, which he very exactly «^ 

calls Will WJkt , as he flies.'. His Bill is like a ■Curlue s, or'"- 

Woodcock's, and has much fuch a. Body as the other, yet 

not fo tall. He is good Meat. r,£J** 

The great gray Gulls are good Meat, and as large as a<^«»W 
Pullet. They lay large Eggs, which are found in very great ' 
Quantities, on the Mandlrirf our Sound, in the -Months of 
June, and July. The young Squabs are Very good Victuals, 
and often prove a Relief to Travellers by Water, that have 
fpent their Provifions. , „ 

Old Wives are a black and white pied Gull with extraor- old Wiver. 
dinary long Wings, and a golden' colour'd Bill and Feet. He 
makes a difmal JSfoife, as he flies, and ever -and anon dips 
his Bill in the Salt-Water. I never knew him eaten. 

The Sea-Cock is 'a Gull that crows at Break of Day, and^Cwfc 
m the Morning, exaftly like a Dunghil Cock, which Cry 
feems very pleafant in thofe uninhabited Places. He is -never 

eaten r 

■ Of'curlues there are three frrts, and vafl Numbers of™«» 
each. They have ail long Bills, and differ neither m^ggpr, 
Colour, nor Shape, only in Size. The largeft is as big as a Loons, tw* 
• good/em*. . 

Her vs. 



The Natural Htftory 

goad Hen, the fmaller the Bignefs of .a.Snipe, or fome thing 
-bigger, - 

Bitterns, We have three forts of Bitterns in Carolina. The fir ft is 
tkee forts, the fame as in. England; the fecond of a deep brown, with a 
great Topping, and yellowifh white Throat and Breaft, and 
is leifer than the former j the laft is no bigger than a Wood- 
cock, and near the Colour of the fecond* 

We have the fame Herns, as in England. 

White Herns are here very plentiful. I have feen above 
thirty fit on one Tree, at a time. They are as white as 
Milk, and fly very flowly. . 

The Water-Pheafant (very improperly call'd fo ) are a 
Pheafam. Water-Fowl of the Duck-Kind, having a Topping, of pretty 

' Feathers, which fets them out. They are very good Meat. 
Link gray ~r/he little Gray-Gull is of a curious , gray Colour, and 
abides near the Sea. He is about the Bignefs of a Whiftling- 
Plover, and delicate Food. 

We have the little Dipper or Fifher, that catches Fifh fo 
dexteroufly, the fame as you have in the Iflands of Stilly. 

We have of the fame Ducks, and Mallards with green 
Heads, in great Flocks. They are accounted the coarfeft fort 
of our Water-Fowl. 

The black Duck is full as large as the other, and good 
Meat. She frays with us all the Summer, and breeds. Thefe 
are made tame by fome, and prove good Domefticks. 

We have another Duck that flays with us all the Summer. 
She has a great Topping, is pied, and very beautiful. She 
builds her Neft in a Wood-pecker's Hole, very often tfxty 
or feventy Foot high. 

Towards the Mountains in the hilly Country, on the 
^Weft-Branch of Calp-Fair Inlet, we faw great Flocks of 
pretty pied Ducks, that whittled as they flew, or as they 
fed. I did not kill any of them. 

We kill'd a curious fort of Ducks, in the Country of the 
Efavo- Indians ■, which were of many beautiful Colours. Their 
Eyes were red, having a red Circle of Flefti for their Eye- 
lids } and were very good to eat. 

The Blue- Wings are lefs than a Duck, but fine Meat. 
Thefe are the firft Fowls that appear to us in the Fall of the 
Leaf, coming then in great Flocks, as we fuppofe, from 
Canada, and the Lakes that lie behind us. 


£>uck and 





Widgeons, the fame as in Europe, are here in great Plenty. Widgeon. 

We have the fame Teal, as in England, and another fort. rw/twr 
that frequents the Frefh-Water, and are always nodding^, 
their Heads, they are fmaller than the common Teal, and 

dainty Meat. . , , , TT . , , 

Shovellers (a fort of Duck) are gray, with a black Head. sfovtlkn 

They are a very good Fowl. 

Thefe are called Whiftlers, from the whittling Noife they wtgjfy. 
make, as they .fly. 

Black Flufterers ; fome call thefe Old Wives- They are Black- 
as black as Ink. The Cocks have white Faces. They aiways#«iW< 
remain in the midft of Rivers , and feed upon drift Grafs, £***- 
Camels or Sea-Nettles. They are the fatteft Fowl I ever ' 
faw, and fometimes fo heavy with Fleft, that they cannot 
rife out of the Water. They make an odd fort of Noife when 
they fly. What Meat they are, I could never iearn. Some 
call thefe the great bald Coot. 

The wild Turkeys I mould have fpoken of, when I treatea w&jf 
of tJie Land-Fowl. There are great Flocks of thefe in Caro-^ 
Una. I have feen about five hundred in a Flock , fome of 
them are very large. I never weigh'd any myfelf, but have 
been inform'd of one that weigh'd near fixty Found Weight. 
I have feen half a Turkey feed eight hungry- Men two Meals. 
Sometimes the wild breed with the tame ones, which, they 
reckon, makes them very hardy, as 1 believe it muft. I fee 
no manner of Difference betwixt the wild Turkeys and the 
tame ones-, only the wild are ever of one Colour, (viz..) a 
dark gray, or brown, and are excellent Food. . They feed 
on Acorns, Huckle-Berries, and many other forts of Berries 1 
that Carolina affords. The Eggs taken from the Neil:, and 
hatch'd' under a Hen, will yet retain a wild Nature, and 
commonly leave you, and run wild atlaft, and will never be 
got into a Houfe to rooft, but always pearch on fome high 
Tree, hard-by the Houft, and feparate themfelvesfrom the 
tame fort, although (at the fame time) they tread .and breed 
together. I have been inform'd, that if you take thefe wild 
Eggs, when juft on the point of being hatch'd, and dip 
them (for fome fmall time) in a Bowl of Milk-warm Water, 
it will take off their wild Nature, and make them as tame 
and domeftick as the others. Some Indians have brought 
thefe wild Breed hatch'd at home, to be a Decoy to bring 

X v others 


The Natural Hifiory 

which they have fhot. 









others to rooft near their Cabins , 
But to return to the Water-Fowl. 

Fiihermen are like a Duck, but have a narrow Bill, with 
Setts of Teeth. They live on very fmall Fifh, which they 
catch as they fwim along. They tafte Fiihy. The bell way 
to order t-hem, is, upon occafion, to pull out the Oil-Box 
from the Rump, and then bury them five or fix Hours under 
Ground. Then they become tolerable. 

Of Divers there are two forts ; the one pied, the other 
gray ; both good Meat. 

Raft- Fowl includes all the forts of fmall Ducks a nd Teal, 
that go in Rafts along the Shoar, and are of feveral forts, 
that we know no Name for. 

, Thefe are a whitifh Fowl, about the Bignefs of a Brant; 
they come to us after Chrijlmas^ in very great Flocks," in all 
our Rivers. They are a very good Meat, but hard to kill, 
becaufe hard to come near. They will dive and endure a 
great deal of Shot. 

Red-Heads, a lefTer Fowl than Bull-Necks, are very fweet 
Food, and plentiful in our Rivers and Creeks. 

Tropick-Birds are a white Mew, with a forked Tail. They 
are ib call'd, becaufe they are plentifully met withal under 
the Tropicks, and thereabouts. 

The Pellican of the Wildernefs cannot be the fame as 
ours;, this being a Water-Fowl, with a great natural Wen 
or Pouch under his Throat, in which he keeps his Prey of 
Fifh, which is what he lives on. He is Web-footed, like a 
Goofe, and fhap'd like a Duck, but is a very large Fowl, big- 
ger than a Goofe. He is never eaten as. Food ; They make 
Tobacco-pouches of his Maw. • 

Cormorants are very well known in fome Parts otEngland\ 
we have great Flocks of them with us, efpecially againfl the 
Herrings run, which is in March and April; then they 
lit upon Logs of dry Wood in the Water, and catch the 
Fifh.. . 

TheGannet ha large white Fowl, having one Part of his 
Wings black ; he lives on Fifh, as the Pellican. His Fat or 
Greafe, is as yellow as Saffron, and the bell thing known, to 
preferve Fire-Arms, from Ruft. 

Shear-Waters are a longer Fowl than a Duck - r fome of 
them lie on the Goafl* whilflf others range the Seas all over. 




Sometimes they are met five hundred Leagues from Land. 
Tli£y< live without drinking any frefh Water. 

We have a great pied Gull^ black and white, which feems Pied-Gtiil, 
to have a black Hood on his'Head:, thefe lay very fair Eggs 
which are good j as are the young ones in the.Seafon. 

Marfh-Hen, much the fame as in Europe, only fhe makes Marfi). 
another fort of Noife, and much mriller. ■ Hen ^~~ 

The fame as you- call Water-Hens in England, are here verys/ae-p?. 
numerous, and not regarded for eating. ten - 

The Sand-Birds are about the Bignefs of a Lark, and fre-s<at£- 
quent our Sand-Beaches , they are a dainty Food, if you will Birds. 
beftow Time and Ammunition to kill them. 

Thefe are called Runners ; becaufe if you run after tbem^ m ' eru 
they will run along the Sands and not: offer to get up y fo that 
you may often drive them together to fhoot as you pleafe. 
They area pleafant fmallBird. 

A fort of Snipe, but fucks not his Food ; they are almoft Tutcorbs. 
the fame as in England. 

Swaddle-Bills are a fort of an afh-colour'd Duck, which 
have an extraordinary broad Bill, and are- good Meat \ they 
are not common as the others are. 

The fame Mew as in England^ being a white, (lender Bird, Mew. 
with red Feet. , shel . 

The lame as in England. Drakes. 

The bald, or white Faces are a good Fowl. They cannot Bail- 
dive, and are eafily fhotten. FMes > 

Water- Witch, or Ware-Coots, are a Fowl with Down tyfer- 
and no Feathers ; they dive incomparably, fo that naFowler^^* 
can hit them. They can neither fly, nor go j but get into 
the Fifh-wares, and cannot fly over the Rods, and fo are 

Thus have we given an Account of what Fowl hascometo 
our Knowledge, lince our Abode in Carolina , except iome 
that, perhaps, have flipt our Memory, and fo are left. out of • 
our Catalogue. Proceed we now to treat of the Inhabitants 
of the Watry Element, which tho' we can as yet do but 
very imperfectly *, yet we are willing, to oblige the Curious 
with the belt Account that is in our Power to prefent 
them withal. 




The Natural Hifiory 


The Fifh in the fait, and frefh Waters of Carolina, are, 

Whales^ fever al forts-, 

Thrafiers . 






Sharks, two forts. 






Drum, red. 

Drum- Fiji}, black. 


Bafs, or Rock-Fijb. 







Gnard % white. 

Guards green. 

Scate or Stingray. 








Trouts of the Salt Water* 








Frefh- Water Fifh are, 





Pearch Englifh. 

Pearch, white. 

Pearch, brown, or Welch-men. 

Pearch, flat, and mottled, or 

Pearch fmall and fiat, with red 

Spts, cdVd round Robins,. 





Sucking- Fifh 




Fount aw- Fifh; 




The Shell-Fifh are. 

Large Crabs^caWd Stone-Crabs. 

Smalle, flat Crabs. . 

Oyfters great andfmalU 






Man ofNofes. 

Periwinkles, or Wilks. 

Sea-Snail- Horns. 



Spanijh or Pearl-Oyflers. 


Tortois and Terebin, accounted 

for among the Infetts. 
Finger- Fijh. 

Frefh Water 

Whales are very numerous, on the Coaft of North Caro-Wluh 
Una, from which they make Oil, Bone, &c. to the great Ad- 
vantage of thofe inhabiting the Sand-Banks, along the 
Ocean, where thefe Whales come afhore, none being ftruck 
orkill'dwith a Harpoon in. this Place, as they are to the 
Northward, and elfewhere ; all thofe Fifh beingfound dead on 
the Shoar,' moft commonly by thofe that inhabit the Banks, 
and Sea-fide , where they dwell, for that Intent, and for 
the Benefit of Wrecks, which fometiraes fall in upon that 

Of thefe Monfters there are four forts \ the firft, which 
is moft choice and rich, is the. Spenna Get*. Whale, from 
which the Sperma C*ti is taken. Thefe aTe rich Prizes ; but; 
I never heard but of one found on this Coaft, which was near 

The other forts are of a prodigious -Bignefs. Or tnele 
the Bone and Oil is made-, the Oil being the Blubber, or 
oily Flefh, or Fat of that Fifli.boil'd. Thefe differ not only 
in Colour, fome being pied, others not, but very much la 
fhape, one being call'd a Bottle-Nofed Whale, the other a 
Shovel-Nofe, which is as different as a Salmon from a. 
Sturgeon. Thefe Fifhfeldom come afhoar with their Tongues 
in their Heads, the Thrafher (which is the Whale's mortal 
Enemy, wherefoever he meets him) eating that out of his 
Head, asfoonasheandthe.Sward-Eiflihavekiird him. For 
'• — — - wh'enu 

gjgttflfi i HV 


The Natural Hiftory 



fijb. . 




when the Whale-catchers (in other Parts) kill any of thefe 
Fifh, they eat the Tongue , and esteem it an excellent 

There is another fort of tbefe Whales, or great Fi fh 
though not common. I never knew of above one- of that 
fort, found on theGoaft of North Carolina-, and he was con- 
trary, in Shape, to all others ever found before him ■■, beino- 
fixty Foot in Length, and not above three or four Fool 
Diameter. Some Indians in America will go out to Sea, and 
get upon a Whales Back, and peg or plug up his Spouts, and 
ib kill him. 

The Thrafhers are large Fifh, and mortal Enemies- to the 
Whale, as I faid before. They make good Oil-, butarefel- 
dom found. 

The Divel- Fifh lies at fome of our Inlets, and, as near as 
I can defcribe him, is fhap'd like a Scate, or Stingray •, only he 
has on his Head a Pair of very thick ftrong Horns, and is of 
a monftrous Size, and Strength ; for this Fifh has been known 
to weigh a Sloop's Anchor, and run with the VefTel a League 
or two, and bring her back, againft Tide, to almoft the fame 
Place. Doubtlefs, they may afford good Oil ; but I have 
no Experience of any Profits which arife from them. 

The Sword-Fim is the other of the Whale's Enemies, and 
joins with the Thrafher to deftroy that Monfter. After 
they have overcome him, they eat his Tongue, as I faid be- 
fore, and the Whale drives afnoar. 

Crampois is a large Fifh, and by fome accounted a young 
Whale j but it is not fo \ neither is it more than twenty five 
or thirty Foot long. They fpout as the Whale does, and 
when taken yield good Oil. 

Bottle-Nofes are between the Crampois and Porpois, and 
lie near the Soundings. They are never feen to fwim leifure- 
ly, as fometimes all other Fifh do, but are continually run- 
ning after their Prey in Great Shoals, like wild Horfes, 
leaping now and then above the Water. The French e- 
fteem them good Food, and eat them both frefh and fait. 

Porpoifes are frequent, all over the Ocean and Rivers that 
are fait; nay, we have a Frefh-Water Lake in the great 
Sound of North Carolina that has Porpoifes in it. And fe- 
veral forts of other unknown Fifh, as the Indians fay, that we 
are -wholly Strangers to. As to the Porpoifes, they make good 

Oil j 


Oil ; they prey upon other Fifh as Drums, yet never are 
known to take a Bait, fo as to be catcb/d with a Hook. 

Of thefe there are two forts; one call'd Paracooda-No&s; Sharks. 
the other ShoveLNofes ; they cannot take their Prey before 
they turn themfelves on their Backs ; wherefore fome Ne- 
gro's, and others, that can fwim and dive well, go naked 
■into the Water, with a Knife in their Hand, and fight the 
Shark, and very commonly kill him, or wound him fo, that 
he turns Tail, and runs away. Their Livors .make good Oil 
to drefs Leather withal ; the Bones found in their Head are 
fa id to haften the Birth, and eafe the Stone, by bringing it 
away. Their Meat is eaten in fcarce times; but I°never 
could away with it, though a great Lover of Fifh. Their 
Back-Bone is of one entire Thicknefs. Of the Bones, or 
Joints, I have known Buttons made, which fei ve well e- 
nough in fcarce Times, and remote Places. 

The Dog-Fifh are a fmall fort of the Shark Kind ; and avQDog-Fifi. 
caught with Hook and Line, fifhing for Drums. They fay, 
they are good Meat; but we have ib many other forts of 
delicate Fifh, that I fhall hardly ever make Tryal what they 

Spanfi Mackarel are, in Colour and Shape, like the com- Span iilv 
mon Mackarel-, only much thicker. They are caught -with MuUrd. 
Hook and Line at the Inlets, andfometimes out a little way 
at Sea. They are a very fine hard Fifh, and of good Tafte. 
They are about two Foot long, or better. 

Cavallies are taken in the fame Places. They are of a CaoaB ! es 
brownifh Colour, have exceeding fmall Scales, and a very 
thick Skin \ they are as firm a Fifh as ever I faw ; therefore 
will keep fweet (in the hot Weather) two days, when o- 
thers will ft ink in half a day, unlefs falted. They ought to 
be fcaled as foon as taken; otherwife you muft pull off the 
Skin anti Scales, when boiled; the Skin being the choiceft 
of the Fifh. The Meat, which is white and large, is drefs'd 
with this Fifh. 

Boneto's are a very palatable Fifh, and near a Yard long. 5«/efc?j.< 
They haunt the Inlets and Water near the Ocean ; and are 
killed with the Harpoon, and Fifhgig. 

The Blue Fifh is one of our bed Fifties, and always very Blue-Eifk 
fat. They are as long as a Salmon, and indeed, I think, full 
as good Meat, Thefe Fifh come fin the Fall of the Year) 



The Natural Hiftory 

generally after there has been one black Froft, when there 
appear great Shoals of them. The Hatteras Indians, and o- 
thers, run into the Sands of the Sea, and ftrike them, though 
fome of thefe Fifh have caufed Sicknefs and violent Burnings 
after eating of them, which is found to proceed from the 
Gall that is broken in forne of them, and is hurtful. Some- 
times, many Cart-loads of thefe are thrown and left dry on 
the Sea lide, which comes by their eager Purfuitof thefmall 
Fifh, in which they run themfelves alhoar, and the Tide 
leaving them, they cannot recover the Water again. They 
are called Blue-Fifth, becaufe they are of that Colour, and 
have a forked Tail, and are fhaped like a Dolphin. 
Rei- The Red Drum is a large Filh much bigger than the Blue- 

Drum pifh. The Body of this is good firm Meat, but the Head is 
beyond all the Filh I ever met withal for an excellent Dim. 
, We have greater Numbers of thefe Filh, than of any other 
fort. People go down and catch as many Barrels full as they 
pleafe, with Hook and Line, efpecially every young Flood, 
when they bite. Thefe are faked up, and tranfported to 
other Colonies, that are bare of Provilions. 

Black Drums are a thicker-made Fifh than the Red Drum, 
being fhap'd like a fat Pig } they are a very good Filh, but 
not fo common with us as to the Northward: 

The Angel-Filh is fhaped like an Engli{l> Bream. He is 
fo calFd, from his golden Colour, which fhines all about his 
Head and Belly. This is accounted a very good Fifh, as are 
moft in thefe Parts. The Bermudians have the fame fort of 
Fifh, and efleem them very much. 

Bafs or Rock is both in Salt and Frefh- Water; when 
young, he much refembles a Grayling, but grows to the 
lize of the large Cod-Fifh. They are a very good firm Fifh. 
Their Heads are fouced, and make a noble Difh, if large. 

Sheeps-Head has the general Vogue -of being the choicefl 
Fifh in this Place. Indeed, it is a very delicate Fifh, and well 
relifh'd ; yet I think, there are feveral others full as good 
as the Sheeps-Head. He is much of the Bignefs of the An- 
gel-Fifh, and flat as he is •, they fometimes weigh two or three 
Pound Weight. This Fifh hath Teeth like a Sheep, and is 
therefore fo^all'd. 
riaicc. Plaice are here very large, and plentiful, being the fame 
as in England. 








flounders fhould have gone amongfr. the Frem- Water Flounder. 
Fifh, becaufe they are caught there, in great Plenty. 

Soles are a Fifn we have but lately difcover'd j they are as So!es ' 
good, as in any other Part. 

Mullets, the fame as in England, and great Plenty in all^'^* 
Places where the Water is fait of brackifh. 

Shads are a fweet Fifh, but very bony , they are very plen- sbatis-. 
tiful at fome Seafons. ' ( 

Fat-Backs are. a fmall Fifh, like Mullets, but the fatteft^^-- 8 ^^ 
ever known. They put nothing into the Pan, to fry thefe. 
They are excellent fweet Food. 

The white Guard-Fifh is fhaped almoft like a Pike, hut Whhs 
flenderer \ his Mouth has a long fmall Bill fet with Teeth, in S-**" 
which he catches fmall Fifh} his Scales are knit together 
like Armour. When they drefs him, they ftrip him, taking 
off Scales and Skin together. His Meat is very white, and 
rather looks like Flelh than Fifh. The English account them 
no good Fifh} but the Indians do. The Gall of this Fifh is 
green, and a violent Cathartick, if taken inwardly. 

The green Guard is fhaped; in all refpe&s, like the other, £ W7 J 
fave that his Scales are very fmall and fine. He is indifferent r ' 
good Meat } his Bones, when boil'd or fry.'d, remain as green 
as Grafs. The fame fort of Fifh come before the Mackarel 
in England- 

Scate, or Stingray, the fame as in£»j/W,«ff. 
mon; but the great Plenty of other Fifh makes thefe' not re- 
garded*, for few or none eat them in Carolina., though they 
are almoft at every ones Door. 

Thornbacks are the fame as in England. . They are not {Q tharnb ^ k - 
common as the Scate and Whip-Rays. 

Congaf-Eels always remain in the Salt-Water-, they areO^r- 
much more known in the Northward Parts of America, than Eels ' 
with us. 

• Lampreys are not common \ I never faw but one, which 'lanprej. 
was large, and caught by the Indians, in a Ware. They 
would not eat him, but gave him to me. 

Eels are no where in the World better, or more plentiful, Eels, 
than in Carolina. 

Sun-Fifh are flat and rounder than a Bream , and ave Sun ' Fi ^' 
reckon'd a fine-tailed Fifh, and not without Reafon. They 
are much the flze of Angel-Fifh. 

Y Toad- 


The Natural Hifiory 





Tcad-Fijk. Toad-Fifh are nothing but a Skin full of Prickles, an'd a 
few Bones \ they are as ugly as a-Toad, and preferv'd to look 
upon, and good for nothing elfe. 

They are taken by a Bait, near the Inlet, or out at Sea a 
little way. They are blackifh, and exactly like a Tench, ex- 
cept in the Back-fins, which have Prickles like a Pearci. 
They are as good, if not better than any Tench. 

Trouts of the Salt-Water are exa&ly fhaped like the 
Trouts in Europe, having blackifh, not red Spots. They are 
in the Salts, and are not red within, but white, yet a very 
good Fifh. They are fo tender, that if they are in or near 
frefh Water, and a fudden Froft come, they are benumm'd, 
and float on the Surface of the Water, as if dead \ and then 
they take up Canoe-Loads of them. If you put them into 
warm Water, they prefently recover. 

The Crocus is a Fifh, in Shape likeaPearch, and in Tafte 
like a Whiting. They croke and make a Noife in your Hand, 
when taken with Hook or Net., They are very good. 

The Herrings in Carolina are not fo large as in Europe. They 
fpawn there in March and April, running up the frefh Rivers 
and fmall frefh Runs of Water in great Shoals, where they 
are taken. They become red;if faked \ and, drelt.with Vine- 
gar and Oil, refemble an Anchovy very much ; for they are 
far beyond an Englijh Herring, when pickled. 

The fame as in England; they lie down a great way in the 
Sound, towards the Ocean, where (at feme certain Seaions) 
are a great many very fine ones. 

The frefh Water affords no fuch Bream as in England, that 
I have as yet difcover'd \ yet there is a Sea-Bream, which is 
a flat and thin Fifh, as the European Breams are. 

The Taylor is a Fifh about the Bignefs of a Trout, but of 
a bluifh and green Colour, with a forked Tail, as a Mackarel 
has. They are a delicate Fifh, and plentiful in our Salt- Wa- 
ters.- Infinite numbers of other Species will be hereafter 
difcover'd as yet unknown to us •, although I have feen and 
eaten of feveral other forts of Fifh, which are not here men- 
tioned,, becaufe, as yet, they have no certain Names affign'd 
them. Therefore, I fhall treat no farther of our Salt- Water 
Fifh, but proceed to the Frefh. 

The firft of thefe is the Sturgeon, of which we have Plenty, 
all the frefh Parts of our Rivers being well Jtor'd therewith. 





Frefo W& 
ter Stv.r* 


The Indians upon and towards the Heads and Falls of our 
Rivers, ftrike a great many of thefe, and eat them ; yet the 
Indians near the Salt- Waters will not eat them. I have feen 
an Indian ftrike one of thefe Fiih, feven Foot long , and 
leave him on the Sands to be eaten by the Gulls. In May, 
they run up towards the Heads of the Rivers, where you 
fee feveral hundreds of them in one day. The Indians have 
another way totake them, which is by Nets at the end of 
a Pole. The Bones of thefe Filh make good Nutmeg-Gra- 
ters. . 

The Jack, Pike, or Pickerel, is exadly the fame, in Caro* Pike- 
Una, as they are in England. Indeed, I never faw this Fifh fo 
big and large in America, as I have in Europe, thefe with us 
being fejdom above two Foot long, as far as I have yet feen. 
They are very plentiful with us in Carolina, all our Creeks 
and Ponds being full of them. I once took out of a Ware, 
above three hundred of thefe Filh, at a time. 
- The fame in England as in Carolina', but ours are agreatlW?' 
way up the Rivers and Brooks, that are frefh, having fwift 
Currents, and ftony, and gravelly Bottoms. 

The fame Gudgeons as in Europe are found in America. Gtld i e0,i ' 

The fame fort of Pearch as are in England, we have like-.ffr/? 
wife in Carolina , though, I think, ours never rife to-be fo"Par<& 
large as in England. - 

We have a white Pearch, fo call'd, becaufe he is of a Silver •^•^ 
Colour, otherwift like the Englifh Pearch. Thefe we have Pwr f*' 
in great Plenty, and they are preferable to the red ones. 

The brown Pearch, which fome call Welch-men, are the^ vi 
largeft fort of Pearches that we have., and very firm, white Temh ° 
and fweet Fifh. Thefe grow to be larger than any Carp, 
and are very frequent in every Creek and Pond. 

The flat or mottled Pearch are lhaped almoft like a Bream, fourth 
They are called Irifh-men, being freckled or mottled with/"- 
black, and blue Spots. They are never taken any where, 
but in the frefh Water. They are good Fifh •, but I do not 
approve of them, no more than of the other forts of Pearch. 

We have another fort of Pearch, which is the leaft fort- of fifth 
all, but as good Meat as any. Thefe are diftinguifh'd from*"™** 
the other forts, by the Name of Round-Robins • being flat * rRound 
and very round- fhap'dj they are fpotted with red Spots very Robm * 

Y 2 beau- 


The Natural Hiflory 











- * 





beautiful, and are eafily caught with an Angle, as all the 
other fort of Pearches are. 

We have the fame Carp as you haveinr^W. 

And the fame Roach:, only fcarce fo large? 

Dace are the fame as yours too ; but neither are thefe fo 
large nor plentiful, as with you. 

The fame as in England. 
. Sucking-Filh are the neareft in Tafte and Shape to a Barbel 
only they have no Barbs. 

Cat Fifth are a round blackifn Fifh, with a great flat Head 
a wide Mouth, and no Scales • they fomething referable Eels 
in Tafte. Both this fort, and another that frequents the Sale 
Water, are very plentiful.'' 

Grindals are a long fcaled Fifh with fmall Eyes 5 and fre- 
quent Ponds, Lakes, and flow-running Creeks and Swamps. 
They are a foft forry Fifh, and good for nothing \ though 
fome eat them for good Fifh. 

Thefe are a bright fcaly Fifh, which frequent the Swamps, 
and frefh Runs • they feem to be between an Ewlijb Roa'ch 
and a Bream, and eat much like the latter.' The Indians kill 
abundance of thefe, and barbakue them, till they are crifp 
then tranfport them, in wooden Hurdles, to their Towns 
and Quarters. 

TheFountain-Fifh area white fort which breed in the clear 
Running Springs and Fountains of Water, where the Clear- 
nefs thereof makes them very difficult to be taken. I cannot 
fay how good they are; becaufe 1 have not as yet tailed of 

The white Fifh are very large; fome being two Foot and 
a half long and more. They are found a great way up in 
the Frefnes of the Rivers \ and are firm Meat, and an extra- 
ordinary well-relifiYd Fifh. 

Barbouts and Millers-Thumbs, are the very fame here in 
all refpects, as they are in England. What'more are in'the 
frefh Waters we have not difcover'd, but are fatisfied, that 
we are not acquainted with one third part thereof ; for we- 
are told by the Indians^ of a great many fcrange and uncouth 
fiupes and forts of Fifh, which they hai?e found in the Lakes- 
laid down in my Chart. However as we can give no farther 
Account of thefe than by Hear-fay ; 1 proceed to treat of the 




Shell- Fiih that are found in the Salt- Water, fofaras they 
have already come to our Knowledge. 

The large Crabs, which we call Stone-Crabs, are the fame Large" 
fort as in England, having black Tips at the end of their Crabs 
Claws. Thefe are plentifully met withal , down in Core 
Sound, and the South Parts of North- Carolina. 

The fmaller flat Crabs I look upon to be the fweeteft of small flat 
all the Species. They are the Breadth of a lufty Man's Hand, crabs, 
or rather larger. Thefe are innumerable, lying in moll pro- 
digious quantities, all over the Salts of Carolina. They are 
taken not only to eat, but are the belt Bait for all forts of 
Fifh, that live in the Salt- Water. Thefe Fifharernifchievous 
to Night-Hooks, becaufe they get away all the Bait from 
the Hooks; 

Oyilers, great andfmall, are found almoft in every Creek oyfieru 
and Gut of Salt- Water, and are very good and well-relihYci 
The large Oy Iters are excellent, pickled. 

One Cockle in Carolina is as big as five or fix in England. Cockles. 
They are often- thrown upon "the Sands on the Sound-Side, 
where the Gulls are always ready to open and eat them. 

Clams are a fort of Cockles, only differing in Shell, which clams*. 
is thicker and not ftreak'd , or ribb'd. T4iefe.are found 
throughout all the Sound and Salt-Water-Ponds. The Meat 
is the fame for Look and Tafte as the Cockle. Thefe make 
an excellent ftrong Broth, and eat well, either roafted or 

The Mufcies in Carolina have a very large Shell, ftriped Mufties.- 
with Dents, They grow by the fide of Ponds and Creeks, in 
Salt- Water, wherein you may get as many of them as you 
pleafe, I do not like them fo well as the Englijli Mufcle, which 
is no good Shell-Fifh. 

Some of the Shells of thefe are as large as a Man's Hand, conks,. 
but the leifer fort are the belt Meat, and thofe not extraor- 
dinary. They are fhap'd like the end of a Horfes Yard. Of 
their Shells , the Peak or Wampum is made, which is the 
richeft Commodity amonglt the Indians. They breed like a 
long Thing IhapM like a Snake, but containing a fort of 
joints,, in the Hollo wnefs whereof are- thoufands of fmali 
Coaks, no bigger then fmail Grains of pepper* 



The Natural Hiflory 

:■ " 


Mm of 



fid! or. 









The Skellops, if well drefs'd, are a pretty Shell-Fifh • but 
to eat them only roafted, without any other Addition, in 
my Judgment, are too lufcious. 

Man of Nofes are a Shell-Fifh commonly found amongft us. 
They are valued for increafing Vigour in Men, and making 
barren Women fruitful \ but I think they have no need of 
that Fiftr, for the Women in Carolina, are fruitful enough 
without their Helps. 

Wilks, or Periwinkles, are not fo large here, as in the 
Iflands of Stilly, and in other Parts of Europe, though very 

The Sea- Snail-Horn is large, and very good Meatj they 
are exa&ly fhaped as other Snail-Horns are. 

Fidlars are a fort of fmall Crabs, that lie in Holes in the 
Marines. The Raccoons eat them very much. I never knew 
any one try, whether they were good Meat or no. 

Puinners live chiefly on the Sands, but fometimes run into 
the Sea. They have Holes in the Sand-Beaches and are a 
whitifli fort of a Crab. Tho' fmall, they run as faff, as a Man, 
and are good for nothing but to look at. 

Spanifj Oyfters have a very thin Shell,and rough on the out- 
fide. They art very .good Shell-Fifh, and fo large, that half 
a dozen are enow to fatisfy an hungry Stomach. 

The Flattings are inclofed in a broad, thin Shell, the whole 
Fifh being flat. They are inferiour to no Shell-Fifh this Coun- 
try affords. 

Finger-Fifh are very plentiful in this Country, they are 
of the Length of a Man's Finger, and lie in the Bottom of 
the Water about one or two Foot deep. They are very 

Shrimps are here very plentiful and good, and are to be 
taken with a Small-Bow -Net, in great Quantities. 

The fmall Cockles are about the Bignefs of the largefl: Eng- 
lljh Cockles, and differ nothing from them, unlefsin the Shells, 
which are itriped crofs-wife as well as long-wife. 

The Frefh- Water Shell-Fifh are, 

Mufcles, which are eaten by the Indians, after five or fix 
hours Boiling, to make them tender, and then are good for 




Craw-Fifh, in the Brooks,, and fmall Rivers of Water, a- Craw-Ftp 
mongft the Tuskeruro Indians, and up higher, are found very 
plentifully, and as good as any in the World. 

And thus I have gone through thefeveral Species of Filh, 
fo far as they have come to my Knowledge, in the eight Years 
that I have lived in Carolina. I mould have made a larger Dis- 
covery, when travelling fo far towards the Mountains, and 
amongfl: the Hills, had it not been in the Winter-Seafon, 
which was improper to make any Enquiry into any of the 
Species before recited. Therefore, as my Intent was, I pro- 
ceed to what remains of the Pre fern State of Carolina, having 
already accounted for the Animals, and Vegetables, as far as 
this Volume would allow of} whereby the Remainder, though 
not exadly known, may yet be guefs'd at, if we confidcr 
what Latitude Carolina lies in, which reaches from 29 to 
30* deg. 30 min. Northern Latitude, as 1 have before ob- 
ferv'd. Which Latitude is as fertile and pleafant, as any in 
the World, as well for the Produce of Minerals, Fruit, Grain, 
and Wine, as other rich Commodities. And indeed, all the 
Experiments that have been made in Carolina, of the Fertility 
and natural Advantages of the Country, have exceeded all Ex- 
pectation, as.affbrding fome Commodities, which other Places, 
in the fame Latitude, do noti As for Minerals, as they are 
Subterraneous Produces, fo, in all new Countries, they are the- 
Species that are laft difcover'dj and efpecially, in Carolina? 
where the Indians never look for any thing lower than the 
Superficies of the Earth, being a Race of Men'the leafl* ad- 
dicted to delving of any People that inhabit So fine a Country 
as Carolina is. As good if not better Mines than thoSe the 
Spaniards pofTefs in America, lie full Well from us \ and I am 
certain, we have as Mountainous Land, and as great Probabi- 
lity of having rich Minerals in Carolina, as any of thofe Parts 
that are already found to be So rich therein. But, waving 
this Subject, till fome other Opportunity, I mail now give, 
you fome Obfervations in general, concerning Carolina-* ■ 
which are, firft, that it lies as convenient for Trade as any 
of the Plantations in Ajnerica; that we have Plentv of Pitch, 
Tar, Skins of Deer, and Beeves, Furs, Rice, Wheat, Rie, 
Indian Grain, Sundry forts of PulSe, Turpentine, Ro^in, Mails, 
Yards, Planks and Boards, Staves and Lumber, Timber of 
many common forts, lit for any-USes ; Hemp, Flax, Barley, 

■ Oats, 

The Natural Hifiory 

Oats, Buck- Wheat, Beef, Pork , Tallow, Hides, Whale- 
Bone and Oil, Wax, Cheefe, Butter, &c. befides Drugs, 
Dyes, Fruit, Silk,^ Cotton, Indico, Oil, and Wine that we 
need not doubt of, as foon as we make a regular EfTay, the 
Country being adorn'd with pleafant Meadows , Rivers, 
Mountains , Valleys , Hills, and rich Paftures, and blefled. 
with wholefomc pure Air y efpecially a little backwards from 
the Sea, where the wild Beaif s inhabit, none of which are 
voracious. The Men are active, the Women fruitful to Ad- 
miration, every Houfe being full of Children, and feveral 
Women that have come hither barren , having prefently 
prov'd fruitful. There cannot be a richer Soil, no Place a- 
bounding more in Flefh and Fowl, both wild and tame, be- 
fides Filh , Fruit, Grain, Cider, and many other pleafant 
Liquors ; together with feveral other NecefTaries for Life 
and Trade, that are daily found out, as new Difcoveries are 
made. The Stone and Gout feldom trouble us ; the Confump- 
tion we are wholly Strangers to, no Place affording a better 
Remedy for that Diftemper, than Carolina. For Trade, we 
lie fo near to Virginia, that we have the Advantage of their 
Convoys; as alfo Letters from thence, in two or three Days 
at moll, in fome Places in as few Hours. Add to this, that 
the great Number of Ships which come within thofe Capes, 
for Virginia and Maryland^ take off our Provifions, and give 
us Bills of Exchange for England, which is Sterling Money. 
The Planters in Virginia and Maryland are forc'd to do the 
fame, the great Quantities of Tobacco that are planted there, 
making Provifions fcarce; and Tobacco is a Commodity 
oftentimes fo low, as to bring nothing, whereas Provifions 
and Naval Stores never fa il of a Market. Befides, where 
thefe are raifed, in fuch Plenty as in Carolina, there always 
appears good Houfekeeping, and Plenty of all manner of de- 
licate Eatables. For Inftance, the Pork of Carolina is very 
good, the younger Hogs fed on Peaches, Maiz, and fuch o- 
ther natural Produce; being fome of the fweeteil Meat that 
the World affords, as is acknowledged by all Strangers that 
have been there. And as for the Beef, in Pampticough, and 
the Southward Parts, it proves extraordinary. We have 
not only Provifions plentiful, but Cloaths of our own Manu- 
factures, which are made, and daily increafe; Cotton, Wool, 
Hemp, and Flax, -being of our own Growth; and the Wo- 



men to be highly commended for their Induflry in Spinning, 
and ordering their Houfwifry to ib great Advantage as they 
generally do; which is much more eafy, by reafon this happy 
Climate, vifited with fo mild Winters, is much warmer than 
the Northern Plantations, which faves abundance of Cloaths; 
fewer ferving our Neceflities, and thofe of our Servants. But 
this is not all ; for we can go out with our Commodities, to any 
other Part of thQWefl-Indiei, oYelfe where, in the Depth of 
Winter; whereas, thofe in New- England, New-York^ Penfyt- 
vania, and the Colonies to the Northward of us, cannot ftir 
for Ice, but are fall lock'd into their Harbours. Befides, wc 
can trade with South-Carolina, and pay no Duties or Cuftoms, 
no more than their own VefTels, both North and South be- 
ing under the fame Lords-Proprietors. We have, as I obferv'd 
before, another great Advantage, in not being a Frontier, 
and fo continually alarm'd by the Enemy ; and what has been 
accounted a Detriment to us, proves one of the greateft Ad- 
vantages any People could wifh ; which is, our Country's be- 
ing faced with a Sound near ten Leagues over in fome Places, 
through which, although their be Water enough for as large 
Ships to come in at, as in any part hitherto feated in both 
Carolina! \ yet the Difficulty of that Sound to Strangers, 
hinders them from attempting any Hoflilities againfl us; 
and, at the fame time, if we confider the Advantages thereof, 
nothing can appear to be a better Situation, than to be 
fronted with fuch a Bulwark, which fecures us from our E- 
nemies. Furthermore, our Diftance from the Sea rids us of 
two Curfes, which attend moll other Parts of America, viz.. 
Muskeetos, and the Worm-biting, which eats Ships Bottoms 
out-, whereas at Bath-Tomn, there is no fuch thing known; 
and as for Muskeetos, they hinder us of as little Reft, as 
they do you in England. Add to this, the unaccountable 
Quantities of Fifh this great Water, or Sound, fupplies us 
withal, whenever we take the Pains to fifh for them ; Ad- 
vantages I have no where met withal in America, except here. 
As for the Climate, we enjoy a. very wholfome and ferene 
Sky, and a pure and thin Air, the Sun feldom miffing to give us 
his daily Bleffing, unlefs now and then on a Winters Day, 
which is not often; and when cloudy, the firft Appearance 
of a North- Well Wind clears the Horizon, and reilores the 
Light of the Sun. The Weather, in Summer, is very plea- 

. 2 £knt; 


The Natural Hiftory 

fant; the hotter Months being refrefh'd with continual 
Breezes of cool reviving Air 5 and the Spring being as pleafant, 
and beautiful, as in any Place I ever was in. The Winter, molt 
commonly, is fo mild, that it looks like an Autumn, being 
now and then attended with clear and thin North-Welt 
Winds, that are fharp enough to regulate Engl ft Confuta- 
tions, and free them from a great many dangerous Diftem-- 
pers, that a continual Summer afflifts them withal, nothing 
being wanting, as to the natural Ornaments and Bleffings 
of a Country, that conduce to make reafonable Men happy. 
And, for thofe that are otherwife, they are fo much their own 
Enemies, where they are, that they will fcarce ever be any 
ones Friends, or their own, when they are tranfplanted ; fo y 
it's much better for all fides, that they remain as they are. 
Not but that there are feveral good People, that, upon juft 
Grounds, may be uneafy under their prefent Burdens , and 
fuch I would advife to remove to the Place I have been treat- 
ing of, where they may enjoy their Liberty and Religion, 
and peaceably eat the Fruits of their Labour, and drink the 
Wine of their own Vineyards, without the Alarms of a 
troublefome worldly Life. If a Man be a Botamfl, here is a 
plentiful Field ofPlams to divert him in-, If he be a Gardner? 
and delight in that pleafant and happy Life, he will meet 
with a Climate and Soil, that will further and promote his 
Defigns, in as great a Meafure, as any Man can wifh for } and 
as for the Conftitution of this Government, it is fo mild 
and eafy, in refpect to the Properties and Liberties of a 
Subjeft, that without rehearfing the Particulars, I fay once 
for all, it is the mildelt and beft eftabliflrd Government ia 
the World, and the Place where any Man may peaceably en- 
joy his own, without being invaded by another ^ Rank and 
Superiority ever giving Place to juftice and Equity, which 
is the Golden Rule that every Government ought to be built 
upon, and regulated by. Befides, it is worthy our Notice, 
that tfejs Province has teen fettled, and continued the molt 
free from the Infults and Barbarities of the Indians, of any 
Colony that was ever yet feated in America \ which mull 
be efteem'd as a particular Providence of God handed down 
from Heaven, to thefe People \ especially, when we confider* 
how irregularly they fettled North-CW//^, and yet how un- 
difturb'd they have ever remain'd, free from any foreign Dan- 

of C A R O L 1 N A^ 


cer or Lofs, even to this very Day. And what may well 
be look'd upon for as great a Miracle, this is a Place, where 
no Malefactors are found, deferving Death, or even a Pn- 
•fon for Debtors ; there being no more than two Perfons* that, 
as far as I have been able to learn, ever fuffcr'd as Criminals, 
although it has been a Settlement near fixty Years •, One of 
whom was a Turk that committed Murder; the other, an 
old Woman, for Witchcraft. Thefe, 'tis true, were on the 
Stage, and afted many Years, before 1 knew the .Place •, but 
as for thelaft, 1 wiih it had been undone to this day-, al- 
though they give a great many Arguments, to juftifie the 
Deed, which I had rather they mould have a Hand in, than 
mvfelf i feeing I could never approve of taking Lite away 
upon fuch • Accufations, the Juftice whereof I could never yet 

underfland. . ,. , « 1 

But, to return to the Subject in Hand ; we there make ex- 
traordinary good Bricks throughout the Settlement. All 
forts of Handicrafts , as Carpenters, Joiners, Mafons, TUi- 
fterers. Shoemakers , Tanners, Taylors, Weavers, and mott O- 
thers, may, with fmall Beginnings, and God's Blefhng, thrive 
very well in this Phce, and provide Eftates- for their Chil- 
dren, Land being fold at a much cheaper Rate^there, than 111 
any other Place in ^w*V*, and may, as Ifuppofe, be purchaied 
of the Lord*- Proprietors here in England, or of the Governour 
there for the time being, by any that fnall have a mind to 
tranfport themfelves to that Country. The Farmers that 
so thither (for which fort of Men it is a very thriving Place) 
fliould take with them fome particular Seeds of Grafs, as 
Trefoil, Clover-grafs all forts, Sanfoin, and Common Grafs, 
Of that which is a Rarity in Europe; efpecially, what has 
fprung and rofe firft from a warm Climate, and will endure 
the Sun without flinching. Likewife, if there be any ex- 
traordinary fort of Grain for Increafe or Hardmefs, and iome 
Fruit-Trees of choice Kinds, they will be both profitable and 
pleafant to have with you, where you may fee the Fruits of 
your Labour in Perfection, in a few Years. 1 he neceflary 
Inftruments of Husbandry I need not acquaint the Husband- 
man withal ; Hoes of all forts, and Axes muft be had, with 
- Saws, Wedges, Augurs, Nails, Hammers, and what otner 
Things may be neceffary for budding with Brick, or Stone, 
which fort your Inclination and Conveniency lead you to. 

Z 2, : F° r 


The Natural Hiftory, &c. 

For, after having look'd over this Treatife, you mull needs 
be acquainted with the Nature of the Country, and there- 
fore cannot but be Judges, what it is that you will chiefly 
want. As for Land, none need want it for taking up, even, 
in the Places there feated on the Navigable Creeks, Rivers, 
and Harbours, without being driven into remoter Holes and 
Corners of the Country, for Settlements, which all are forced 
to do, who, at this day, fettle in moffc or all of the other 
Englifi Plantations in America \ which are already become fb 
populous, that' a New-Comer cannot get a beneficial and 
commodious Seat, unlefs he purchafes, when, in moft Places 
in Virginia and Maryland, a thoufand Acres of good Land, 
feated on a Navigable Water, will coft a thoufand Pounds ; 
whereas, with us, it is at prefent obtain'd for the fiftieth 
Part of the Money. Befides, our Land pays to the Lords., 
but an eafy Quit-Rent, or yearly Acknowledgement , and 
the other Settlements pay two Shillings per hundred. All 
thefe things duly weighed, any rational Man that has a mind 
to purchafe Land in the Plantations for a Settlement of him- 
felf and Family, will foon difcover the Advantages that 
•attend the Settlers and Purchafers of Land in Carotin*, 
above all other Colonies in the Englijh Dominions in Ame- 
rica. And as there is a free Exercife of all Perfuafions amongft 
Chriftians, the Lords- Proprietors, to encourage Ministers of the 
Church of England, have given free. Land towards the Main- 
tenance of a Church, and efpecially, for the Parifh of S. Thomas 
m Pamptkough, over-againft the Town, is already laid out 
for a Glebe of two hundred and twenty three Acres of 
rich well-fituated Land, that a Parfonage-Houfe may be built 
aponv And now I lhall proceed to give an Account of the In- 
dians, their Cuftoms and Ways of Living, with a fliort Di- 
Plenary of their Speech. 


A N 




O F 


I s * HE Indians, which were the Inhabitants of America r 
when the Spaniards and other Europeans difcovei'd 
I the feveral Parts of that Country, are the People 
which we reckon the Natives thereof; as indeed they were, 
when we firft found out thofe Parts, and appeared therein. 
Yet this has not wrought in me a full Satisfaction, to allow 
thefe People to have been the Ancient Dwellers of the New- 
World, or Trad of Land we call America. The Reafons 
that I have to think otherwife, are too many to fet down 
here •, but I fhall give the Reader a few, before I proceed 1 , 
and fome others he will find fcatter'd in my Writings clfe- 
where. . 

In Carolina (the Part I now treat of) are the faireft Marks 
of a Deluge, (that at fome time has probably made ftrange 
Alterations, as to the Station that Country was then in) 
that ever I faw, or, I think, read of, in any Hiftory. A- 
rnongft the other Subterraneous Matters , that have been 
difcoverd, we found, in digging of a Well that Was twenty 
iix toot deep, at the Bottom thereof, many large Pieces of 
the Tulip-Tree, and feveral other forts of Wood, fome™, N 
of winch were cut and. ndtch'd, and fome fquared, as theZlf 
JOices of a Houfe are, which appeal (in the Judgment Gram 
ot an that law them; to be wrought with Iron Instruments^ 




An Account of the Indians 


it Teeming impoflible for any thing made of Stone, or what 

they were found to make ufe of, to cut Wood in that manner. 

It cannot be argu'd, that the Wdod fo cut, might float from 

fome. other Continent j hecaufe Hiccoryand the Tulip-Tree 

Shells fome avQ fp ntane6*os in •America^ and, in no other Places, that I 

inthT* could ever learn, ft is ; to be acknowledged, that the Spani- 

Eanb, tbeards give us Relations of magnificent Buildings, which were 

Sea proba- raifed by the Indians of Mexico, and- other Parts, which they 

Uy has difcover'd, and conquer'd ; amongffc whom no Iron Inftru- 

tbnm up ments were found: But 'tis a great Misfortune, that no Perfon 

fj/c un-i a tnat Expedition was fo curious, as to take an exaft Draught 

try. of the Fabricks of thofe People, which would have been a Dif- 

Mexico coyery of great Value, and very acceptable to the Ingenious 5 

Buildings. f or ^ as to tne pditenefs of Stones, it may be effected by Col- 

lifion, and Grinding, which is of a contrary Nature, onfe- 

veral Accounts , and difproves not my Arguments, in the 


Eirthen The ne ? fc is » the ^ rt ^ Qn Pots tnat are °^ ei1 found under 

rots iwierGround, and at the Foot of the Banks where the Water has 

Ground, wafh'd them away. They are for the moft part broken. in 

pieces •, but we find them of a different fort, in Comparifon, 

of thofe the Indians ufe at this day, who have had no other, 

ever fince the Englifi difcover'd America. The Bowels of 

the Earth cannot have alter d them, lince they are thicker, 

of another Shape, and Compofition, and nearly approach 

to the Urns of the Ancient Romans. 

Again, the Peaches, which are the only tame Fruit, or 
what is Foreign, that thefe People enjoy, which is an Eaftern 
Product, and will keep and retain its vegetative and growing 
Faculty, the longeffc of any thing of that Nature , that I 
lbs stove, know of. The Stone, as I elfewhere have remarked, is thicker 
Water- than any other fort of the Peaches in Europe r or of the Eu- 
Meon *nd ro p ea „ f ort;) n0 w growing in America, and is obferved to 
Indies g row if Panted, after it has been for feveral Years laid by ; 
and it feems very probable, that ihefe People might come 
from fome Eaftern Country j for when you ask them whence 
their Fore-Fathers came, that fir ft inhabited the Country, 
they will point to the Weft ward and fay, Where the S^n peps, 
our Forefathers came thence, which, at that diftance, may be 
reckon'd amongft the Eaftern Parts of the World. And to 
this day, they area Ihifting, wandring People-, for 1 know 



have al- 
ways had. 


of North-Carolina. 


fome Indian Nations, that have chang'd their Settlements, 
many hundred Miles ^fometimes no lefs than a thoufand, as 
is prov'd by the Savanna, Indians, who formerly lived on the 
Banks of the Mejfiafippi, and remov'd thence to the Head 
of one of the Rivers of South-Carolina; fince which, (for 
fome Diflike J molt of them are remov'd to live in the Quar- 
ters of the Iroquois or Sinnagars, which are on the Heads of 
the Rivers that difgorge themfelves'into the Bay of Chtfapeah 
I once met with a young Indian Woman, that had been 
brought from beyond the Mountains, and was fold a Slave 
into Virginia. She fpoke the fame Language, as the Coranine 
Indians, that dwell near Cape-Look-out, allowing for fome 
few Words, which were different, yet no otherwjfe, than 
that they might underftand one anotfier very well. 

The Indians of North-Carolind are a well-fhap'd clean-made Ind ia n 
People, of different Statures, as the Europeans are, yet chiefly wlljbafd 
inclin'd to be tall. They are a very ftreight People, and ne- r< ^ & ' 
ver bend forwards, or ftoop in. the Shoulders, unlefs much 
overpowered by old Age. Their Limbs are exceeding well- 
fnapU As for their Legs and Feet, they are generally the 
handfcmeft in the World. Their Bodies are a little flat, which 
is occafion'd, by being laced hard down to a Board, in their 
Infancy. This is all the Cradle they have, which I lhall de- 
fcribe at large elfewhere. Their Eyes are black, or of a 
darkHazle; The White is marbled with red Streaks, which 
is ever common to thefe People, unlefs when fp'rung from a 
white Father or Mother. Their Colour is of a tawny, which 
would not be fo dark, did they not dawb themfelves with 
Bears Oil, and a Colour like burnt Cork. This is begun ia 
their Infancy, and continued for a long time, which fills the 
Pores, and enables them better to endure the Extremity of 
the Weather. They are never bald on their Heads, although 
never fo old, which, I believe, proceeds from their Heads 
being always iincover'd, and the greafing their Hair (fo of- 
ten as they do; with Bears Fat, which is a great Nourifher 
of the Hair, and caufes it to grow very fait. Amongft the 
Bears Oil (when they intend to be fine) they mix a certain 
red Powder, that comes from a Scarlet Root which they get 
in the hilly Country, near the Foot of the great Ridge of 
Mountains, and it is no where elfe to be found." They have 
this Scarlet Root in great Eftcem, and fell it for a very great: 





Jin Account of the Indians^ 

Price, one to another. The Reafon of its Value is, becaufe 
they not only go a long way for it, but are in great Danger 
of the Sinn agars or Iroquois, who are mortal Enemies to all 
our Indians *and very often take them Captives, or kill them, 
before they return from this Voyage. The Tvskeruros and 
other Indians have often brought this Seed with them from 
the Mountains; but it would never grow in our Land. With 
this and Bears Greafe they anoint their Heads and Temples, 
which is efteem'd as ornamental,as fweet Powder to our Hair. 
Befides, this Root has the Virtue of killing Lice, and fuffers 
none to abide or breed in their Heads. For want of this 
Root, they fometimes ufe Pecewz-Root, which is of a Grimfon 
Colour, but it is apt to die the Hair of an ugly Hue. 

Their Eyes are commonly full and manly, and their Gate 
fedate and majeftick. They never walk backward and for- 
ward as we do, nor contemplate on the Affairs of Lofs and 
Gain ; the things which daily perplex us. They are dexte- 
rous and fteady both as to their Hands and Feet, to Admi- 
ration. They will walk over deep Brooks, and Creeks, on 
the fmallefl Poles, and that without any Fear or Concern. 
Kay, an Indian will walk on the Ridge of a Barn or Houfe 
and look down the Gable-end, and fpit upon the Ground, 
as unconcern' d, as if he was walking on Terra firma. In Run- 
ning, Leaping, or any fuch other Exercife, their Legs feldom 
mifcarry, and give them a Fall ; and as for letting any thing 
fall out of their Hands, 1 never yet knew one Example. 
They are no In venters of any Arts or Trades worthy men- 
tion; the Reafon of which I take to be, that they are not 
pofTefs'd with that Care and Thoughtfulnefs, liow to provide 
for the Neceflaries of Life, as* the Europeans are ; yet they 
will learn any thing very foon. I have known an Indian ftock 
Guns better than molt of our "joiners, although he never 
faw one ftock*d before ; and befides, his Working-Tool was 
only a forry Knife. I have alfo known feveral of them that 
were Slaves to the Englijh, learn Handicraft-Trades very 
* r n f well and fpeedily. I never faw a Dwarf amongft them, nor 
* • ; 'but one that was Hump-backU Their Teeth are yellow 
with Smoaking Tobacco, which both Men and Women are 
much addicted to. They tell us, that they had Tobacco a- 
jnongft them, before the Europeans .made any Difcovery of 


of North-Carolina. 


that Continent. It differs in the Leaf from the fweet-fcented, 
and Oroonoh, which are the Plants we vaife and cultivate in 
America. Theirs differs likewife much in the Smell, when 
green, from our Tobacco, before cured. They do not ufe 
the fame way to cure it as we do ^ and therefore, the Dif- 
ference muffc be very confiderable in Taite ) for all Men (that 
know Tobacco^ mult allow, that it is the Ordering thereof Indian 
which gives a Hogoo to that Weed, rather than any Natural Tobam. 
Relifh it poffelfes, when green. Although they are great 
Smokers , yet they never are feen to take it in Snuff, or 
chew it. 

They have no Hairs on their Faces (except fome few) and 
thofe but little, nor is there often found any Hair under their 
Arm-Pits. They are continually plucking it away from their 
Faces, by the Roots. As for their Privities, fince they wore 
Tail-Clouts, to cover their Nakednefs, feveral of the Men 
have a deal of Hair thereon. It is to be ohferv'd , that the 
Head of the Penis is cover'd ("throughout all the Nations of 
the Indians I everfaw) both in Old and Young. Although 
we reckon thefe a very fmooth People, and free from Hair •, 
yet I once faw a middle-aged Man, that was hairy all down 
his Back j the Hairs being above an Inch long. 

As there are found very few, or fcarceany, Deformed, Few Crig 
or Cripples, amongft them, fo neither did I ever fee but oaeP les * 
blind Man } and then they" would give me no Account how 
his Blindnefs came. They had a Ufe for him, which was, to 
lead him wit;h a Girl, Woman, or Boy, by a String 5 fo they 
put what Burdens they pleafed upon his Back, and made 
him very ferviceable upon all fuch Occafions. No People 
have better Eyes, or fee better in the Night or Day, than Indians 
the Indians. Some alledge, that the Smoke of the Pitch-Pine,gooi Eyes, 
jwhich they chiefly burn, does both preferve and ftrengthen 
the Eyes ^ as, perhaps, it may do, becaufe that Smoak never 
offends the Eyes,, though you hold your Face over a great 
Fire thereof. This is occaJIon'd by the volatile Partof-the 
Turpentine, which rifeswith the Smoke, and is of a friend- 
ly, balfamick Nature •, - for the Afhes of the Pine-Tree af- 
ford no fix'd Salt -in-them. 

Tbey let their Nails grow very long, which, they reckon, Mtpajr 
is the Ufe Nails are dellgn'd for, and laugh at the Europeans their 

A a - for M«fc- 


3 74 

An Account of the Indians 

Dunce of 
On what 
hey make 

for pairing theirs,which, they fay, difarras them of that which 

Nature, defign'd them for. 

Indians They are not of fo robuft and ftrong Bodies, as to lift 

not robuft, g rea£ Burdens, and endure Labour and flavifh Work, as the 

Europeans are ; yet fome that are Slaves, prove very good 

and laborious : But, of themfelves, they never work as the 

Englifh do, taking care for no farther than what is abfolute- 

ly neceflary to fupport Life. In Travelling and Hunting, they 

''Nbhard are very indefatigable; becaufe that carries a Pleafure along 

Wbekexs. with the Profit. I have known- fome of them very ftrong 5, 

and as for Running and Leaping, they are extraordinary 

Fellow's, and will dance for feveral Nights together, with 

the greatelt Brisknefs imaginable, their Wind never failing 


Their Dances are of different Natures ; and for every fort 
of Dance, they have aTune, which is allotted for that Dance; 
as, if it be a War-Dance, they have a warlike Song, wherein 
they exprefs, with all the Paffion and Vehemence imaginable, 
what they intend to do with their Enemies-, how they will 
kill, roaft, feulp, beat, and make Captive, fuch and Tuch 
Numbers of them; and how many they have deftroy'd be- 
fore. All thefe Songs are made new for every Feaft ; nor is 
one and the fame Song fung at two feveral Feftiyals. Some 
one of the Nation (which has the beft Gift of expreffing 
Indian tne "' Defigns) is appointed by their King, and War- Gap tain s > 
Toet. to make thefe Songs. 

Others are made for Feaftsof another Nature; as, when 
feveral Towns, or fometimes, different Nations have made 
Dame of Peace with one another; then the Song fuits both Nations, 
ff« and relates, how the bad Spirit made them go to War, and 
deftroy one 'another; but it fhall never be fo again; but 
that their Sons and Daughters fhall marry together, and the 
two. Nations love one another, and become as one People. 

They have a third fort of Feafts and Dances, which are 
always when theHarveft of Corn is ended, and in the Spring, 
The one, to return Thanks to the good Spirit, for the Fruits 
of the Earth ; the other, to beg -the fame Bleffings for the 
fucceeding Year. Ani , to encourage the young Men to 
labour ftoutly, in planting their Maiz and Pulfe, they fet. 
a fort of an Idol in the Field, which is drefs'd up exactly 
like an Indian-, having all the Indian* Habit, befldes abundance 

of North-Carolina. 


of Wampum, and their Money, made of Shells, that hangs 
about his Meek. The Image none of the young Men dare 
approach j for the old ones will not fuffer them to come 
near him, but tell them, that he is fome famous Indian War- rUntunon 
riour, that died a great while ago, and how iscomeamongft/<W. 
them, to fee if they work well, which if they do, he will go 
to the good Spirit, and fpeak to him to fend them Plenty 
of Corn, and to make the young Men all expert Hunters 
and mighty Warriours. AH this while, the King and old 
Men fit round the Image, and feemingly pay a profound 
RefpecY to -the fame. One great Help to thefe Indians, in 
carrying on thefe Cheats, and 'inducing Youth to do what 
they pleafe, is, the uninterrupted Silence, which is ever 
kept andobferv'd, with all the Reipect and Veneration ima- 

At thefe Feafts, which are fet out with all the Magni- 
ficence their Fare allows of, the Mafquerades begin at Night,M^«<?- 
and not before. There is commonly a Fire made in the middle radei - 
of the Houfe, which is the largeft in the Town, and is very 
often the Dwelling of their King, or War-Captain •, where 
lit two Men on the Ground, upon a Mat •, one with a Rattle, 
made of a Gourd, with fome Beans in if, the other with a 
Drum, made of an earthen Pot, cover'd with a drefs'd-Deer- 
Skin, and one Stick in his Hand to beat thereon j and fo 
they both begin the Song appointed. At the fame time, 
one drums, and the other rattles, which is all the artificial [Indian 
Mufick of their own making I ever faw amongft: them. To m l icum ' 
thefe two Inftruments they fing, which carries no Air with 
it, but is a fort of unfavoury Jargon -, yet their Cadences 
and Railing of their Voices are form'd with that Equality 
and Exa&nefs, that (to us Europeans) it feems admirable, 
how they fhould continue thefe Songs, without once miffing 
to agree, each with the others Note and Tune. 

As for their Dancing, were there Mailers of that Pro- Dating, 
feffion amongft them, as there are With us, they would dearly 
earn their Money j for thefe Creatures take the molt Pains 
at it, that Men are able to endure. I have feen thirty odd 
together a dancing, and every one dropp'd down with Sweat, 
as if Water had been poured down their Backs. They ufe 
thofe hard Labours, to make them able to endure Fatigue, 
— A a 2 and 




An Account of the Indians 









and improve their Wind, which indeed is very long and du- 
rable, it being a hard matter, in any Exerciie, to difpofTefs 
them of it. 

- At thefe Feafb, they meet from all the Towns within fifty 
or fixty Miles round, where they buy and fell feverai Com- 
modities , as we do at Fairs and Markets. Befides, they 
game very much, and often itrip one another of all they have 
in the World 1 and what is more, I have known feverai of 
them play themfelves away, fo that they have remained the 
Winners Servants, till their Relations themfelves could 
pay the Money to redeem them ; and when this happens, the 
Lofer is never deje&ed or melancholy at th .; Lofs, but laughs, 
and feems no lefs contented than if he had won. They ne- 
ver differ at Gaming, neither did I ever fee a Diipute, about 
the Legality thereof, fo much as rife amongff, them. 

Their chiefeft Game is a fort of Arithmetic!?, which fs 
managed by a Parcel of fmall fplit Reeds, theThicknefs of 
a fmall Bent ; thefe are made very nicely, fo that they part 
and are tractable in their Hands. .They are fifty one ia 
Number, their Length about feven Inches ; when they play, 
they throw part of them to their Antagonift • the Art is to 
difcover, upon fight, how many you have, and what you 
throw to him that plays with you. Some are fo expert at 
their Numbers, that they will tell m\ times together, what 
they throw out of their Hands. Although the whole Play 
Is carried on with the quicker! Motion it's poffible to ufe, yet 
fome are fo expert at this Game, as to win great Indian fi- 
liates by this Play. A good Sett of thefe Reeds, fit 
withal, are valued and fold for a drefs'd Doe-Skin. 

They have feverai other Plays, and Games ; as, with the 
Kernels or Stones of Perflmmons, which are ia efFe& the 
fame as our Dice , becaufe Winning or Lofing depend on 
which fide appear uppermoll, and how they happen to fall 

Another Game is managed with a Batoon and a Ball, and 
refembles our Trap-ball ; befides, feverai Nations have fe- 
verai Games and Paftimes, which are not ufed by others. 

Thefe Savages live in W>gwams y or Cabins built of Bark 
which are made round like an Oven, to prevent any Da- 
mage by hard Gales of Wind. They make the Fire in the 
piddle of the Koufe, and haye a Hole at the Top of the Roof 


of North-Carolina. 


right above the Fire, to let out the Smoke. Thefe Dwel- 
lings are as hot as Stoves , . where the Indians fleep and 
fweat all Night. The Floors thereof are never paved nor 
fwept, fo that they have always a loofe Earth on them. They 
are often troubled with a multitude of Fleas, efpecially near j^ 
the Places where they drefs their Deer-Skins, becaufe that 
Hair harbours them •, yet I never felt any ill, unfavory Smell 
in their Cabins, whereas, fhould we live in our Houfes, as 
they do, we fhould be poifon'd with our own Naftinefs j 
which confirms thefe Indians to be, as they really are 3 fome Indians 
of the fweeteft People in the World. a ' wset 

The Bark they make their Cabins withal, is generally Cy- P?fl ^ 8 ' 
prefs, or red or white Cedar ; and fometimes, when they 
area great way from any of thefe Woods, they make ufe of 
Pine-Bark, which is the worfer fort. In building thefe Fa- 
bricks, they get very long Poles, of Pine, Cedar, Hiccory, 
or any Wood that will bend , thefe are theThicknefs of the 
Small of a Man's Leg, at the thickeft end, which they ge- 
nerally ftrip of the Bark, and warm them well in the Fire, 
which makes them tough and fit to bend \ afterwards, they 
flick the thickeft ends of them in the Ground, about two 
Yards afunder, in a Circular Form, the diftance theydefign 
the Cabin to be, (which is not always round, but fometimes Making 
oval) then they bend the Tops and bring them together, Cabins. 
and bind their ends with Bark of Trees, that is proper for 
that ufe, as Elm is, or fometimes the Mbfs that grows on the 
Trees, and is a Yard or two long, and never rots; then Black Mefi. 
they brace them with other Poles, to make them ftrong ^Indians 
afterwards, cover them all over with Bark, fo that they are Store : 
very warm and tight, and will keep firm agamftall the Wea-^ ^* 
thers that blow. They have other forts of Cabins without 
Windows, which are for their Granaries, Skins, and Mer- ' 
chandizes ; and others thai: are cover'd over head -, the reft 
left open for the Air- Thefe have Reed-Hurdles, like Ta- Indians- 
bles, to lie and fit on, in Summer, and ferve for pleafant&*»g[««- 
Banqueting-Houfes in the hot Seafon of the Year. The Ca- in £ ' 
bins they dwell in have Benches all round, except where the^ "/" 4 
Doorftands-, on thefe they lay Beafts-Skins, and Mats made 
of Rufhes, whereon they fleep and loll. In one of thefe, fe- 
veral Families commonly live 3 though all related to one ano- 



An Account of the Indians 



As to the Indians Food, It is of feveral forts, which are as 

Venifon, and Fawns in the Bags, cut out of the Doe's 
Belly ; Fifh of all forts, the Lamprey-Eel excepted, a i-id the 
Sturgeon cur, Salt-Water Indians will not touch ; .Bear and 
Bever; Panther; Pole-cat; Wild-cat* Poffuin ; Raccoon •* 
Hares, and Squirrels, roalted with their Guts in; Snakes' 
all Indians will not eat them, tho J fome do ; All wild Fruits 
that arepaiatable, fome of which they dry and keep againft 
Winter, as all fort of Fruits, and Peaches, which they dry, 
and make Quiddonies, and Cakes, that are very pleafant* 
and a little tartifh ; young Wafps, when they are white in 
the Combs, before they can fly, this is efteemed a Dainty • 
All forts of Tortoisand Terebins; Shell-Filh, and Stingray' 
or Scate, dry'd; Gourds; Melons; Cucumbers; Squares' 
Ptflfe /of all forts ; Roctwhctn'me Meal, which is their Maiz 
parch'dand pounded into. Powder ; Fowl of all forts,that are 
eatable ; Ground-Nuts, or wild Potato's ; Acorns and Acorn 
Oil; Wild-Bulls, Beef, Mutton, Pork, &c. from the Ewlijh; 
Indian Corn, or Maiz, made into feveral forts of Bread ^fiars 
of Corn roalted in the Summer, or preferv'd againft Winter. 
The Victuals is common, throughout the whole Kindred' 
Relations, and often to the whole Town 5 efpecially when 
they are in Hunting-Quarters , then they all fare alike 
whichsoever of them kills the Game. They are very kind' 
and charitable to one another, but more efpecially to thole 
of their own Nation ; for if any one of them has fuffer'd 
any Lofs, by Fire or otherwife, thejTOrder the griev'd Per- 
fon to makeaFeaft, and invite them al] thereto, which, on 
the day appointed, they come to, and after every Man's 
Mefs of Vicf uals is dealt to him, one of their Speakers or 
grave old Men, makes an Harangue, and acquaints the Com- 
pany, That that Man's Houfe has been burnt, where- 
Indians in all his Goods were deltroy'd ; That he, and his Family, 
difcem not very narrowly efcaped ;That he is every Man's Friend in that 
between Company; and, That it is all their Duties to help him, as 

km men he woulddo t0 an J r of them > had the like Misfortune -befallen 

'them. After this Oration is over, every Man, according to 

his Quality, throws him down upon the Ground fome Pre^ 

fent, which is commonly Beads, Ronoak, Peak, Skins or Furs 

and which very often amounts to treble the Lofs he has fuf'- 


Feafli of 

of North-Carolina. 


fer'd. The fame Affiftance they give to any Man that wants 
to build a Cabin, or make a Canoe. They fay, it is our Duty 
thus to do \ for there are feveral Works that one Man cannot 
effed, therefore we mult give him our Help, otherwife our 
Society will fall, and we mall be depriv'd of thofe urgent Ne- 
ceffities which Life requires. They have no Fence to partindians 
-one anothers Lots in their Corn-Fields •, but every Man knows no Fences. 
his own, and it Icarce ever happens, that they rob one ano- 
ther of fo much as an Ear of Corn, which if any is found to 
do, he is fentenced by the Elders to work, and plant for him 
that was robb'd, till he is recompenfed for all the Damage 
he has fuffer'd in his Corn-Field •, and this is punctually per- 
form'd, and the Thief held in Difgrace, that Iteals from any 
of his Country-Folks. It often happens, that a Woman is 
deftituteof her Husband, and has a great many Children to Indians 
maintain \ fuch a Perfon they always help, and make their chmtyto 
young men plant, reap, and do every thing that ihe is i\ot Wl<ims ' 
capable of doing herfelf -, yet they do not allow any one 
to be idle, but to employ themfelves in fome Work or other. 

They never fight with one another, unlefs drunk, nor do Indian 
you ever hear any Scolding amongft them. They fay, the^omenm 
"Europeans are always rangling and uneafy, and wonder they ScMs - 
do not go out of this World, fince .they, are fo uneafy and 
difcontented in it. AH their Misfortunes and Lofies end in 
Laughter-, for if their Cabins take Fire, and all their Goods 
are burnt therein, findeed, all will fh"ive to prevent farther 
Damage, whilft there is any PolTibihty) yet fuch a Misfor- 
tune ends in a hearty Fitt of Laughter, unlefs fome of their 
Kinsfolks and Friends have loft their Lives \ but then the 
Cafe is alter'd, and they become very penfive, and go into 
deep Mourning, which is continued for a eonfiderable Time } 
fometimes longer, or fhorter, according to the Dignity of 
the Perfon, and the Number of Relations he had near him. 

The Burial of their Dead is perform'd with a great deal 
of Ceremony, in which one Nation differs, in fome few Cir- 
cumstances, from another, yet not fo much but we may, by 
a general Relation, pretty nearly account for them all. 

When an Indian is dead, the greater Perfon he was, theindian- 
more expenfive is hisFuneral. The firlt thing which is done>Burixi of". 
is, to place the neareit Relations near the Corps, who mourn Ui ' lrI) ^" 
and weep very much, having their Hair hanging down their 






An Account of the Indians 

Shoulders, in a very forlorn manner. After the dead Per- 
.fon has Jain a Day and a Night, in one of their Hurdles of 
Canes, commonly infome Out-Houfe made for that puroofe 
thofe that officiate about the Funeral, go into the Town 1 and 
the firit young Men they meetwithal, that have Blankets or 
Match Coats on, whom they think fit for ■ their Turn*- they 
,ftrip them from their Backs, who fuffer them fo to do, 'with- 
out any Refinance. In thefe they wrap the dead Bodies, and 
cover them with two or three Mats, which the Indians make 
of Ruihes or Cane - ? and laft of all, they have a long Web 
of woven Reeds, or hollow Canes, which -is the Coffin of 
the Indians, and is brought round feveral times , and tied 
faft at both ends, which indeed, looks very decent and 
well. Then the Corps is brought out of the Houfe, into 
the Orchard of Peach-Trees* where another Hurdle is made 
to receive it, about which comes all the Relations and Na- 
tipn that the dead Perfon belong'd to, belides feveral from 
other Nations in Alliance with them * all which fit down on 
the Ground, upon Mats fpread there, for that purpofe; 
where the Do&or or Conjurer appears * and , after fome 
time, makes a Sort of 0-yes y at which all are very iilent- 
then he begins to give an Account, who the dead Perforl 
was, and how ftout a Man heapprov'd himfelf* how many 
Enemies and Captives he had kill'd and taken* how ftrong 
tall, and nimble he was * that he was a great Hunter, a Lover 
of his Country, and poflefs'd of a great many beautiful Wives 
and Children, efteem'd the greateft of Bleffings among thefe 
Savages, in which they have a true Notion. Thus this Ora- 
tor runs on, highly extolling the dead Man, for his Valour 
Conduct, Strength , Riches, and Good-Humour- and enu- 
merating his Guns, Slaves and almoft every thing he was pof- 
fefs'd of, when living. After which, he addrefles himfelf to 
the People of that Town or Nation, and bids them fupply 
the dead Man's Place, by following his fteps, who, he aflures 
them, is gone into the Country of Seuls, (which they 
think lies a great way off, in this World, which the Sun vi- 
fits, in his ordinary Courfe) and that he will have the Enjoy- 
ment of handfome young Women, great Store of Deer to 
hunt, never meet with Hunger, Cold or Fatigue, but every 
•thing to anfwer his Expectation and Defire. This is the 
Heaven they propofe to themftlves * but, on the contrary, 


of North-Carolina. 


for thofe Indians that are lazy, thievifh amongft themfelves, 
bad Hunters, and no Warriours, nor of much Ufe to the Na- 
tion, to fuch they allot, in the next World, Hunger, Cold, 
Troubles , old ugly Women for their Companions, with 
Snakes, and all forts of nafty Viduals to feed on. Thus is 
mark'd out their Heaven and Hell. After all this Harangue, 
he diverts the People with fome of their Traditions, as when 
there was a violent hot Summer, or very hard Winter -, when 
any notable Diftempers rag'd amongft them •, when they 
were at War with fuch and fuch Nations ; how victorious Indian 
they were; and what were the Names of their War-Cap- rraditions. 
tains. To prove the times more exaftly, he produces the 
Records of the Country, which are a Parcel of Reeds, of 
different Lengths , with feveral diftindt Marks, known to 
none but themfelves ; by which they feem to guefs, very ex- 
actly, at Accidents that happen'd many Years ago ; nay two 
or three Ages or more. The Reafon I have to believe what 
they tell me, on this Account, is, becaufe I have been at the 
Meetings of feveral Indian Nations ; and they agreed, in re- 
lating the fame Circumftances, as to Time, very exactly •, as, 
for Example, they fay, there was fo hard a Winter in Caro- 
lina, 105 years ago, that the great Sound was frozen over, 
and the Wild Geefe came into the Woods to eat Acorns, and Abvl 
that they were fo tame, (I fuppdfe, through Want) that they WmtT ' 
kill'd abundance in the Woods, by knocking them on the 
Head with Sticks. 

But, to return to the dead Man. When this long Tale is 
ended, by him that fpoke firft ; perhaps, a fecond begins 
another long Story 5 fo a third, and fourth, if there be fo 
many Dodlors prefent \ which all tell one and the fame thing. 
At laft, the Corps is brought away from that Hurdle to the 
Grave, by four young Men, attended by the Relations, the 
King, old Men, and all the Nation. When they come to 
the Sepulcre, which is about fix Foot deep, and eight Foot 
long, having at each end (that is, at the Head and Foot) a 
Light-Wood, or Fitch-Pine Fork driven clofe down the 
fides of the Grave, firmly into the Ground \ (thefe two imement 
Forks are to contain a Ridge-Pole, as you mail underftand in the 
prefently) before they lay the Corps into the Grave, they<? r *™?. 
cover the bottom two or three times over with Bark of Trees, 
then they letdowa the Corps (with two Belts, that the /a- 

B b dims 


An Account of the Indians 

diam carry their Burdens withal) very leifurely , upon the 
faid Barks ; then they lay over a Pole of the fame Wood, in 
the two Forks, and having a great many Pieces of Pitch-Pine 
Logs, about two Foot and a half long, they ftick them in the 
fides of the Grave down each End, and near the Top thereof, 
where the other Ends lie on the Ridge- Pole, fo that they are 
declining like the Roof of a Houfe. Thefe being very thick- 
plac'd, -they cover them ( many times double) with Bark; 
then they throw the Earth thereon, that came out of the 
Grave, and beat it down very firm; by this Means , the 
dead Body lies in a Vault, nothing touching him; fo that 
when 1 faw this way of Burial, I was mightily pleas'd with it, 
efteeming it very decent and pretty, as having {sen. a great 
many Chriflians buried without the tenth Part of that Cere-r 
.mony and Decency. Now, when the Flelh is rotted and 
moulder'd from the Bone , they take up the Carcafs, and 
clean the Bones, and joint them together; afterwards, they 
. drefs them up in pure white drefs'd Deer-Skins, and lay them 
'^ttoh. amon gft their Grandees and Kings in the Quiogoz.on, which 
" is their Royal Tomb or Burial-Place of their Kings and War- 
Captains. This is a very large magnificent Cabin, (according 
to their Building) which is rais'd at the Publick Charge of the 
Nation, and maintained in a great deal of Form and Neat* 
nefs. About feven foot high, is a Floor or Loft made,' on 
which lie all their Princes, and Great Men, that have died 
for feveral hundred Years, all attir'd iii the Drefs I before 
told you of. No Perfon is to have his Bones lie here, and to 
be thus drefs'd, unlefshe gives a round Sum of their Money to 
the Rulers, for Admittance. If they remove never fo far, to 
live in a Foreign Country, they never fail to take all thefe 
dead Bones along with them , though the Tedioufnefs of 
their fhort daily Marches keeps, them never fo long on their 
Journey. They reverence and adore this Quiogoz.on^ with all 
the Veneration and Refped that is poffible for fuch a People 
to difcharge, and had rather lofe all, than have any Violence 
or Injury offerd thereto. Thefe Savages differ fome fmall 
matter in their Burials; fome burying right upwards, and 
otherwife, as you are acquainted withal in my Journal from 
M tnm S° utri to North Carolina ; Yet they all agree in their Mourn- 
: orihl ing> which is, to appear every Night, at theSepulcre, and 
howl and weep in a very difmal manner, having their Faces 



Idols at 
the Bids. 


of North'Carolina. 

dawb'd over with Light-wood Soot, (which is the fame as 
Lamp-black) and Bears Oil. This renders them as black as 
it is poflible to make themfelves, fo that theirs very much 
refemble the Faces of Executed Men boil'd in. Tar. If the 
dead Perfon was a Grandee, to carry on the Funeral Cere- 
monies, they hire People to cry and lament over the dead 
Man. Of this fort there are feveral, that pra&ife it for a 
Livelihood, and are very expert at Shedding abundance of 
Tears, and howling like Wolves, and fo difcharging their Indians 
Office with abundance of Hypocrify and Art. The Women hirei w 
are never accompanied with thefe Ceremonies after Death •, murv ° 
and to what World they allot that Sex, I never underftood, 
unlefs, to wait on their dead Husbands ; but they have more 
Wit, than fome of the Eaftern Nations, who facrifice them- 
felves to accompany their Husbands into the next World. 
It is the dead Man's Relations, by Blood, as his Uncles, Bro- 
thers, Sifters, Couflns, Sons, and Daughters, that mourn in 
good earneft, the Wives thinking their Duty js difcharg'd, 
and that they are become free, when their Husband is dead ; 
fo, as faft as they can, look out for another, to fupply his 

As for the Indian Women, which now happen in my Way ; 
when young, and at Maturity, they are as fine-fhap'd Crea- 
tures (take them generally) as any in the Univerfe. They are 
of a tawny Complexion •, their Eyes very brisk and amorous 5 ^ dian 
their Smiles afford the fineft, Compofure a Face can poffefs ; hm&fomc. 
their Hands are of the finefl Make, with fmall long Fingers, 
and as foft as their Cheeks 5 and their whole Bodies of a 
fmooth Nature. They are not fo uncouth or unlikely, as 
we fuppofe them 5 nor are they Strangers or not Proficients 
in the foft Paffion. They are moft of them mercenary, ex- 
cept the married Women, who fometimes beftow their Fa- 
vours alfo to fome or other, in their Husbands Abfence. 
For which they never ask any Reward. As for the Report, 
that they are never found unconftant, like the Europeans, it i^MmM 
wholly falfe ; for were the old World and the new one put into Women tm» 
a Pair of Scales fin point of Conftancy) it would be a hard«>«faw*« 
Matter to difcern which was the heavier. A; for the Trading ^ l "S 
Girls, which are thofe defign'd to get Money by their ^ 
Natural Parts, thefe are difcernable, by the Cut of their 
Hair j their Tonfure differing from all others, of that Nati- 
"."•'- B b 2 on, 

8 4- 

An Account of the Indians 




on, who are not of their Profeflion } which Method is in- 
tended to prevent Miftakes ^ for the Savages of America are 
defirous (if poflible) to keep their Wives to themfelves, as 
well as thofe in other Parts of the World. When any Ad- 
dreiTes are made to one of thefe Girls, ihe immediately ac- 
quaints her Parents therewith, and they tell the King of it, 
(provided he that courts her be a Stranger) his Majefty com- 
monly being the principal Bawd of the Nation he rules over, 
and there feldom being any of thefe Winchefter- Weddings a- 
greed on, without his Royal Confent. He likewife advifes 
her what Bargain to make, and if it happens to be an Indian 
Trader that wants a Bed-fellow, and has got Rum to fell, be 
fure, the King mull: have a large Dram for a Fee, to con- 
firm the Match. Thefe Indians, that are of the elder fort, 
when any fuch Queftion is put to them, will debate the Mat- 
ter amongft themfelves with all the Sobriety and Serioufnefs 
imaginable, every one of the Girl's Relations arguing the 
Advantage or Detriment that may enfue fuch a Night's En- 
counter - 7 all which is done with as much Steadinefs and Rea- 
lity, as if it was the greateft Concern in the World,, and no* 
fo much as one Perfon ihall be feen to fmile, fo long as the 
Debate holds, making no Difference betwixt an Agreement 
of this Nature, and a Bargain of any other. If they com- 
ply with the Men's Defire, then a particular Bed is provided 
for them, either in a Cabin by themfelves, or elfe all the 
young people turn out, to another Lodging, that they may 
not fpoil Sport ; and if the old People are in the fame Cabin 
along with them all Night, they lie as unconcern'd, as if 
they were fo many Logs of Wood. If it be an Indian of 
their own Town or Neighbourhood, that wants a Miftrefs, 
he comes to none but the Girl, who receives what Ihe thinks 
fit to ask him, and fo lies all Night with him, without the 
Confent of her Parents. 

The Indian Traders are thofe which travel and abide a- 
mongft the Indians for a long fpace of time ; fometimes for a 
Year, two, or three. Thefe Men have commonly their In* 
dian Wives, whereby they foon learn the Indian Tongue, keep 
a Friendfhip with the Savages^ and, befides : the Satisfadioii 
of a She-Bed-Fellow, they find thefe Indian Girls very fer- 
vieeable to them, on Account of dreffing their Visuals, and 
intruding 'em in the Affairs and Cuftoms of the Country- 

of North-Carolina. 

Moreover, fuch a Man gets a great Trade with the Savages ; 
for when a Perfbn that lives amongft them, is referv'd from 
the Converfation of their Women, 'tis impoflible for him 
ever to accomplifh his Defigns amongft that People. 

But one great Misfortune which oftentimes attends thole 
that converfe with thefe Savage Women, is, that they get 
Children by them, which are feldom educated any otherwife 
than in a State of Infidelity ; for it is a certain Rule and Cu- 
ftom, amongft all the Savages of America, that I was ever 
acquainted withal, to let the Children always fall to the Wo- 
man's Lot-, for it often happens, that two Indians that have children - 
liv'd together, as Man and Wife, in which Time they have^ w ; t h 
had feveral Children ; if they part, and another Man poffef- the Wo~ 
fes her, all the Children go along with the Mother, and none men. 
with the Father. And therefore, on this Score, it ever feems 
impoflible for the Chriftians to get their Children (which they 
have by thefe Indian Women) away from them \ whereby 
they might bring them up in the Knowledge of the Chri- 
ftian Principles. Neverthelefs, we often find, that Englijk 
Men, and other Europeans that have been accuftom'd to the 
Converfation of thefe favage Women, and their Way of 
Living, have been foallur'd with that earelefs fort of Life, 
as to be conftant to their Indian Wife, and her Relations, fo 
long as they liv'd, without ever defiring to return again a- 
mongft the EngUJh, although they had very fair Opportuni- 
ties of Advantages amongft their Countrymen ; of which fort 
I have known feveral. 

As for the Indian Marriages, I have read and heard of a 
great deal of Form and Ceremony ufed, which I never faw, 
nor yet could learn in the Time I have been amongft them, a- 
ny otherwife than I fhall here give you an Account of y which 
is as follows.. 

When any young Indian has a Mind for fuch a Girl' to his 
Wife, he, or fome one for him* goes to the young Woman's 
Parents , if living*, if not, to her neareft Relations •, where 
they; make Offers of the Match betwixt the Couple. The 
Relations reply, they willconfider of it, which ferves for a 
fufficient Anfwer, till there be a fecond Meeting about the 
Marriage, which is generally brought into Debate before all 
the Relations (that are old People) on both Sides •, and fome- Jjdiari 
times the King, with all his great Men, give their Opinions Mm w&*>- 


buy their 

Men not 

An Account of the Indians 

therein. If it be agreed on, and the young Woman approve 
thereof, ( for thefe Savages never give their Children in. 
Marriage, without their own Gonfent) the Man pays fo 
much for his Wife \ and the handfomer (he is, the greater 
Price me bears. Now, it often happens, that the Man has 
not fo much of their Money ready, as he is to pay for his 
Wife *, but if they know him to be a good Hunter, and that 
he can raife the Sum agreed for, in fome few Moons, or any 
little time, they agree,* fhe fhall go along with him, as be- 
troth'd, but he is not to have any Knowledge of her, till 
the utmoft Payment is difcharg'd} all which is punctually 
obferv'd. Thus, they lie together under one Covering for 
feveral Months, and the Woman remains the fame as Ihe was 
when fhefirftcame to him. I doubt, our Europeans would be 
apt to break this Cuftom, but the Indian Men are not fo vi- 
gorous and impatient in their Love as we are. Yet the Wo- 
men are quite contrary, and thofe Indian Girls that have con- 
vers'd * with the EngUJhand other Europeans, never care for 
the Converfation of their own Countrymen afterwards. 

They never marry fo near as a firft Coufin ; and although 
there is nothing more coveted amongft them, than to marry 
a Woman of their own Nation, yet when the Nation confifts 
of a very few People (as now adays it often happens) fo 
-that they are all of them related to one another, then they 
look out for Husbands and Wives amongft Strangers. For 
if an Indian lies with his Sifter, or any very near Relation, his 
Body is burnt, and his Ames thrown into the River, as un- 
worthy to remain on Earth •, yet an Indian is allow'd to 
marry two Sifters, or his Brothers Wife. Although thefe 
People are calPd Savages, yet Sodomy is never heard of a- 
mongftthem, and they are- fo far from the Practice of that 
beaftly and loathfome Sin, that they have no Name for it in 
all their Language. 

The Marriages of thefe Indians are no farther binding, than 
the Man and Woman' agree together. Either of them has 
Liberty to leave the other, upon any frivolous Excufe they 
can make*, yet whofoever takes the Woman that was ano- 
ther Man's before, and bought by Mm, as they all are, muft 
certainly pay to her former Husband, whatfoever he gave for 
her. Nay, if fhe be a Widow, and her Husband died in Debt, 
whofoever takes her to Wife, pays all her Husband's Obliga- 

■ nfTiT ■' - -i ii 

of North-Carolina.' 


tions, though never fo many ; yet the Woman is not required 
to pay any thing (unlefs me is willing) that was owing from 
her Husband, fo long as {he keeps Single. But if a Man courts 
her for a Nights Lodging, and obtains it, the Creditors will 
•make him pay her Husband's Debts, and he may, if hewillv 
take her for his Money, or fell her to another for his Wife. 
I havefeen feveral of thefe Bargains driven in a day, for you 
may fee Men felling their Wives as Men do Horfes in a Fair,^- . 
a Man being allow'd not only to change as often as he pleafes, ^ vg j t 
but likewife to have as many Wives as he is able to maintain. 
I have oftenfeen, that very old Jndlkn Men (that have been Indian 
Grandees in their own Nation^ have had three or foutr very ' Mn J Wi* 
likely young Indian Wives, which I have much wondered at, w * 
becaufe to me they feern d incapacitated to make good Ufe of 
one of them. 

The young Men will go in the Night from one Houfe to 
another, to vifltthe young Women, in which fort of Ram- 
bles they will fpend the whole Night. In their AddrefTes N ; g ht 
they find no "Delays, for if fhe is willing to entertain the Hambks>~ 
Man, ihe gives him Encouragement and grants him Admit- 
tance \ otherwife Ihe withdraws her Face from him, and 
fays, I cannot fee you, either you or I muft leave this Cabin^ 
and deep fomewhere elfe this Night. 

They are never to boaft of their Intrigues with the Wo- 
men. If they do, none of the Girls value them everaften, 
or admit of their Company in their Beds. This proceeds 
not on the fcore of Reputation, for there is no fuch thing 
(on that account; known amongft them ; and although we 
may reckon them the greateft Libertines and moft extrava- 
gant in their Embraces, yet they retain and poflefs a Mo~ 
defty that requires thofe Paflions never to be divulged. 

The Trading Girls, after they have led that Courfe of 
Life, for feveral Years, in which time they fcarce ever have 
a Child-, (for they have an Art to deftroy the Conception, 
and fhe thatbrings a Child in this Station,is accounted a Fool, 
and her Reputation is lefTen'd thereby)at laft they grow weary 
of fo many, and betake themfelves to a married State, or to#"% 
the Company of one Man -? neither does their having beea. Girh 
common to fo many any wife lefTen their Fortunes, butl rather JX^ 

augment tli^m ' ,B i J * 


augment them, 



An Account of the Indians 

Womatm The Woman is not punifli'd for Adultery, but 'tis the Man 

for Adul 


that makes the injur'd Perfon Satisfaction, which is the Law 
of Marions pradis'd amongft them all ; and he that ftrives 
to evade fuch Satisfaction as the Husband demands lives 
daily in Danger of his Life; yet when difcharg'd, all Ani- 
mofity islaidafide,and the Cuckold is very well pleafed with 
liis Bargain , whilft the Rival is laugh'd at by the whole 
Nation, for carrying on his Intrigue with no better Condud, 
than to be difcover'd and pay fo dear for his Pieafure. 

The Indians fay, that the Woman is a weak Creature and 
eafily drawn away by the Man's Perfuafioni for which Rea- 
fon, they lay no Blame upon her, but the Man (that ought 
to be Matter of his Paflion) for perfuading her to it. 
They are of a very hale Conftitution; their Breaths are as 
zevff-wii.fweetasthe Air they breathe in, and the Woman feems to 
be of that tender Compofition, as if they were delign'd rather 
for the Bed then Bondage. Yet their Love is never of that 
Force and Continuance, that any of them ever runs Mad or 
makes away with themfelves on that fcore. They never love 
beyond Retrieving their firft IndifFerency, and when flighted 
.are as ready to untie the Knot at one end, as you are at the 

Yet I knew an European Man that had a Child or two by 
one of thefe Indian Women, and afterwards married a Chri- 
stian, after which he came to pafs away a Night with his 
Indian Miftrefs ; but (he made Anfwer that ftie then had for- 
got fhe ever knew him, and that lhe never lay with another 
Woman's Husband, fo fell a crying, and took up the Child 
ftiehadbyhim, and went out of the Cabin (away from him") 
In great Difordei*. f 

Indian The Indian Womens Work is to cook the Vi&uals for the 
Zlmhey whole Family, and to make Mats, Baskets, Girdles of Pof- 
io. fum-Hair, and fuch-hke. They never plant the Corn a- 

Iroquois mongft us, as they do amongft the Iroquois, who are always 
greaWafi&t War and Hunting ; therefore, the Plantation Work is left 
noun, for the Women a nd Slaves to perform, and look after • whilft 
they arewandring all over the Continent betwixt the two 
Bays of Mexico and St. Laurence. 
Mats haw The Mats the Indian Women make, are of Rufhes and a- 
madc. bout five Foot high, and two Fathom long, and few'd' double" 
that is, two together ; whereby they become very commo- 

of North-Carolina. 

■ *- nt-- ■■-*■■ -"- 


dious to lay under our Beds, N or to fleep on in the Summer 
Seafoii in the Day-time, and for our Slaves ia the Night. 

There are other Mats made of Flags, which the Tushruro 
Indians make, and fell to the Inhabitants. 

The Baskets our Neighbouring Indians make, are all made Bjstetf. 
of a very fine fort of Bulrufhes, and fometimes of - Silk-grafS", 
which they work with Figures of Bealts, Birds, Fifties, &c. 

A great way up in the Country, both Baskets and Mats 
are made of the fplit Reeds, which are only the outward 
{hining Part of the Cane. Of thefe I have feen Mats, Baskets, 
and Dreffing-Boxes, very artificially done. 

The Savage Women of America, have very eafy Travail 
with their Children } fometimes they, bring Twins, and are 
brought to bed by themfelves, when took at a Difad vantage ; 
not but that they have Midwives amongfb them, as well as 
Doctors, who make it their Profeifion (for Gain) to aflift and 
deliver Women, and fome of thefe Midwives are very know- 
ing in feveral Medicines that Carolina affords, which certainly 
expedite, and make eafy Births. Befides, they are unac- 
quainted with thofe fevere Pains which follow the Birth in 
our European Women. Their Remedies area great Caufeof . . 

tliis Eaiinefs in that State ; for the Indian Women will run j .. 
up and down the Plantation, the fame day, very briskly, and y^ves. 
without any fign of Pain or Sicknefs -, yet they look very 
meager and thin. Not but that we mult allow a great deal 
owing to the Climate, and the natural Conftitution of thefe 
Women, whofe Courfe of Nature never viflts them in fuch - 
Quantities, as the European Women have. And tho' they 
never want Plenty of Milk, yet I never faw an Indian Wo- 
man with very large Breafts ; neither does the youngeft Wife 
ever fail of proving fogood a Nurfe, as to bring her Child 
up free from the Rackets and Difafters that proceed from the 
Teeth, with many other Diftempers which attack our Infants 
in England, and other Parts of Europe. They let their Chil- 
dren fuck till they are well grown, unlefs they prove big with 
Child fooner. They always nurfe their own Children them- r r 
felves, unlefs Sicknefs or Death prevents. I once faw SLrunf 
Nurfe hired to give Suck to an Indian Woman's Child, whi^h y^ 
you have in my Journal. After Delivery, they abfent the 
Company of a Man for forty days. As foon as the Child is 
born, they wafh it ia cold Water at the next Stream, and 

C c then 

An Account of the Indians 




then bedawb it, as I have mention'd before. After which, 
the Husband takes care to provide a Cradle, which is foon 
made, confifting of a Piece of flat Wood, which they hew 
with their Hatchets to the Likenefs of a Board \ it is about 
two Foot long, and a Foot broad ; to this they brace and 
tie the Child down very clofe, having, near the middle, a 
Stick faften'd about two Inches from the Board, which is for 
the Child's Breech to reft on, under which they put a Wad 
of Mofs , that receives the Child's Excrements, by which 
means they can fhift the Mofs, and keep all clean and fweet. 
Some Nations have very flat Heads, as you have heard in my 
Journal, which is made whilft tied on this Cradle, as that 
Relation informs you. Thefe Cradles are apt to make the 
Body flat \ yet they are the molt portable things that can be 
invented} for there is a String which goes from one Corner 
of the Board to the other, whereby the Mother flings her 
Child on her Back-, fo the Infant's Back is towards hers, and 
its Face looks up towards the Sky. If it rains, fhe throws 
her Leather or Woollen Match-coat, over her Head, which' 
covers the Child all over, and fecufes her and it from the 
injuries of rainy Weather. The Savage Women quit all Com- 
pany, anddrefsnot their own Vi&uals, during their -Purga- 
tions. ' „ 

After they have had feveral Children, they grow itrange- 
ly out of Shape in their Bodies -, As for Barrennefs, I never 
3uiew any of their Women , that have not Children when 

marry'd. , , . _, \ . . 

TheWomensDrefsis, in fevere Weather, a hairy Match- 
coat in the Nature of a Plad, which keeps out the Cold, and 
(as I faid before) defends their Children from the Prejudices 
of the Weather. At other times, they have only a fort of 
Flap or Apron containing two Yards in Length, and better 
than half a Yard deep. Sometimes, it is a Deer-Skin drefs'd 
white, and pointed or flit at the bottom, like Fringe. When 
this is clean, it becomes them very well. Others wear blue 
or red Flaps made of Bays and Plains, which they buy or the 
Zwlifc of both which they tuck in the Corners, to fatten 
the Garment, and fometimes make it fait with a Belt. All 
of them, when ripe, have a fmall String round the Wafte, to 
which another is tied and comes between their Legs, where 
always is a Wad of ■ Mofs againft the OipSis \ but never any 

of North-Girolina. 


Hair is there to be found: Sometimes, they wear Indian 
Shooes, or Moggizons, which are made after the fame man- 
ner, as-the Mens are. 

The Hair of their Heads is made into a long Roll like a 
Horfes Tail, and bound round with Ronoak or TorceUn, which 
is a fort of Beads they make of the Conk-Shells. Others that 
have not this, make a Leather-String ferve. 

The Indian Men have a Match-Coat of Hair, Furs, Fea- Indian 
thers, or Cloth, as the Women have. Their Hair is roll'd Jv& 
up, on each Ear, as the Womens, only much Ihorter, and .• 
oftentimes a Roll on the~Crown of the Head, or Temples, 
which is juft as they fancy i there being no Stri&nefs in their 
Drefs. Betwixt their Legs comes a Piece of Cloth, that is 
tuck'd in by a Belt both before and behind. This is to hide 
their Nakednefs, of which Decency they are very ftrict Ob- 
fervers, although never pradtifed before the Chriftians came 
amongir. them. They wear Shooes, of Bucks, and fometimes 
Bears Skin , which they tan in an Hour or two ; with the 
Bark of Trees boil'd, wherein theypuvthe Leather whilft 
hot, and let it remain a little while, whereby it becomes fo 
qualify'd, as to endure Water and Dirt, without growing ' 
hard. Thefe have no Heels, and are made as fit for the 
Feet, as a Glove is for the Hand, and are very eafie to travel 
mi, when one is a little us'd to them. When thefe Savages 
live near the Water, they frequent the Rivers in Summer- Indians 
time very much, where both Men and Women very often in majbing- 
a day go in naked to warn themfelves, though not both Sexes in . tbe 
together. *l ver - 

Their Feather Match-Coats are very pretty, efpecially 
fomeofthem, which are made extraordinary charming, con- 
taining feveral pretty Figures wrought in Feathers, making 
them feem like a fine Flower Silk-Shag; and when new andMatrt- 
frefh, they become a Bed very well, inftead of a Quilt. Some c »^ bote 
of another fort are made of Hare, Raccoon j Bever, or Squir-^^' 
rel-Skins, which are very warm. Others again are made of 
the green Part of the Skin of a Mallard's Head, which they 
few perfectly well together, their Thread being either the 
Sinews of a Deer divided very fmall, or Silk-Grafs. When 
thefe are finifh'd, they look very finely, though they mult 
needs be very tsoublefome to make. Some of their great 
Men ¥ as Rulers and fuch, that have Plenty of Deer Skins _ 

Cc 2 by 

s9 2 

An Account of the Indians 



jar War. 

by them, will often buy the Goats, which they 
wear on Feftivals and other Days of Viiiting, Yet none eveF 
buy any Breeches, faying, that they are too much confin'd 
in them, which prevents their Speed in running, &c. 

We have fome Indians, that are more civilized than the reffc, 
which wear Hats, Shooes, Stockings, and Breeches, with 
very tolerable Linnen Shirts, which is not common amongfb 
thefe Heathens. The Pafpitank Indians did formerly keep 
Cattle, and make Butter. 

Thefe are them that wear the Englijh Drefs. Whether, 
they have Cattle now or no, I am not certain-, but I am of 
the Opinion, that fuch Inclinations in the Savages mould 
meet with Encouragement, and every Englijhman ought to do 
them Juftice, and not defraud them of their Land, which, 
has been allotted them formerly by the Government ; for if 
we do not Ihew them Examples of Juftice and Vertue, ws 
can never bring them to believe us to be a.wor.thier Race, of 
Men than themfelves. 

The Drefles of thefe People are fo different, according to? 
the Nation that they belong to, that it is impoffible to re- 
count all the whimfical Figure's that they fometimes make by. 
their Antick Drefles. Befides, Carolina is a warm Country, 
and very mild in its Winters, to what Virginia, Maryland, Ten* 
fylvania, Neve-York, the Jerfeys 7 .and New- England are \ where- 
fore, our Indians Habit very much differs from the. Drefles 
that appear amongft the Savages wlio inhabit thofe cold 
Countries ; in regard their chiefeft Cloathing for the Winter- 
Seafon is made of the Furs of Bever, Raccoon, and other 
Northern Furs, that our Climate is not acquainted withal, 
they producing fome Furs, as the Monad, Moor, Marten* 
Black Fox, and others to us unknown. 

Their Drefs in Peace and War, is quite different Befides, 
when they go to. War, their Hair is comb'd out by the Wo*- 
men, and done over very much with Bears Greafe, and red. 
Root; with Feathers, Wings, Rings, Copper, and Peak, or 
Wampum in their Ears. Moreover, they buy Vermillion of 
the Indian Traders , wherewith they paint their Faces all. 
over red, and commonly make a Circle of Black about one. 
Eye, and another Circle of White about the. other, whilft. 
others bedawb their Faces with Tobacco-Pipe Clay, Lamp- 
Mack, black Lead, and divers other Golours, which they, 


of North-Carolina. 

make with the feveral forts of Minerals and Earths that 
they get in different Parts of the Country, where they hunt 
and travel. When thefe Creatures are thus painted, they 
make the moft frightful Figures that can be imitated by Men, 
and feem more like Devils than Humane Creatures. You may 
befure, that they areabout fome Mifchief, when you fee them' 
thus painted •, for in all the Hoftilities which have ever been 
a&ed againft the Englifl) at any time, in feveral of the Planta- , 
tions of America, the Savages always appear'd in this Dif-. 
guize , whereby they might never after be difcover'd, or 
known by any of the Chriftians that mould happen to fee- 
them after they had made their Efcape ^ for it is impoffible,. 
ever to know an Indian under thefe Colours, although he has 
been at your Houfe a thoufand times, and you know him, af 
other times, as well, as you do any Perfon living. As for 
their Women, they never ufe any Paint on their Faces ; nei- 
ther do they ever carry them along with them into the Field, 
when they intend any Expedition, leaving-them at home with' 
the old Men and Children. 

Sorrie of the Indians wear great Bobs in their Ears, dmmasMh 
fometimes in. the Holes thereof they put Eagles and other- 
Birds, Feathers, for a Trophy. When they kill any .Fowl, 
they commonly pluck off the downy Feathers, and ftick them - 
all over their Heads. Some (both Men and Women; wear 
great Necklaces of their Money made of Shells. They of- 
ten wear Bracelets made of. Brafs, and fometimes of Iron 
Wire. ' -" - . 

Their Money is of different forts, but all made of Shells, Indian. 
which are found on the Coaft of Carolina, which are very *&»*>- 
large and hard, fo that they are very difficult to cut: Some 
EngUfr Smiths have try'd to drill this fort' of Shell-Money, 
and ^hereby thought to get an Advantage-, but itprov'd fo 
hard, that nothing could be gain'd. They oftentimes make, 
of this Shell, a fort of Gorge, which they wear about their 
Neck in a ftring \ fo it hangs on their Collar, whereon fame- 
times is engraven a Crofs, or fome odd fort of Figure, which 
comes next in their Fancy" There are other forts valued at 
a Doe-Skin, yet the Gorges will fometimes fell for three or 
four Buck-Skins ready dreft. There be others, that eight of 
them go readily for a Doe Skin , but the general a-nd current 
Species of all the Indians in Carolina^ arid, I believe, all over 


i I 


An Account of the Indians 

the Continent, as far as the Bay of Mexico, is that which 
we call Teak, and Ronoak ; but Peal more efpecially. This is 
that which at Nerv-Tork, they call Wampum, and have ufed it 
as current Money araongffc the Inhabitants for a great 
many Years. This is what many Writers call Porcelan, and 
is made at New-Tork in great Quantities, and with us in fome 
meafure. Five Cubits of this purchafe a drefs'd Doe-Skin, and 
feven or eight purchafe a drefs'd Buck-Skin. An English* 
man could not_ afford to make fo much of this Wampum for 
five or ten times the Value.} for it is made out of a vaft great 
Shell, of which that Country affords Plenty ; where it is 
ground fmaller than the final! End of a tobacco-Pipe, or a 
large Wheat-Straw. Four or five of thefe make an Inch, and 
every one is to be drill'd through, and made as fmooth as 
Glafs, andfo ftrung, as Beds are, and a Cubit of the Indian 
Meafure contains as much in Length, as will reach from the 
Elbow to the End of the little Finger. They never Hand to 
queftion, whether it is a tall Man, or a fhort one, that mea- 
fures it ; but if this Wampum Teak be black or purple, as fome 
Part of that Shell is, then it is twice the Value. This the 
Indians grind on Stones and other things, till they make it 
current, but the Drilling is the moll difficult to the English- 
men, which the Indians manage with a Nail ftuck in a Cane 
or Reed. Thus they roll it continually on their Thighs, with 
their Right-hand, holding the Bit of Shell with their Left, 
fo in time they drill a Hole quite through it, which is a very 
tedious Work ; but efpecially in making their Ronoak, four of 
which will fcarce make one Length of Wampum. The Indi- 
ans are a People that never value their time, fo that they can 
afford to make them, and never need to fear the Englljh will 
take the Trade out of their Hands. This is the Money with 
which you may buy Skins, Furs, Slaves, or any thing, the 
Indiahs have; it being the Mammon (as our Money is to us) 
that entices and perfuades them to do any thing, and part 
with every thing they poffefs, except their Children for Slaves. 
As for their Wives, they are often fold, and their Daughters 
violated for it. With this they buy off Murders ; and what- 
foever a Man can do that is ill, this Wampum will quit him 
of, -and make him, in their Opinion, good and vertuous, 
though never fo black before. 


of North-Carolina. 


All the Indians give a Name to their Children, which is Indians 
not the fame as the Father or Mother, but what they fancy. how 
This Name they keep, (if Boys) till they arrive to the Age "*"'**• 
of a Warriour, which is fixteen or feventeen Years •, then 
they take a Name to themfelves, fometimes, Eagle, Panther, 
Allegator, or fome fuch wild Creature ; efteeming nothing on 
Earth worthy to give them a Name, but thefe Wild-Fowl, 
and Beafts. Some again take the Name of a Fifh, which they 
keep as long as they live. 

The King is the Ruler of the Nation, and has others under Indian 
him, to affift him, as his War-Captains, and Counfellors, ^i n f *?*' 
who are pick'd out and chofen from among the ancientefl ^ 
Men of the Nation he is King of. Thefe meet him in all 
general Councils: and Debates, concerning War, Peace, E ^ry 
Trade, Hunting, and all the Adventures and Accidents oP™? 1 a 
Humane Affairs, which appear within their Verge; where ^"^ e f eJ 
all Affairs are difcourfed of and argued fro and con, very de-*# the m- 
Hberately (without making any manner of Parties or Divili- tion, 
onsj for the Good of the Publick ; for, as they meet there to 
treat, they difcharge their Duty with all the Integrity imagi- 
nable, never looking towards their Own Intereft, before the 
Publick Good. After every Man has given his Opinion, that 
which has moft Voices, or,in Summing up, is found the molt 
reafonable, that they make ufe of without any Jars and 
Wrangling, and put it in Execution, the firft Opportunity 
that offers. 

The Succelfion falls not to the King's Son , but to his succejfim 
Sifter's Son, which is a fureway to prevent Impoftofs in thehsm- 
Succeflion. Sometimes they poifbn the Heir to make way for 
another, which is not feldomdone, when they do not ap- 
prove of -the Youth that is to fucceed them. The King hina- 
felf is commonly chief Do&or in that Cure. 

They are fo well verfed in Poifon, that they are often 
found to poifon whole Families ; nay, moft of a Town , and 
which is moft to be admired, they will poifon a running 
Spring , or Fountain of Water, fo that whofoever drinks 
thereof, fhall infallible die. When the Offender is difcover'd, 
his very Relations urge for Death, whom nothing will ap= 
peafe, but the moft cruel Torment imaginable, which is 
executed in the moft publick Manner that it's poffibleto ztX 
fuch a Tragedy in. For all the whole Nation, and all the 


An Account of the Indians 

hoxx> pu- 

Indians within a hundred Mile (if it is poffible to fend for 
themj are fummon'd to come and appear at fuch a Place and 
Time, tqfee and rejoyce at the Torments and Death offuch 
a Perfon, who is the common and profefs'd Enemy to all the 
friendly Indians thereabouts,. who now lies under the Con- 
demnation of the whole Nation, and accordingly is to be 
put to Death. Then all appear (young and old) from all 
the adjacent Parts, and meet, with all the Expreffions of joy, 
to confummate this horrid and barbarous Fea ft , which is 
carried on after this difmal Manner. Firft, they bring the 
Prifoner to the Place appointed for the Execution, where he 
is fet down on his Breech on the Ground. Then they all get 
about him, and you fhall not fee one forrowful or dejeded 
Countenance amongfl them, but all very merrily difpos'd, as 
if fome Comedy was to be acted, inftead of a Tragedy. He 
that is appointed to be the chief Executioner, takes a Knife, 
and bids him hold out his Hands, which he does, and then 
cuts round theWrift through the Skin, which is drawn off 
like a Glove, and flead quite off at the Fingers Ends ; then 
they break his Joints and Bones, and buffet and torment hjm 
after a very inhumane Manner, till fome violent Blow per- 
haps ends his Days •, then they burn him to Ames, and 
throw them down the River. Afterwards they eat, drink 
and are merry, repeating all the Adions of the Tormentors 
and the Prifoner, with a great deal of Mirth and Satif- 
fadion. This Accufation is laid againft an Indian Heroe 
fometimes wrongfully, or when they have a mind to get rid 
of a Man that has more. Courage and Condud than his neigh- 
bouring Kings or great Men ; then they alledge the Pradice 
of polfoning Indians againft him, and make a Rehearfal of e- 
very Indian that died for a year or two, and fay, that they 
were poifon'd by fuch an Indian; which Reports ftir up all 
the Pvelations of the deceafed againft the faid Perfon, and by 
fuch means make him away prefently. In fome Affairs, theie 
Savagesare very refervM and politick, and will attend a long 
time with a great deal of Patience, to bring about their De- 
figns •, they being never impatient or hafty in executing any 
of their Defignsof Revenge. 

Now I am gone fo far in giving an Account of the Indians 
Temper, I will proceed ; and cangive you no other Gbara- 
der of them, but that they are a very wary People, and are 





nevei* irjfry or impatient. Tho'y will endure a great many 
MiSfetft-tinV^, ' Loiles, and Difapointmerits without mewing 
th*rtftWfe«,-iii theieaft, vex'd or'u'tieafy. When they g6',by 
Water, it there proves a Head-Wirid; they.' 'never 1 vex and 
fret, as the Europeans do, and let what Misfortune tome td 
them, as will or can happen, they never 'relent. Befides, there 
is one Vice very common every where, which I neve'r found 
amongft them, which is Envying other Mens Hippinefs, be- 
£aufe their Station is not equal to, or above, theifNeigh'bbu'rs. 
Of this Sin I cannot fay 1 ever faw'an Exam'ple,"ttibugh 'they 
are a People that fet as great a Value upon themfelves, as 
any fort of Men in the Worlds upon which Account they 
find fomething Valuable in themfelves above Riches,, Thus, 
he that is" a good Wafriour, Is the proudeft Creature living .\ %. 
and he that is an expert' Hunter, is efteerii'd By the People 
arid himfelf-, yet all thefe are natural Vertues and Gifts, 
and not Riches, which are as often in the PoOefTiOri of a Fool 
as a Wife-man. Several of the Indians are pofTefVd of a great 
many Skins, Wampum,- Ammunition, and what other things 
are efteem'd Riches amongft themj yet fuch an Indian 'is 
no more efteem'd amongft them, than arijf other ordinary 
Fellow, provided he has no' perfbnal Endowments, which 
are the Ornaments, that muft gain hi'rh an Efteem among 
them \ for a great Dealer, amongft the Indians, is no other- 
wife refpedted and efteemed, than as a Man that ftrains 
his Wits, and fatigues himfelf, to furriiih others with NeceT- 
faries of Life, that live much eafier and enjoy more of the 
World, than he himfelf does, with all his Pelf. If they are 
taken Captives, and expect a miferable Exit, they fing ; if Indians 
Death approach them in Sicknefs, they are not afraid of, fftinot sfrtai 
nor are ever heard to fay, Grant me fome time. They know t0 ile * 
by Inftinct, and daily Example, that they muft die ; where- 
fore, they have that great and noble Gift, to fubrait to every 
thing that happens, and value nothing that attacks them. 

Their Cruelty to their Prifoners of War is what they are 
feemingly guilty of an Error in, (I mean as to a natural Fail- 
ing) becaufe they ftrive to invent the moit inhumane Butch- 
eries for them, that the Devils themfelves could invent, or 
hammer out of Hell ^ they efteeming Death no Punilhment, 
but rather an Advantage to him, that is exported out of this 
into another World. 

D d There- 

9 8 

An Account of the Indians 


Therefore, they inflift on them Torments, wherein they 
prolong Life in that miferable ftate as long as they can, and 
never mifs Skulping of them, as they call it, which is, to cu£ 
off the Skin from the Temples, and taking the whole Head 
of Hair along with it, as if it was a Night-cap. Sometimes, 
they take the Top of the Skull along with it ; all which theyr 
preferve, and carefully keep by them, for a Trophy of theii? 
Conqueft over their Enemies. Others keep their Enemies 
Teeth r which are taken in War, whilil others Iplit the 
Pitch-Pine into Splinters, and Hick them into the Prisoners 
Body yet alive. Thus they light them, which bum like, fa 
Indians many Torches ; and in this manner, they make him dance 
Cruelty to round a great Fire, everyone buffeting and deriding him, 
Trifomrs t ju h e expires, when every one ftrives to get a Bone or ibme 
Relick of this unfortunate Captive. One of the young Fel- 
lows, that has been at the Wars, and has. had the Fortune 
to take a Captive, returns the proudeft Creature on Earth, 
and fets fuch a Value on himfelf, that he knows not how to 
contain himfelf in his Senfes. The Iroquois, or Sinnagars, are 
the molt Warlike Indians that we know of, being always at 
War,, and not to be perfuaded from that Way of Living, D7 
any Argument that can be ufed.. If you go to perfiiade them 
to live peaceably with the Tushruros,, and let them be one. 
People* and in cafe thofe Indians defire it, and will fubmit 
to them, they will anfwer you, that they cannot live without 
War, which they have ever been ufed to ; and that if Peace 
"be made with the Indians they now war withal, they mult, 
find out fome others to wage War againft - r for, for them to 
live in Peace, is to live out of their Element,, War, Con- 
cuieft, and Murder, being what they delight in, and value 
t hemfelves for. When they take a Slave, and intend to keep, 
him to Work in their Fields, they flea the Skin from the 
Setting on of his Toes to the middle of his Foot, fo cut off 
one half of his Feet, wrapping the Skin over the Wounds, 
Indians and healing them. By this cruel Method, the Indian Captive 
pa and i s hinder d from making his Efcape^ for he can neither, rum 
tut off ^ r *faft or go any where, hut his Feet are more eafily traced. 
JkJ* and difcoverd. Yet I know one Man who made his Efcape 
fromthem, tho' they had thus difabled him, as you may fee in 
any Journal; 

of North-Carolina. 


The Indians ground their Wars on Enmity, not on Interefl, 
as the Europeans generally do ; for the Lofs of the meanelt 
Perfon in the Nation, they will go to War and lay all at 
Stake , and profecute their Defign to the utmoft •, till the 
Nation they were injur'd by, be wholly deftroy'd, or make 
them that Satisfaction which they demand. They are very 
politick, in waging, and carrying on their War, firft by ad- 
vifing with all the ancient Men of Conduct, and Reafon, that 
belong to their Nation-, fuch as fuperannuated War-Cap- 
tains, and thofe that have been Counfellors for many Years, 
and whofe Advice has commonly fucceeded very well. They 
have likewife their Field Counfellors, who are accuftomed 
to Ambufcades, and Surprizes, which Methods are common- 
ly ufed by the Savages ; for I fcarce ever heard of a Field- 
Battle fought amongft them. 

One of their Expeditions afforded an Inftance, worthy 
mention, which was thus ; Two Nations of Indians here in 
Carolina were at War together, and a Party of each were in 
the Forelfc ranging to fee what Enemies they "could take. 
The leflfer Number found they were difcover'd, and could not 
well get over a River ( that lay betwixt them and their 
home) without engaging the other Party, whofe Numbers 
were much the greater •, fo they calfd a Council, which met, 
and having weigh'd their prefent Circumftances with a great 
deal of Argument and Debate, for a confiderable time, and 
found their Enemies Advantage, and that they could expecl: 
noSuccefs in Engaging fuch an unequal Number -, they, at 
Iaft, concluded on this Stratagem, which, in my Opinion, 
carried a great deal of Policy along with it. It was, That 
the fame Night, they lhould make a great Fire, which they 
were certain would be difcover'd by the adverfe Party, and 
there drefs up Logs of Wood in their Cloaths, and make 
them exactly feem like Indians, that were afleep by the Fire- 
iide ; (which is their Way, when in the Woods) To, [aid they, ( 
our Enemies will fire upon thefe Images, fuppofing them to 
be us, who will lie inAmbufcade, and, after their Guns are India 
unloaded, fhall deal well enough with them. This Refult mthL 
was immediately put in Execution, and the Fire was made 
by the fide of a Valley, where they lay perdu very advanta- 
geoufly. Thus, a little before Break of Day, (which com- 
monly is the Hour they furprize their Enemies in) the Indi- 

D d 2 aws. 


An Account of the Indians 





ans came down to their Fire, and at once fired in upon taofe 
Logs in the Indians Cioaths, and rua up to them; expecting 
they had kih°d every Man dead; but they found themfelves 
miftaken, for then the other Indians^ who had lain all 'the 
Night ftark-naked in the Bottom, attaek'd them with their 
loaded Pieces, which fo furprized them , that every Man 
was taken Prifoner, and brought in bound to their Town: 

Another; Inftance was betwixt the Maehapunga Indi'axjj 
and the Coralline's, on- the Sand-Banks; which' was as follows. 
The Macbapungas wexe invited to a.Feaft, by the Coranines% 
(which two Nations had been a long time at War together, 
and had lately concluded a Peace.) Thereupon, the . MaohJe- 
punga Indians took the Advantage of coming to the Cdranina 
Feaft, which, was to avoid all Sufpicion, and their King, 'wild, 
of a Sav3ge, is a great Politician and very jftouE; order'd all 
his, Men to carry'their Tamabauh along with them, hidden 
under their Match-Goats, which they did; arid being ac- 
quainted when to fall on, by. the Word given, they all (upon 
- this Delign) fet forward for the Feaft, and came to the Car a- 
nm Town, wherethey had gotten Victuals, Fruit, and fuch make an. Indian Entertainment, all ready to make 
thefe new Friends welGome,avhich they did \ and, after Din- 
ner, towards the Evening, fasitiscuftomary amongft them*) 
they. went. to. Dancing, all- together^ fo when the Macha- 
pxnga King faw.the beft Opportunity offer, he gave the Word, . 
and his Men pull'd their Tamabauh or Hatchets from under 
their MatchrCoats, and kidl'd feveral, and tbolfiith'e reft Pri- 
foners, except Tome few that were notprefent, and about 
four or five that efcap'd. The Prifoners they fold Slaves' to 
the Englijh- At the time this was done, thofe Indians had 
nothing but Bows and Arrows, neither tide having Guns. 

The Indians me "very-revengeful, 1 and never: forget an In- 
jury done, till they have reeeiv'd Satisfaction. Yet they are 
. thefreeft People from Heats and ; Famous (which pofiefs the 1 * 
pefift ~ Europeans) of anyl ever heard of. They never- call any Man 
ladians. to account for what he did, when he was drunk ; but fay^ it 
^was the Drink that caufed t his Misbehaviour, therefore he 
"ought to be 'forgiven*. -They never- fre<juent : a : Ghriiian's 
Houfethat is given to. Paffion,- nor will they ever buy befell 
with him, if they can- get' the fame Commodities of any -a* 

' ■ ther 

of North-Carolina. 

20 £ 

ther Perfon ; for they fay, fuch Men are mad Wolves, and 
no more Men. 

They know not what Jealoufy is, becaufe they never think Indians 
their Wives are unconftant, unlefs they are Eye-witneiTes »«?<?<*- 
thereof. They are generally very bafliful, efpecially the young lous - 
Maids, who when they. come into a ftrange Cabin, where 
they are not acquainted, never ask for any thing, though ne- 
ver fo hungry, or thirfty, but lit down, without fpeaking a 
Word (be'it never fo long) till fome of the Houfeasks them 
a Queftion, or falls into Difcourfe, with the Stranger. I 
never Taw a Scold amongft them, and to their Children they 
are extraordinary tender and indulgent •, neither did I ever 
fee a" Parent correct a Child, excepting one Woman, that 
was the King's Wife, and fhe (indeed) did pqiTefs a Teniper 
that is not commonly found, amongft them.- They are free 
from all manner of Compliments, except Shaking of Hands, 
and Scratching on the Shoulder, which two are the greateft 
Marks of Sincerity and Friendfhip, that can be fhew'd one to 
another. They cannot expxtfs fare you well;, but when they'lndians 
leave theHoufe, will fay, Jgoftr^'ghtway, which 5 is to jsafci- Compte- 
mate their Departure } and if the Mail of the Houfe Jias'any mm ' 
MeiTage to. Tend by the goingMan, he may acquaint him '.» 
therewith. Their Tongue allows not to fay, Sir, I am your 
Servant, becaufe they, hav.e'no different Titles for Man, only 
King, .War-Captain,, Old Man, or. Young Man, which, re- 
fpectthe Stations and Circwroftanees Men are employed in, 
and arriv'd to, r and not .Geremonyv As for Servant, 'they 
have no fuch thing, except' Slave, and their Dogs, Cats, tame 
or domeftick.Bea.fts, and Birds,, are calFd by the fame Name : 
For the Indian- Word for Slave includes them all. So when an 
Ind'an tells you he has gota Slave for you, it may (in general 
Terms., as theyufe) be.' a young Eagle, & Dag, Ottsr, or 
any other thing of that Nature, de- 
pend on the Mailer for its Suftenance. 
. , They are never/fearful in the Night, nor do the Thoughts 
©f Spirits ; ever trouble them.", fuch as the many Hobgoblins 
and Bugbears that we fuck in with our Milk, and the 
Foolery, of our Nurfes- and Servants fuggeft to us; I who.byi nc ji a ns 
their idje Tales of, Fairies, and Witches, make .fuch lm-mtarraid 
preiTioosjtan, our tender -Years* that at Maturity, we carry of spirits. 
PigmiesSoals, ia.Giaats Bodies, and ever after are thereby 


An Account of the Indians 

;i i 

: i 

■ill I 

fo, much depriv'd of Reafon, and unman'd, as never- to be 
Mailers' of half the Bravery Nature defigivd for us,- 

Not but that the Indians have as many Lying Stories of 
Spirits and Conjurers, as any People in the World ; but they 
tell it with no Difadvantage to themfelves -; for the great E- 
fteem which the Old Men bring themfelves to, is by making 
the others believe their Familiarity with Devils and Spirits, 
and how great a Correfpondence they have therewith, which 
if it once gains Credit, they ever after are held in the great- 
eft. Veneration imaginable, and whatever they after impofe 
upon the People, is receiv'd as infallible. They are fo little 
llartkd at the Thoughts of another World, that they not 
feldom murder themfelves •, as for Inftance, a JBear-River 
Indian, a very likely young Fellow, about twenty Years of 
Age, whofe Mother was angry at his drinking of too much 
Rum, and chid him for it, thereupon reply'd, he would have 
her fatisfied, and he would do the like no more •, upon which 
he made his Words good ; for he went afide, and fhot him- 
felf dead. This was a Son of the politick King of the Ma- 
chapunga, I {poke of before, and has the molt Cunning of any 
Indian I ever met withal. 

Moll of the Savages are much addided to Drunkennefs, a 
Vice they never were acquainted with, till the Chriftians 
came amongll them. Some of them refrain drinking ftrong 
Liquors, but very few of that fort are found amongll them. 
Their chief Liquor is Rum, without any^ Mixture. This the 
MqgHjh bring amongll them, and buy Skins, Furs, Slaves and 
other of their Commodities therewith. They never are con- 
tented with a little, but when once begun, they mull make 
themfelves quite drunk ; otherwife they will never reft, but 
fell all they have in the World, rather than not have their 
full Dofe. In thefe drunken Frolicks, (which are always car- 
ried on in the Night ) they fometimes murder one ano- 
ther, fall into the Fire, fall down Precipices, and break their 
Necks, with feveral other Misfortunes which this drinking of 
- Rum brings upon them ; and tho' they are fenfible of it, yet 
they have no Power to refrain this Enemy. About five years 
ago, when Landgrave Daniel was Governour, he fummon'd 
in all the Indian Kings and Rulers to meet, and in a full 
Meeting of the Government and Council, with thote Indians, 
they agreed upon a firm Peace, and tht Indian Rulers defired 
• „ no 

of North- Carolina. 

a 03 

no Rum might be fold to them, which was granted, and a 
Law made, that infli&ed a Penalty on thofe that fold Rum 
to the Heathens j but it was never ftridtly obferv'd, and 
befides, the young Indians were fo difgufted at that Article* 
that they threatned to kill the Indians that made it, unlefs it 
was laid afide, and they might have Rum fold them, when 
they went to the Englijhmens Houfes to buy it. 

Some of the Heathens are fo very poor, that they have 
no Manner of Cloaths, lave a Wad of Mofs to hide their 
Nakednefs. Thefe are either lufty and will not work ; o- 
therwife, they are. given to Gaming or Drunkeanefs; yet 
thefe get Victuals as well as the reft, becaufethat is common 
amongft them, If they are caught in theft they are Slaves till- 
they repay the Perfon>(as Imention'd before) but to Ileal from 
theEnglijh they reckon no Harm. Not but that I have 
known fome few Savages that have been as free from Theft as 
any oftheChriftians. When they have a Defign^to lie with a 
Woman, which they cannot obtain any other-wife than by a 
larger Reward than they ape able tQ give, they then ftrive to 
make, her drunk, which a great many of them will be \ then 
they take the Advantage, to do with them what they pleafe, 
and fometimes in their Drunkennefs, cut off their Hair and 
fell it to the. Englljh y which is the greatefl: Affront can be- 
offer'd them. They never value Time*, for if they be going' 
out to hunt , fifh , or any other indifferent Builnefs, you> 
may keep them in talk as long as you pleafe, fo you but keep 
them in Diicourfe, and feem pleafed with their Company 5! 
yet none are more expeditious and fafer Meflengers than they,, 
when any, extraordinary Bulinefs that they, are fent ahout re* 
quires it. . 

When they. are. upon travelling the Woods, they keep- a^ of *,& 
conftant Pace, neither will they ftride over a Tree that lies que/1 '. 
crofs the Path, but always go round it, which is quite con- pea. 
trary to the Cuftam of the Englijh , and other Europeans.- 
When they cut with a Knife, the Edge is towards them,^*"'^ 
whereas we always, cut and whittle from, us. ; Nor did 1 f?'fc 
ever lee one of them left-handed. Before the Chriftians came Tr«/f 
amongft them, not knowing the Ufe of Steel and Flints,,they f fe£~ 
got their Fire with Sticks, which by vehement Colliflon, otNot lefts. 
Rubbing together^ take Fire. This Method they will fcme-^^- 


Git Sir.^::- 


■~"T— — — ' — " 




times praftife now, when it has happen'*! thro' rainy Wea- 
ther, or Tanie oiiher. Accident^ that they have wiit their 
Get The- S§fflfels£ whiclv is 'a -fok :©f -fofe corky Subftance, generailyof 
a Cinnamon Col6urV and grows in the toncavc part ./of an 
Oak, Hiccory, and feveral other Wood?^ being dug out with 
an Ax, .and always kept by the Indians, infte'ad of Tinder or 
Touch-wood, both which it exceeds. You are to undcr- 
ftand, that the two Sticks they ufe- to ftrikeFire witha), are 
never of one fort of Wood, but always differ from each 0- 

They are expert Travellers , arid ; tbough they have 
nottheUfe of our artificial Coinpafs, yet they underftand 
the North-point exaclly, let them be in never fo great a 
Wildernefs. One Guide is a fhort Mofs, that, grows upon 
fome Trees," exaclly ! on the North-Side thereof. 

Befides, they have : Names for eight of the thirty two Points, 
and call the Winds' by their feveral Names, as we do ; but; 
indeed more properly", for the North- Weft' Wind is called 
the cold Wind \ the North-Eaft the wet Wind ; the South 
the warm Wind; and To agreeably of the reft. Sometimes 
it happens, that they have a large River or Lake to pafsover, 
and the Weather is ! very foggy, as it often happens in the 
Spring and Fall of the 'Leaf; fo that they cannot fee which 
Courfe tofteer: In fuch a Cafe, they being on one fide 
of the River, or Lake, they know well enough what Courfe 
fuch a Place (which they intend for) bears from them. There- 
fore, they get a great many Sticks arid Chunks of Wood in 
their Canoe, and then fet offdire&ly for their Port, and now 
and then throw over a Piece of Wood, which diredts them, 
by feeing how the Stick bears from the Canoes Stern, which 
they always obferve to keep right aft ; and this is the In- 
d';an Compafs by which they will go over a broad Water of 
ten or twenty Leagues wide. They will find the Head of any 
River, though it is five, fix or kven hundred miles off, and 
they never were there, in their Lives before; as is often 
prov'd, by their appointing to meet on the Head of fuch a 
River, where perhaps, none of them ever was before, but 
where they fhall rendezvous exadtly at the prefixt tirne*, and 
if they meet with any Obftruction, they ^eave certain Marks 
in the Way, where they that come after will understand how 
many have pafs'd by already, and which way they are gone. 


of North-Carolina: 

Befides, ill their War Expeditions, they have very certain 
Hieroglyphicks , whereby each Party informs the other of 
the Succefs or Lofles they have met withal •, all which is 
fo exadly perform'd by their Sylvian Marks and Characters, 
that they are never at a Lofs to under ftand one another. Yet 
there was never found any Letters amongft the Savages of 
Carolina-, nor, I believe, among any other Natives in .Ame- 
rica, that were poffefs'd with any manner of Writing or 
Learning throughout' all the Difcoveries of the New-World. 
They will draw Maps, very exadtly, of all the Rivers, To wns, Jjgm* 
Mountains, and Roads, or what you mail enquire of them, 
which you may draw by their Diredions, and come to a imall 
matter of Latitude, reckoning by their Days Journeys. Thefe 
Maps they will draw in the Ames of the Fire, and fometames 
upon a Mat or Piece of Bark. I have put a Pen and Ink into 
a Savage's Hand,, and he has drawn me the Rivers, Bays, and 
other Parts of a Country, which afterwards I have found to 
agree with a great deal of Nicety: But you mull be very 
much in their Favour, otherwife they will never make thefe 
Difcoveries to you ; efpecially, if it be in their own-Quar- 
ters. And as for Mines of Silver and other Metals, we are at© Difco- 
fatisfied we have enow, and thofe very rich, in Carolina and ™v °1 
its adjacent Parts ; fome of which the Indians are acquainted mm ° 
withal, although no Enquirers thereafter, but what came, 
and were difcover'd, by Chance ; yet they fay, it is this 
Metal that the Englifi covet, as they do their Peak and Ronoak; 
and that we have gain d Ground of them wherever we have 
come. Now, fay they, if we mould difcover thefe Minerals 
to the Englijh, they would fettle at or near thefe Mountains, 
and bereave us of the belt Hunting-Quarters we have, as 
they have already done wherever they have inhabited •, fo by 
that means, we (hall be driven to fome unknown Country, 
to live, hunt, and get our Bread in. Thefe are the Reafons 
that the Savages give, for not making known what they are 
acquainted withal, of that Nature. And indeed, all Men 
that have ever gone upon thofe Difcoveries, allow them to be 
good •, more efpecially, my ingenious Friend Mr. Francis- 
Louis Mitchell, of Bern in Switzerland, who has been, for fe- Mr . 
veral Years, very indefatigable and ftri& in his Difcoveries MitcheiS, 
amongft thofe vaft Ledges of Mountains, and fpacious Trads 
of Land, lying towards the Heads of the great Bays and 

Ee ■ Rivers 


An Account of the Indians 

Rivers of Virginia, Maryland, and Penfylvania, where he has 
difcover'd a fpacious Country inhabited by none but the Sa- 
vages, and not many of them ; who yet are of a very friendly 
Nature to the Chriftians. This Gentleman has been employ'd 
by the Canton of Bem t to find out a Trad of Land in the Eng- 
lish America, where that Re publick might fettle fome of their 
People -, which Propofal, 1 believe, is now in a fairway to- 
wards, a Conclufion, between her Majefty of Great-Britain and 
that Canton. Which muft needs be of great Advantage to 
both , and as for ourfelves, I believe, no Man that is in his 
Wits, and underftands the Situation and Affairs of America, 
but will allow, nothing can be of more Security and Advan- 
tage to the Crown and Subjects of Great- Britain, than to have 
Switzers our Frontiers fecured by a warlike People, and our Friends, 
settlement as the Switz.ers are \ efpecially when we have more Indians 
in Ame- than we can civilize, and fo many Chriftian Enemies lying 
rica * on the back of us, that we do not know how long or fliort 
a time it may be, before they viilt us. Add to thefe, the 
Effects and Produft that may be expected from thofe Moun- 
tains-, which may hereafter prove of great Advantage to the 
Britijh Monarchy, and none more fit than an induftrious Peo- 
ple, bred in a mountainous Country, and inur'd to all the 
Fatigues of War and Travel, to improve a Country. Thus 
we have no room to doubt, but as foon as any of thofe Parts 
are feated by the Switz,ers, a great many Britains will . ftrive 
to live amongft them, for the Benefit of the fweet Air and 
fiealthful Climate, which that Country affords, were it only 
for the Cultivating of Hemp, Flax, Wine, and other valua- 
ble Staples, which thofe People are fully acquainted withal i 
Not to mention the Advantages already difcover'd by that 
worthy Gentleman I )uft now fpoke of, who is highly de- 
ferving of the Conduct and Management of fuch an Affair, as 
that wife Canton has entrufted him withal. 
„ " ._ ■ ■ When thefe Savages go a hunting, they commonly go out 
ifthh.™ g rea t Numbers, and oftentimes a great many Days Journey 
vages. from home, beginning at the coming in of the Winter; that 
is, when the Leaves are fallen from the Trees, and are be- 
come dry. 'Tis then they burn the Woods, by fetting Fire 
to the Leaves, and wither'd Bent and Grafs, which they do 
with a Match made of the black Mofs that hangs on the Trees 
in CW«w,andis fometimes above fix Foot long. This, when 


of North-Carolina, 


dead, becomes black, (the/ of an Afh-Colour before) and will 
then hold Fire as well as the belt Match we have in Europe. Mofs 
In Places , where this Mofs is not found, fas towards the M " w ** 
Mountains) they make Lintels of the Bark of Cyprefs beaten, 
which ferve as well. Thus they go and fire the Woods for 
many Miles, and drive the Deer and other Game into fmall 
Necks of Land and Ifthmus's, where they kill and deftroy 
what they pleafe. In thefe Hunting-Quarters, they have 
their Wives and Ladies of the Camp, where they eat all the 
Fruits and Dainties of that Country, and live in all the Mirth 
and Jollity, which it is poffible for fuch People to entertain 
themfelves withal. Here it is, that they get their Comple- ■ 
ment of Deer-Skins and Furs to trade with the Englifi, (the 
Deer-Skins being in Seafon in Winter, which is contrary to 
England.) All fmall Game, as Turkeys, Ducks, and fmall 
Vermine, they commonly kill with Bow and Arrow, think- 
ing it not worth throwing Powder and Shot after them. Of 
Turkeys they have abundance.^ efpecially, in Oak-Land, as 
molt of it is, that lies any difiance backwards. I have been 
often in their Hunting-Quarters, where a roafted or barba- 
kued Turkey, eaten, with Bears Fat, is held a goodDiftr, 
and indeed, I approve of it very well •, for the Bears Greafe 
is the fweeteft and leaft offenfive to the Stomach (as I faid be- 
fore) of any Fat of Animals I ever tailed. The Savage Men 
never beat their. Corn to make Bread-, but that is the Wo- 
mens Work, efpecially the Girls; of whom you mall fee four 
beating with long great Peftils in a narrow wooden Mortar J_ ^ 
and every one keeps her Stroke fo exactly, that 'tis worthy </ 07 j, 
of Admiration. Their Cookery continues from Morning till 
Night. The Hunting makes them hungry } and the Indians 
area People that always eat very often, not feldom getting 
up at Midnight, to eat. They plant a great many forts of 
Pulfe, Part of which they eat green in the Summer, keeping 
great Quantities for their Winter-Store, which they carry- 
along with them into the Hunting-Quarters, and eat them. 

The fmall redPeafeis very common with them, and they eat 
a great deal of that and other forts boil'd with their Meat, or 
eaten withBearsFat, which Food makes them break Wind back- 
wards, which the Men frequently do, and laugh heartily at it,it 
being accounted no ill Manners amongft the Indians: Yet the 
Women are more modeft, than to follow that ill Guftom. At 

Ee 2 their 




An Account of the Indians 

■ ■ 

! : 







Bowls and. 
Pipes to 



their fetting out, they have Indians to attend their Hunting- 
Camp, that are not good and expertHunters ; therefore a re era- 
ploy'd to carry Burdens, to get Bark for the Cabins,and other 
Servile Work ; alfo to go backward and forward) to their 
Towns, to carry News to the old People, whom they leave 
behind them. The Women are forced to carry their Loads of 
Grain and other Provisions, and get Fire- Wood; for a good 
Hunter, or Warriour in thefe Expeditions, is employ'd in no 
other Bufinefs, than the Affairs of Game and Battle. The- 
wild Fruits which are dry'd in the Summer, over Fires, on 
Hurdles and in the Sun, are now brought into the Field ; as 
are likewife the Cakes and Quiddonies of Peaches, and that 
Fruit and Bilberries dry'd, of which they ftew and make 
Fruit-Bread and Cakes. In fome parts, where Pigeons are 
plentiful, they get of their Fat enough to fupply their Win- 
ter Stores. Thus they abide in thefe Quarters, all the Win- 
ter long, till the Time approach for planting their Maiz and 
other Fruits. In thefe quarters, at Spare-hours, the Women 
make Baskets and Mats to lie upon, and thofe that are not 
extraordinary Hunters, make Bowls, Difhes, and Spoons, 
of Gum-wood, and the Tulip-Tree-; others (where they 
find a Vein of white Clay, fit for their purpofe,make Tobac- 
co-pipes, all which are often tranfported to other Indians, that 
perhaps have greater Plenty of Deer and other Game ; fo they 
buy fwith thefe Manufactures) their raw Skins, with the 
Hair on, which our neighbouring Indiani bring 't©' their 
Towns, and, in the Summer-time, make the Slaves and 
forry Hunters drefs them, the Winter-Sun being not ftrong 
enough to dry them ; and thofe that are dj?y'd in the Cabins 
are black and nalty with the Lightwood Smoke, which they- 
commonly burn. Their Way of dreffing their Skins is by 
foaking them in Water.,, fo they get the Hair off, wkh an 
Inftrument made of the Bone of a Deer's Foot ; yet fome ufe 
a fort of Iron Drawing-Knife, jwhich they purchafeof the 
Englijb, and after the Hair is off, they diffolve Deers Brains, 
(whichr-beforehand are made in a Cake and baked in the Em- 
bers) in a Bow4-of Water, fo fbak the Skins therein, till the- 
Brains have fuck'd up the Water ; then they dry it gently, 
and. keep working it with an Oyfter-Shell, or ibrne fuclt 
thing,, to fcrape withal, till it is dry ; whereby it becomes 
foft and pliable.. Yet thefe fo drefs'd will not endure wet*. 

■:•■" I-" but 


of North-Carolina. 


but become hard thereby, which to prevent, they either 
cure them in the Smoke, or tan them with Bark, as before ob- 
ferv'd •, not but that young Indian Corn, beaten to a Pulp, 
will efFed the fame as the Brains. They are not only good 
Hunters of the wild Beafts and Game of the Foreft, but very 
expert in taking the Fifh of the Rivers and Waters near 
which they, inhabit, and are acquainted withal. Thus they 
that live a great way up the Rivers pradUfe Striking Sturgeon 
and: Rock- fifh, or Bafs, when they come up the Rivers to 
fpawn ^ befides the vaft Shoals of Sturgeon which they kill 
and take with Snares,as we do Pike in Europe. The Herrings in 
March and April run a, great way up the Rivers and frefh 
Streams to fpawn, where the Savages make great Wares, 1 
with Hedges that hinder their PafTage, only in the Middle, 
where an artificial Pound is made to take them m, fo that j^ t0 
they cannot return. This Method is in ufe all over the fce&tftrike. 
Streams, to catch Trout and the other Species of Fifh which 
thofe Parts afford. Their taking of Craw-fiih is fo pleafant, Cw.-pjh 
that! cannot pafs it by without mention -, When they have a M uki * 
mind to get thefe Shell-fifh, they take a Piece of Venifon, and 
half-barbakue or roaft it ; then they cut it into thin Slices, 
which Slices they ftick through with Reeds abflut fix Inches a* 
funder, betwixt Piece and Piece j then the Reeds are made fharp 
at one end.} and fo they ftick a great many of them down in 
the bottom of the Water (thus baited) in the fmall Brooks. . 
and Runs, which the Craw-fifh . frequent. Thus the Indians- fie 
by, and tend thofe baited Sticks, every now: and "then taking 
them up, to fee how many are at the Bait ? where they ge- 
nerally find abundance j fo take them off, and put them in- a. 
Basket for thepurpofe, and ftick.the Reeds down again. By, 
this Method, they will, in a little time, catch feveral Bufhels $1 
which areas good, as any I ever eat. Thofe Indians that. 
frequent the Salt- Waters, take abundance of Fifh., %®f#Jtter.a®i 
very large* and of feveral forts, which to preferve, they -firrb* ruiians<> 
barbakue, then pull, the. Fifh to Pieces, fo dry it in the Sun,, 
whereby it keeps for Tranfportation •, as for Scate, Oyfters^. 
Cockles, and feveral forts of Shell-fifh, they .open- and-dry 
them upon Hurdles, having a conftant Fire under them. The £ 
Hurdles are made of Reeds or Canes in the fhape of a Gridi-- 
ron. Thus they dry feveral Bufhels of thefe Fifh, and. keep. 
Shem for their Keceffities. .At the time. when they are,on-tha 
. ~ "" , SaltSj, 

2 10 

' i !■! 


An Account of the Indians 

Salts-, and SeaCoafts, they. have another Fifhery, that is 
BUchmoor for a little Shell-fifh, which thofe in England call Blackmoors 
Teeth. Teeth. Thefe they. catch by tying Bits of Oyfters to a 
long String, which they lay in fuch places, as, they know^ 
thofe Shell-Fifh haunt. Thefe Fifh gee hold of the Oyfters, 
and fuck them in, fo that they pull up thofe long Strings, and 
take great Quantities of them, which they carry a great way 
into the main Land, to trade with the remote Indians, where 
they are of great Value ; but never near the Sea, by reafon 
they are common, therefore not efteem'd. Befides, the 
Youth and Indian Boys go in the Night, and one holding a 
Lightwood Torch, the other has a Bow and Arrows, and the 
Fire directing him to fee the Fifh, he {hoots them with the 
Arrows^ and thus thgy kill a great many of the fmaller Fry, 
and fometimes pretty large ones. It is an eftablifh'd Cuftom 
noteatlf amon gft a11 triefe Natives, that the young Hunter never 
the firfl he eats of that Buck, Bear, Fifh, or any other Game, which 
tills. happens to be the firft they kill of that fort^ becaufe they 
believe, if he fhould eat thereof, he would never after be 
fortunate in Hunting. The like foolifh Ceremony they 
*• bold, when they have made a Ware to take Fifh withal •, if 
a big-belly'd Woman eat of the firft Difh that is caught in it, 
. .. .they fay, that Ware will never take much Fifh-, and as for 
Woman killing of Snakes, they avoid it, if they lie in their way, be- 
nevereat caufe their Opinion is, that fome of the Serpents Kindred 
of the firfl would kill fome of the Savages Relations, that mould deftroy 
Fifh caught him : They have thoufands of thefe foolifh Ceremonies and 
Tn*;!mf e ' Beliefs, which they are ftrid Obfervers oft Moreover^ fe- 
veral Cuftoms are found in fome Families, which others keep 


not kiU 





not j as for Example, two Families of the Machapunga In- 
dians, ufe the Jewijh Cuftom of Gircumcifion, and the reft do 
not j neither did I ever know any others amongft the Indians^ 
that practis'd any fuch thing} and perhaps, ifyou ask them, 
what is the Reafon they do fo, they will make you no Man- 
ner of Anfwer} which is as much as to fay, I will not tell 
you. Many other Cuftoms they have, for which they will 
render no Reafon or Account , and to pretend to give a 
true Defcription of their Religion, it is impoffible , for there 
are a great many of their Abfurdities, which, for fome Rea- 
fon, they referve as a Secret amongft themfelves ; or other- 
wife, they are jealous of their Weaknefs in the pra&ifing 

them ; 

of North-Carolina. 

11 1 

them j Co that they never acquaint any Chriftian with the 
Knowledge thereof, let Writers pretend what they will ; 
for I have known them amongft their Idols and dead Kings 
in their Ouiogoz.on for feveral Days, where I could never get 
Admittance, to fee what they were doing, though I was at 
great Friendship with the King and great Men , but all my Indian 
Perfuafions avaii'd me nothing. Neither were any but the idols give 
King, with the Conjurer, and fome few old Men, in that m ^ c ount 
Houfe , as for the young Men, and c hie felt Numbers of the °J' 
Indians, they were kept as ignorant of what the Elders were 
doing, as myfelf. 

They all believe, that this World is round, and that thereto Woril 
are two Spirits ; the one good, the other bad : The good one « rouril- 
they reckon to be the Author and Maker of every thing, and 
fay, that it is he, that gives them the Fruits of -the Earth, 
and has taught them to hunt, filh, and be wife enough to over- 
power theBeaftsof the Wildernefs, and all other Creatures* wfe they 
that they maybe affiftant, and beneficial to Man, to which bsheveof 
they add, that the Ouera-, or good Spirit, has been very kind ^v. r 
to the Englifl) Men, to teach them to make Guns, and Am-y en >^ 
munition, befides a great many other Neceflaries, that are idols, 
helpful to Man, all which, they fay, will be delivered to 
them, when that good Spirit fees fit. They do not believe, 
that God punilhes any Man either in this Life, or that to 
come, but that he delights in doing good, and in giving the 
Fruits of the Earth, and inftructing us in making feveral ufe- 
ful and ornamental things'. They fay, it is a bad Spirit (who „ ? 
lives leparate from the good one) that torments us with Sick- jj^ 
Defies, Difappointments , Lofles, Hunger, Travel, and all 
the Misfortunes, that Humane Life is incident to. How 
they are treated in the next World, I have already mention'd, 
and, as I faid before, they are very refolute in dying, when 
in the Hands of Savage Enemies , yet I faw one of their 
young Men, a very likely Perfon, condemn'd, on a Sunday, for 
Killing a Negro, and burning the Houfe. I took good Notice J^S^, 
of his Behaviour, when he was brought out of the Houfe to ' 
die , which was the next Morning after Sentence, but he 
chang'd his Countenance with Trembling, and was in the 
■greatefl Fear and Agony. I never faw any Perfon under his 
Circumftances, which, perhaps, might be occafion'd by his 
being deliver'd up by his own Nation (which was the Tush- 



An Account of the Indians 


Turd's) and executed by us, that are not their common Ene- 
mies, though he met with more Favour than he would have 
rec.eiv'd at. the Hands of Savages ; for he was only han^'d on 
' a Tree, near the Place where the Murder was committed • 
and the three Kings, that but the day before fhew'd fuch a 
Reludtancy to deliver him up, (but would have given another 
■in his Room) when he was hang'd, pull'd him by the Hand 
and faid, Thou wilt never flay any more Rogues Tricks in this 
World •, -whither art thou gone to flew thy Trtch now ? Which 
fhevvs thefe Savages to be what they really are, (viz.) a Peo- 
ple that will fave their own Men if they can, but if the Safety 
of all the People lies at Stake, they will deliver up the moft 
innoeeiit Perfon living, and be fo far from Concern, when 
they have made themfelves eafy thereby, that they will laugh 
at their Misfortunes, and never pity or think of them more. 
Their Priefts are the Conjurers and Dodrors of the Nation* 
cfn^ers l fhal1 mention forae of their Methods, and Practices ; and fo 
J ' 'leave them to the Judgment of the Reader. As I told you 
before, the Priefts make their Orations at every Feaft, or o- 
ther great Meeting of the Indians. I happen'd to be at one 
of thefe great Meetings, which was at the Funeral of a Tuf- 
Indian keruro Indian, that was flain with Lightning at a Feaft the 
L !chat 8,d:iy before ' where I was amongft the reft • it was in July, 
tooka,** and a ver y fairda y> where, in the Afternoon, about fix or 
a Feaft for^ven a Clock, as they were dealing out their Victuals, there 
rebuilding appear'd a little black Cloud to the North Weft, which fpread 
a Ki"g' s and brought with it Rain, Wind and Lightning; fo we went 
out from the Place where we were all at Victuals, and went 
down to the Cabins where I left the Indians, and went to lie 
in my Canoe, which was convenient enough to keep me dry. 
The Lightning came fo terrible, and down in long Streams, 
that I was afraid it would have taken hold of a Barrel of 
Powder I had in my VefTel, and fo blown me up-, but it 
pleas'd God, that it did me no Harm ; yet the Violence of 
the Wind had blown all the Water away, where I rid at An- 
chor, fo that my Canoe lay dry, and fome Indian Women 
came with Torches in their Hands to the fide of the Canoe, 
and told me, an Indian was kill'd with Lightning. The next 
day, (I think) he was buried, and I ftay'd to fee the Cere- 
mony, and was very tractable to help the Indians to trim their 
Reeds, and make the Coffin, which pleafed them very much, 




of North-Carolina. 


becaufe I had a mind to fee the Interment. Before he was In- 
terr'd according to their Cultom, they dealt every one fome 
hot Viftuals, which he took and did what he would with : 
Then the Do&or began to talk, and told the People what 
•Lightning was, and that it kill'd every thing that dwelt upon 
the Earth j nay v the very Fifties did not efcape •, for it often 
reach'd the Porpoifes and other Fifh, and deftroy'd them ; 
that every thing ftrove to fhun it, except the Mice, who, 
he faid, were the bufieft in eating their Corn in the Fields, 
when it lightned the moft. He added, that no Wood or 
Tree could withftand it, except the black Gum, and that it 
would run round that Tree a great many times, to enter 
therein, but could not effect it. Now you muffc underftand, 
that fort of Gum will not fplit or rive ; therefore, I fuppofe, 
the Story might arife from thence. At laft, he began to tell 
the molt ridiculous abfurd Parcel of Lyes about Lightning, 
that could be j as that an Indian of that Nation had once 
got Lightning in the Likenefs of a Partridge \ That no o- 
ther Lightning could harm him, whilft he had that about 
him •, and that after he had kept it for feveral Years, it got 
away from him \ fo that he then became as liable to be ftruck 
with Lightning, as any other Perfon. There was prefent at 
the fame time, an Indian that had liv'd from his Youth, chiefly 
in an Englijh Houfe ^ fo I call'd to him, and told him, what a 
Parcel of Lyes the Conjurer told, not doubting but he thought 
fb, as well as I, but I found to the contrary ^ for he reply'd, 
that I was much miftaken, for that old Man f who, I believe 
was upwards of an hundred Years old) did never tell Lyes ^ 
and as for what he faid, it was very true, for he knew it 
himfelf to be fo. Thereupon, feeing the Fellow's Ignorance, ■ f/owhilrd 
I talk'd no more about it. Then the Dodor proceeded to^i^ e 
tell a long Tale of a great Rattle-Snake, which, a great Indians 
while ago, liv'd by a Creek in that River ( which was New) from their 

and that it kill'd abundance of Indians \ but at laft, a bald^i^*" 
Eagle kill'd it, and they were rid of a Serpent, thatus'd to^f*) 
devour whole Canoes full of Indians, at a time. I have been snakekiB 
fomething tedious upon this Subject, on purpofe to fhew what Indians ot 
ftrange ridiculous Stories thefe Wretches are inclinable to canoes. 
believe. I fuppofe, thefe Doctors underftand a little better Ea&ksm- 
themfelves, than to give Credit to any fuch Fooleries ; for IU 
I reckon them the cunningeft Knaves in all the Pack. I will 

Ff there- 


An Account of the Indians 

therefore begin with their Phyfick and Surgery, which is 
next: You mufl know, that the Do&ors or Conjurers, to 
Indian gain a greater Credit amongft thefe People, tell them, that 
Fbyfick and all Diftempers are the Effects of evil Spirits, or the bad Spi- 
Smgery, r j tj w hich has ftruck them with this or that Malady ^there- 
fore, none of thefe Phyficians undertakes any Diftemper, 
but that he comes to an Exorcifm, to effect the Cure;, and 
acquaints the lick Party's Friends, that he mull converfe with 
the good Spirit, to know whether the Patient will recover or 
not •, if fo, then he will drive out the bad Spirit, and the 
Patient will become well. Now, the general way of their 
Behaviour in curing the Sick, (a great deal of which 1 have 
feen, and fliall give fome Account thereof, in as brief a man- 
ner as poffible) is, when an Indian is lick, if they think there 
Is much Danger of Life, and that he is a great Man or hath 
good Frieds., the Doctor is fent for. As foon as the Doctor 
comes into the Cabin, the fick Perfon is fat on a Mat or Skin, 
ftark-naked, lying on his Back, and all uncover'd, except fome 
fmail Trifle that covers their Nakednefs when ripe, otherwife 
In very young Children, there is nothing about them. In this 
manner, the Patient lies, when the Conjurer appears ; and 
the King of that Nation comes to attend him with a Rattle 
made of a Gourd with Peafe in it. This the King delivers 
into the Do&or's Hand, whilft another brings a Bowl of 
Water, and fets it down: Then the Doctor, begins, and ut- 
ters fome few Words very foftly \ afterwards he fmellsof the 
Patient's Navel and Belly, and fometimes fcarifies him a lit- 
tle with a Flint, or an Inftrument made of Rattle-Snakes 
Teeth for that purpofe -, s then he fucks the Patient, and gets 
out a Mouthful of Blood and Serum, but Serum chiefly :, which, 
perhaps, may be abetter Method in many Cafes, than to take 
away great Quantities of Blood, as is commonly pradtis'd :, 
which he fpits in the Bowl of Water. Then he begins to .mut- 
ter, and talk apace, and, atlaft, to cut Capers, and clap his 
Hands on his Breech and Sides, till he gets into a Sweat, fo 
that a Stranger would think he was running mad •, now and 
t-hen fucking the Patient, and fo, at times, keeps fucking* 
till he has got a great Quaatity of very ill-coloured Mat- 
ter out of the Belly, Arms, Breaft, Forehead, Temples, 
Neck, and moll Parts, ftiil continuing his Grimaces, and 
antick Poftures, which are not to be match'd in Bedlam : At 
Iair 3 you will fee tfee Doctor sail over of a dropping Sweat, and 


svsr the 

of North-Carolina. 


fcarce able to utter one Word, having quite fpent himfelf j 
then he will ceafe for .a while, and fo begin again, till he 
comes in the fame Pitch, of Raying and feemin'g Madnefs, as 
before, fall this time the fick Body never fo much as moves, 
although, doubtlefs, the Lancing and Sucking mult be a 
great Punilhment to them \ but they, certainly, are the pa- 
tienteit and moft fteady People under any Burden, that I 
ever faw in my Life.) Atlaft, the Conjurer makes an end, 
and tells the Patient's Friends, whether the Peribn will whether 
live or die ^ and then one that waits at this Ceremony, takes livs sr die - 
the Blood away, (which remains in a Lump, in the mid- 
dle of the Water) and buries it in the Ground, in a 
Place unknown to any one, but he that inters it. Now, 
believe a great deal of Impofture in thefe Fellows ; yet I ne- Serum - 
ver knew their Judgment fail, though! have feen them give 
their Opinion after this Manner, feveral times : Some affirm, 
that there is a fmell of Brimftone in the Cabins, when they are 
Conjuring, which I cannot contradift. Which way it may 
come, I will not argue, but proceed to a Relation or two, 
which I have from a great many Perfons, and fome of them 
worthy of Credit. 

The firll is, of a certain Indian, that one rainy Night, Indian ^ 
undermin'd a Houfe made of Logs, (fuch as the Swedes in Rgbbey,, 
America very often make, and are- very ftrong) which J>e- 
long'd to Seth Southwell, Efqi Governor of North-Carolina* 
and one of the Proprietors. There was but one place 
the Indian could get in at, which was very narrow •, the reft 
wasfecur'd, by having Barrels of Pork and other Proviflons. 
fet againft the fide of the Houfe, fo that if this Indian had not 
exa&ly hit the very Place heundermin'd, it had been impoffi- 
ble for him to have got therein, becaufe of the full Barrels 
that ftood round the Houfe, and barricadoed it within. The 
Indian ftole fixty or eighty drefs'd Deer-Skins, befides Blan- 
kets, Powder, Shot and Rum, (this being the Indian Store- 
Houfe, where the Trading Goods were kept.) Now, the In- 
dian had made his Efcape, but dropt fome of the Skins by 
the way, and they track'd his Foot-fteps, and found him to 
be an- Indian ; then they guefs'd who it was,- becaufe none 
but that Indian had lately been near the Houfe. Thereupon, 
the Governor fent to the Indian Town that he belong'd to, 
which was the Tuskerwo% and acquainted them that if they 
did not deliver up the Indian, who had committed the 

F f 2 Rob- 


An Account of the Indians 

for ftoln 

Robbery, he would take a Courfe with them, that would not 
be very agreeable. Upon this, the Indians of the Town he 
belong'd to, brought him in bound, and deliverd him up to 
the Governor, who laid him in Irons. At the fame time, it 
happen'd, that a Robbery was committed a mongft therafelyes, 
at the IndianTowa, and this Prifoner was one of their Con- 
jurers \ fo the Indians came down to the Governor's Houfe, 
and acquainted him with what had happen'd amongit them, 
and that a great Quantity of leak, was ftoln away out of one 
of their Cabins, and no one could find out the Thief, unlefs 
he would let the Prifoner conjure for it, who was the only- 
Man they had at making fuch Difcoveries. The Governor 
was content he mould try his Skill for them, but not to have 
the Prifoners Irons taken off, which was very well approved' 
of. The Indian was brought out in his Fetters, where were 
the Governor's Family, and feveral others of the Neigh- 
bourhood, now living, to fee this Experiment 5 which he 
perform'd thus : 

The Conjurer order'd three Fjres to be made in a trian- 
gular Form, which was accordingly done ; then he was hood- 
wink'd very fecurely, with a drefs'd Deer-Skin, two or 
three doubles, over his Face. After he had made fome 
Motions, as they always do, he went directly out of one of 
the three Gaps, as exactly as if he had not been blindfolded* 
and kept muttering to himfelf, having a Stick in his Hand, 
with which, after fome time, he ftruck two Strokes very hard 
apon the Ground, and made thereon a Crofs, after which he 
told the Indians Name that had ftoln the Goods, and faid, 
that he would have a Crofs on his Back •, which prov'd true 5 
for when they took and fearch'd him, there appear'd two 
great Wheals on his Back, one crofs the other ; for the 
Thief was at Governor Southwell's Houfe, and was under no 
Apprehenfion of being difcover'd. The Indians profFer'd to 
fell him as a Slave to the Governor, but he refufed to buy 
him i fo they took him bound away. 

Another Inftance, of the like Nature, happen'd at the 
fame Houfe. One of the Tvshruro Kings had brought in a 
Slave to the fame Governor, to whom he had fold him -, and 
before he return'd, fell fick at the Governor's Houfe ; upon 
which, the Do&or that belong'd to this King's Nation, was 
fent for, being a Man that was held to be the greateft Conju- 

of North- Carolina. 


rer amongfl: them. It- was three Days, before he could ar- 
rive, and he appear'd (when he came) to be a very little 
Man, and To old, that his Hair was as white as ever was feen. 
When he approach'd the fickKing, he order'd a Bowl of Wa- 
ter to be brought him, and three Chunks of Wood, which 
was immediately do;ie.. Then he took the Water, and let ic by 
him, and fpurted a little on him, and with the three Pieces 
of Wood, he made a Place to Hand on, whereby he was rais'd 
higher ; (he being a very low ftatur'd Man) then he took 
a String of Ronoak, which is the fame as a String of fmall Beads ; 
this he held by one End, between his Fingers;, the other End 
touch'd the King's Stomach, as he ftood on the Logs. Then 
he began to talk, and at lengthj the By-ftanders thought 
really, that they heard fomebody talk to him, but faw no more 
than, what firft came in. At laft, this String of Beads, which 
hung thus perpendicular, turn'd up as an Eel would do, and 
without any Motion of his, they came all up (in a lump) un- 
der his Hand, and hung fo for a confiderable time, he never 
clofing his Hand, and at length return'd to their priftine 
Length and Shape, at which the Spectators were much fright- 
ned. Then he told the Company, that he would recover, 
and that his Diftemper would remove into his Leg, all which. 
happen'd to be exactly as the IndianDodior had told. Thefe 
are Matters of Fadt, and I can, at this day, prove the Truth, 
thereof by feveral fubftantial Evidences, that are Men of Re* 
putation, there being more than a dozen People prefent, 
when this was perform'd j moll of whom are now alive. 

There are a great many other Stories, of this Nature, 
which are feemingly true, being told by Perfons that affirm 
they were Eye-Witnefles thereof ; as, that they have feen 
one RoncommecJi (a Chutvou Indian, and a great Conjurer) take 
a Reed about two Foot long in his Mouth, and Hand by a Salmon 
Creek- fide, where he call'd twice or. thrice with the Reed in Creek. 
his Mouth j and, at laft, has open'd his Arms, and fled over 
the Creek, which might be near a quarter of a Mile wide or 
more } but I mall urge no Man's Belief, but tell my own; 
which is, that I believe the two firft Accounts, which were 
acted at Mr. Southwell's Plantation, as firmly as any Man can' 
believe any thing of that which is told him by honeft Men, and " 
he has not feen y not at all doubting the Credit of my Au- 



An Account of the Indians 





Vox to 


cure an 

Cure in 


The Cures I have feen perform'd by the Indians, are too 
many to repeat here; fo I ihall only mention Tome few, and 
their Method. They cure Scald-heads infallibly, and- never 
mifs. Their chief Remedy as I have feen them make ufe of, 
is, the Oil of Acorns, but from which fort of Oak I am not 
certain. They cure Burns beyond Credit. 1 have feen a Man 
burnt in fuch a manner, (when drunk) by falling into a Fire, 
that I did not think he could recover ; yet they cnrM him in 
ten Days, fo that he went about. I knew another blown up 
with Powder, that was cured to Admiration. I never faw art 
Indian have an Ulcer, or foul Wound in my Life •, neither is 
there any fuch thing to be found amongft them. They cure 
the Pox, by a Berry that falivates, as Mercury does ; yet 
they ufe Sweating and Deco&ions very much with it ; as they 
do, almofton every Oecafion ; and when they are thoroughly 
heated, they leap into the River. The Pox is frequent in 
fome of thefe Nations •, amongft which I knew one Woman 
die of it ; and they could not, or would not, cure her. Be- 
fore fhe died, fhe was worn away to a Skeleton, yet walk'd up 
and down to the laft. We had a Planter in Carolina, who had 
got an Ulcer in his Leg, which had troubled him a great 
many Years •, at laft, he apply'd himfelf to one of thefe In- 
dian Conjurers, who was a Pampticougb Indian, and was not 
to give the Value of fifteen Shillings for the Cure. Now, I 
am not pofitive, whether he wafh'd the Ulcer with any thing, 
before he ufed what I am now going to fpeak of, which 
was nothing but the rotten doated Grains of Indian Corn, 
beaten to Powder, and the foft Down growing on a Turkey's 
Rump. This dry^d the Ulcer up immediately, and no other 
Fontanel was made todifcharge the Matter, he remaining a 
healthful Man, till the time he had the Misfortune to be 
drown'd, which was many Years after. Another Inftance 
(not of my own Knowledge, but I had it confirm'd by feve- 
ral Dwellers m Maryland, where it was done) was, of an honeft 
Planter that had been, poflefs'd with a ftrange Lingring Di- 
ftemper, not ufual amongft them, under which he_ emacia- 
ted, and grew every Month worfe than another, it having 
held him feveral Years, in which time he had made Tryal of 
feveral Do&ors, as they call them, which, I fuppofe, were 
Ship-Surgeons. In the beginning of this Diftemper, the 
Patient was very well to pafs, and was poflefs'd of feveral 


of North-Girolina. 


Slaves, which the Do&ors purged all away, and the poor 
Man was fo far from mending, that he grew worfe and worfe 
every day. But it happen'd, that, one day, as his Wife and 
he were commiferating his miferable Condition, and that he 
could not expefr to recover , but look'd for Death very 
fpeedily, and condoling the Mifery he mould leave his Wife 
and Family in, fince all his Negro's were gone. At that 
time, I fay, it happen'd, that an Indian was in the fame 
Room, who had frequented the Houfe |for many Years, and 
fo was become as one of the Family, and would fometimes be 
at this Planter's Houfe, and at other times amongft the In- 

This Savage, hearing what they talk'd of, and having a" 
great Love for the Sick Man, made this Reply to what he 
had heard. Brother •, you have been a long time Sick j and, I know, 
you have (riven away your Slaves to your 'English Doctors: What 
made you do fo, and now become poor ? They do not know how to 
cure you ; for it is an Indian Diftemper, which your People know 
not the Nature of. If it had been an Engliih Difsafe, probably 
they could have cured you ; and had you come to me at fir ft '; I would 
have cured you for a frnall matter-, without taking away your Ser- 
vants that made Corn' for you and your Family to eat , and yet.; if 
you will give me a Blanket to keep me warm., and fome Powder 
and Shot to kilt Deer withal, 1 will do my be ft to make you well ftilL 
The Man was low in Courage and Pocket too, and made the 
Indian this Reply. Jack-, my Diftemper is paft Cure^ and if our 
Engliih Doclors cannot cure it, I am fare-, the Indians cannot. 
But his Wife accolted her Husband in very mild term?, and 
told him, he did not know, but God might be pleafed to give 
a Bleffing to that Indian's Undertaking more than *he had 
done to the Englifh; and farther added ; if you die, I cannot 
be much more referable, by giving this fm all matter to the Indian :, 
fo I pray you, my Dear, take my Advice, and try him ', to which, 
by : her Peffuafions, he confented. After the Bargain was con- 
cluded, the Indian went into the Woods, and brought in both 
Herbs and Roots, of which he made a Decodion, and gave 
it the Man to drink, and bad him go to bed, faying,, k mould 
not be long, before became, again, which the Patient per- 
form'd as he had ordered }.and the Potion he had adminiftred 
made him fweat after the molt violent manner that could 
be, whereby he fmell'd very offenfively both to himfelf, and 

they , 


An Account of the Indians 

they that were about him ; but in the Evening, towards 
. Night , Jack came, with a great Rattle-Snake in his Hand 
alive, which frightned the People almolt out of their Senfes"; 
and he told his Patient, that he muft take that to Bed to 
him; at which the Man was in a great Gonfternation, and 
Cure by a told the Indian^ he was refolv'd, to let no Snake come into 
snake- fc s g ec j^ for he might as well die of the DiTtemper he had, 
as be kill'd with the Bite of that Serpent. To which the 
Indian reply'd, he could not bite him now, nor do him any 
Harm \ for he had taken out his Poifon-teeth, and ihew'd 
him, that they were gone. At laft, with much Perfuafion, 
he admitted the Snake's Company , which the Indian put 
about his Middle, and order'd nobody to take him away 
upon any account, which was ftridtly obferv'd , although 
the Snake girded him as bard for a great while) as if he had 
been drawn in by a Belt, which one pull'd at, with all his 
ftrength. At laft, the Snake's Twitches grew weaker and 
weaker, till, by degrees, he felt him not - and opening the 
Bed, he was found dead, and the Man thought himfelf bet- 
ter. The Indian came in the Morning, and feeing the Snake 
dead, told the Man, that his Diftemper was dead along 
with that Snake, which prov'd fo as he faid •, for the Man 
fpeedily recover'd his Health, and became perfe&ly well. 
• They cure the Spleen (which they are much addi&ed to ) 
spleen how^Y burning with a Reed. They lay the Patient on his Back, 
aire. fo put a hollow Cane into the Fire, where they burn the 
End thereof, till it is very hot, and on Fire at the end. Then 
they lay a -Piece of thin Leather on the Patient's Belly, be- 
tween the Pit of the Stomach and the Navel, fo prefs the 
hot Reed on the Leather, which burns the Patient fo that 
you may ever after fee the ImprefTion of the Reed where it 
Colouring was laid on, which Mark never goes off fo long as he lives. 
of the Thisisufed for theBelly-Ach fometimes. They can colour 
their Hair Mack, though fometimes it is reddifh, which they 
do with the Seed of a Flower that grows commonly in their 
Plantations. I believe this would change the reddeft Hair 
into perfect black. They make ufe of no Minerals in their 
Phyfick, and not much of Animals \ but chiefly rely on Ve- 
getables. They have feveral Remedies for the Tooth-ach, 
which often drive away the Pain , but if they fail, they have 
Recourfe to punching out the Tooth, with a fmall Cane fet 



Not many 



of North-Carolina. 


againft the fame, on a Bit of Leather. Then they ftrike the 
Reed, and To drive out the Tooth ; and howfoever it may 
feem to the Europeans, I prefer it before the com mon way of 
drawing Teeth by thofe Instruments than endanger the jaw, 
and. a Flux of Blood often follows, which this Method of a 
Punch never is attended withal ; neither is it half the Pain. 
The Spontaneous Plants of America the Savages are well 
acquainted withal; and a Flux of Blood never follows any of 
their Operations. They are wholly Strangers to Amputa- 
tion, and for what natural KTues of Blood happen immode- 
rately, they are not to feek for a certain and fpeedy Cure. 
Tears, Rozins, and Gums, I have not difcover'd that they 
make much ufe of ; And as for Purging and Emeticks, fo 
much in fafhion with us, they never apply themfelves to, un- 
lefs in drinking vaft Quantities of their Yaupon. or Tea, amd rM P 0}f < 
vomiting it up again, as clear as they drink it. This is a 
Cuftom amongfl: all thofe that can procure that Plant, in 
which manner they take it every other Morning, or oftner ; 
by which Method they keep their Stomachs clean, without 
pricking the Coats, and ftraining Nature, as every Purge is 
anEnemy to. Betides, the great Diuretick Quality of their 
Tea carries off a great deal, that perhaps might prejudice 
their Health, by Agues, and Fevers, which all watry Coun- 
tries areaddi&ed to , for which reafon, I believe, it is, that 
the Indians are not fo much addifted to that Diltemper, as 
we are, they preventing its feizing upon them, by this Plant 
alone. Moreover, I have remark'd, that it is only thofe 
Places bordering on the Ocean and great Rivers, that this 
Diltemper is frequent in, and only on and near the fame 
Places this Evergreen is to be founds and none up towards 
the Mountains, where thefe Agues feldom or never appear ; 
Nature having provided fuitable Remedies, in all Coun- 
tries, proper for the Maladies that are common thereto. 
The Savages of Carolina have this Tea in Veneration, above 
all the Plants they are acquainted withal, and tell you, the 
Difcovery thereof was by an infirm Indian, that labour'd un- 
der the Burden of many rugged Diftempers, and could not 
be cured by all their Do&ors •, fo, one day, he fell afleep, 
and dreamt, that if he took a Deco&ion of the Tree that 
grew at his Head, he would certainly be cured -, upon which 
he awoke, and faw the Tanpon or Cajfena-Tre^ which was no€ 

G s there 

i ,1 


An Account of the Indians 

there when he fell afleep. He follow'd the Direction of his 
Dream, and became perfectly well in a Ihort time. Now, I 
fuppofe, no M3n has fo little Senfe as to believe this Fable ; 
yet it lets us fee what they intend thereby, and that it has, 
doubtlefs, work'd Feats enough, to gain it fuch an Efteem a- 
mongft thefe Savages, who are too well verfed in Vegetables, 
to be brought to a continual ufe of any one of them, upon a 
meer Conceit or Fancy, without fome apparent Benefit they 
found thereby \ efpecially, when we are fenfible, they drink 
the Juices of Plants, to free Nature of her Burdens, and not 
out of Foppery and Fafhion, as other Nations are oftentimes 
found to do. Amongfl all the Difcoveries of America, by 
the Miflionaries of the French and Spaniards, I wonder none of 
them was fo kind to the World, as to have kept a Catalogue 
of the Diftempers they found the Savages capable of curing, 
and their Method of Cure; which might have been of 
fome Advantage to our Materia Medica at home, when de- 
liver'd by Men of Learning, and other Qualifications, asmoft 
of them are. Authors generally tell us, that the Savages are 
well enough acquainted with thofe Plants which their Cli- 
mate affords, and that fome of them effect great Cures, but 
by what Means, and in what Form, we are left in the dark. 
The Bark of the Root of the Saffafras-Tree, I have obfery'd, 
is much ufed by them. They generally torrefy it in the Em- 
bers, fo ftrip off the Bark from the Root, beating it to a 
Confiftence fit to fpread, fo lay it on the griev'd Fart ; 
which bothcleanfes a fowl Ulcer; and after Scarrification, 
being apply'd to a Contufion, or Swelling, draws forth the 
Pain, and reduces the Part to its priftine State of Health, 
as I have often feen effected. Fats and Unguents never ap- 
pear in their Chirurgery, when the Skin is once broke. The 
Fats of Animals are ufed by them, to render their Limbs 
pliable, and when wearied, to relieve the Joints, and this 
not often, becaufe they approve of the Sweating-Houfe (in 
fuch cafes) above all things. The Salts they mix with their 
Bread and Soupe, to give them a Relifh, are Alkalis, (viz.) 
Afhes, and calcined Bones of Deer, and other Animals. 
Sallads, they never eat any ■, as for Pepper and Muftard, 
Nosdhds^w] reckon us little better than Madmen, to make ufe of 
Fepper, orit amongft our Victuals. They are never troubled with the 
Mitftard* Scurvy, Dropfy, nor Stone. The Phthiiick, Afthma, and 





of North-Carolina. 



Diabetes, they are wholly Strangers to \ neither do I remem- 
ber I ever faw one Paralytick amongft them. The Gout, I 
cannot be certain whether they know what it is, or not. 
Indeed, I never faw any Nodes or Swellings, which attend 
the Gout in Europe ; yet they have a fort of Rhumatifm or p humi . 
Burning of the Limbs, which tortures them grievoufly, at x -^ Vlir , % , 
which time their Legs are {o hot, that they employ the 
young People continually to pour Water down them. I ne- 
ver faw but one or two thus afflicted. The Struma is 
not uncommon amongft thefe Savages, and another Diftem- 
per, which is, in fome refpects, like the Pox, but is attended 
with no Gonorrhoea. This hot feldom bereaves them of 
their Nofe. I have feen three or four of them render'd molt 
miferable Spectacles by this Diftemper. Yet, when they 
have been fo negligent, as to let it run on fo far without 
curbing of it ; at laft, they make fhift to patch themfelves 
up, and live for many years after ; and fuch Men commonly 
turn Doctors. I have known two or three of thefe no-nofe 
Doctors in great Efteem amongft thefe Savages. The Juice 
of the Tulip-Tree is ufed as a proper Remedy for this Di- 
ftemper. What Knowledge they have in Anatomy, I cannot 
tril, neither did I ever fee them employ themfelves therein, 
unlefs, as I told you before, when they make the Skeletons of 
their Kings and great Mens Bones. 

The Indians are very carelefs and negligent of their Health; 
as, by Drunkennefs, Wading in the Water, irregular Diet 
and Lodging, and a thoufand other Diforders, (that would 
kill an European) which they daily ufe. They boil and roaft 
their Meat extraordinary much, and eat abundance of Broth, 
except the Savages whom we call the naked Indians, who/fefci 
never eat any Soupe. They travel from the Banks of the Indians* 
Mejfiafippi, to war againft the Sinnagars or Iroquois, and are 
(it equal Numbers; commonly too" hard for them. They 
will lie and fleep in the Woods without Fire, being inur'd 
thereto. They are the hardieft of all Indians, and run fo 
fait, that they are never taken, neither do any Indians outrun 
them, if they are purfifd. Their Savage - Enemies fay, their 
Nimblenefs and Wind proceeds from their never eating 
any Broth. The Small-Pox has been fatal to them; they Snult-rox. 
do not often elcape, when they are feiz'd with that Diftem- 
per, which is a contrary Fever to what they ever knew. 
r ] - G g 2 Moft 

• n 

An Account of the Indians 



Moll certain, it had never vifited America, before the Difco- 
very thereof by the Chriftians. Their running into the Wa- 
ter, in the Extremity. of this Difeafe, it in, and kills 
all that ufe it. Now they are become a little wifer ■■> but for- 
merly it deftroyM whole Towns, without leaving one Indian 
alive in the Village. The Plague was never known amongft 
them, that I could learn by what Enquiry I have made : 
Thefe Savages ufe Scarrification almoft in all Diftempers. 
Their chief Inftru merits for that Operation is the Teeth of 
Rattle-Snakes, which they poiibn withal. They take them 
out of the Snake's Head, and fuck out the Poifon with their 
Mouths, (and fo keep them for ufe) and fpit out the Venom, 
which is green, and are never damag'd thereby. The Small- 
Pox and Rum have made fuch a "Deftruction amongft them, 
that, on good grounds, I do believe, there is not the iixth 
Savage living within two hundred Miles of all our Settle- 
ments, as there were fifty Years ago. Thefe poor Crea- 
tures have fo many Enemies to deftroy them, that it's a 
wonder one of them is left alive near us. The Small-pox I 
have acquainted you withal above, and fb I have of Rum, 
and fhall only add, that they have got a way to carry it back 
to the Weftward Indians, who never knew what it was, till 
within very few Years. Now they have it brought them by 
the Tvskeruro"s, and other Neighbour- Indians, but the Tvsh- 
r uro^s chiefly, who carry it in Rundlets feveral hundred 
Miles, amongft other Indians. Sometimes they cannot for- 
bear breaking their Cargo, but fit down in the Woods, and 
drink it all up, and then hollow and fhout like fo many Bed- 
lamites. I accidentally once met with one of thefe drunken 
Crews, and was amaz'd to fee a Parcel of drunken Savages 
fb far from any Englishman's Houfe; but the Indians 1 had in 
Company inform'd me, that they were Merchants, and had 
drunk all their Stock", as is very common for them to do. 
But when they happen to carry it fafe, (which is feldom, 
without drinking fome part of it, and filling it up with 
Water) and come to an Indian Town, thofe that buy Rum 
of them have fo many Mouthfuls for a Buck-Skin, they never 
uling any other Meafure ; and for this purpofe^ the Buyer al- 
ways makes Choice of his Man, which is one that has the 
greateft Mouth, whom he brings to the Market with a Bowl 
to pat it in. The Seller looks narrowly to the Man's Mouth 

• that 

of Nortli'CaroIina; 


that meafures it, and if he happens to (Wallow any down, ei- 
ther through Wilfulnefs or otherwife, the Merchant or fome 
of his Party, does not fcraple to knock the Fellow down, 
exclaiming againft him for falfe Meafure. Thereupon, the 
Buyer finds another Mouthpiece to meafure the Rum by; fb 
that this Trading is very agreeable to the Spectators, to fee 
fuch a deal of Quarrelling and Controverfy, as often hap- 
pens, about it, and is very diverting. 

Another Deftroyer of them, is, the Art they have, and of- Toi fining 
ten practife, of poifoning one another; which is done by a offylor* 
large, white, fpungy Root, that grows in the Frefli-Marfhes, 
which is one of their Poifons ; not but that they have many 
other Drugs, which they poifon one another withal. 

Laftly, the continual Wars thefe Savages maintain, one How the 
Nation againft another, which fometimes hold for fome A- Indians 
ges, killing and making Captives, till they become fo weak*** 7- * 
thereby, that they are forced to make Peace for want of Re- 
eruits, to fupply their Wars; and the Difference of Lan- 
guages, that is found amongft thefe Heathens, feems alto- 
gether ftrange. For it often appears, that every dozen Miles, 
you meet with an. Indian Town, that is quite different from 
the others you laft parted withal ; and what a little fupplies 
thir Defect is, that the moft powerful Nation of thefe Savages 
fcorns to treat or trade with any others (of fewer Num- 
bers and Jefs Power) in any other Tongue but their own, 
which ferves for the Lingua of the Country, with which we 
travel and deal ; as for Example, we fee that the Tushrw<?$> 
are moft numerous in North-Carolina, therefore their Tongue 
is underftood by fome in every Town of all the Indians near 
us. And here I fhall infert a fmall Dictionary of every 
Tongue, though not Alphabetically digefted. 






















An Account 

of the Indians 









We there 




Soone noponne 



"Vnche fcauwbau 

'Tonne h auk pea 


NetJec fcaukhau 

Soone nomme 



Wartfau fcauhait 



Ofla te wartfau 




Touch fe 

Thoufand Kiyoufe 





|ii :' " ; 














l r> 

Black or 
Blue, idem 
















Tau-unta roinnik 


Oefocke nauh 






ZJu- cootie 



Tacca pitteneer 






















Awl or 






A Hoe 





Cheek- ha 

• Paint 














Gau hooptop 

Wit tape 


1 Oo-tefie 

Gun tock Seike 






A Flap 











1 i" I 


An Account of the 





A Mortar 

Ootic caugh-m 



Way haujke 



A Creek 



A River 

'Ahum wacHkna 

A Man 


Old Man 


Young Man 





Old Woman 

, Cufquerre 






A Child 


A Boy 


; Infant 








A Comb 


Sacketoome pajj 


A Cake bak'£ 


A Head 

Ootaure * 







Cannot ka 

















I j ,■-. | 





Co of auk 


A Bag 


Ekoocromon . 




A Loufe 



A Flea 


. . 




A Stick 








A Cow 





of North-Carolina. 

A Snake 
A Rat 
A Goofe 
A Swan 
A Crab 
A Canoe 
A Box 
A Bowl 
A Spoon 
A Path 
Sun or Moon 
A Star 

A Rundlet 
An Eel 
A T— d 
A Cable 
Small Ropes 
A Button 

O or haft , 
Rouare con 
Vtfira utquichra 

AThief or Rogue Katicbhei 

A Dog 
A Reed 
To morrow 
A little while 









Cotfoo ' 

Wattapi tmtahev 





Rooefoo pojfoa 









An Account of the Indians 

Englijh. . ■ 
How many 
How far 
Will you go a- 
long with me 
Go you 
Give it me 
That's all 
A Cubit length 
A Gourd or 

A lazy Fellow 
Englifhman is 

I will fell you 

Goods very 

All the Indians 

are drunk 
Have you got 

any thing to 

I am lick 
Don't lofe it 
A Tobacco-pipe 
I remember it 
Let it alone 
Hickery Nuts 
I forget it a 


•Tuskeruro; Woccoa* 

Qonfoito a«r Tottoha 

< xTotimrinte- 

VtJfa hah 
'■ . 
Its wdrh 
Vt chat 

Watidttoo wat/e Tontaunete 

Oukwockaninniwock v J 

-. ..:.7. atsxVS 1 

Wavfthanocha ' -'/'Mdtt^kau hoore 

■ ' r ■■' <jtm<aWO 

• ■ ■ ' 3 

Connaughjoft twane Nonntifper 

. »q Tnma me 
• \Mothei 





Oon eft norms it quoft 





Moot au- oog 





^Nqccojo Eraute. 



Intom N 





3 A 

"I A 
oM i 

Z A 
1 u ft 


:. 1, 

' a A. 
J>--T A 






of North-Garolina. 

3 1 

'To repeat more of this Indian Jargon, would be to trou-I nd 'an 
ble the Reader j and as an Account how imperfed they are^^* 
fin. their Moods and Tenfes, has been given by feveral alrea- 
dy, I ihall only add, that their Languages or Tongues are fo 
.deficient, that you cannot fuppofe the Indians ever could ex- 
prefs themfelves in fuch a Flight of Stile, as Authors would 
Jiave yoirbelieveV They are fo far from it, that they are but 
juft able to make one another uriderftand readily what they 
talk about. As for the two Gonfonants L and F, I never 
knew them in any Indian Speech I have met withal \ yet I 
muft tell you, that they have fuch a Way of abbreviating 
•.their Speech, when in their great Councils and Debates, that 
.the young Men do not underftand what they treat about, 
when they hear them argue* It is wonderful, what has oc~ 
cafion'd fo many different Speeches as the Savages have. . 
The three Nations I now ; mentioned, do not live above ten 
Leagues diftant, and two of them, viz.. the Tushruro's and Tartaric 
the Woe con-, are not two Leagues afunder ; yet their Speech an Kurds* 
differs in every Word thereof, except one, which is r tfaure % 
Cockles, which is in both Tongues the fame, and nothing elfe. 
Now this Difference of Speech caufes Jealoufies and Fears a- 
rnongft them, which bring Wars, wherein they deftroy one 
another •, otherwife the Chriftians had not (in all Probabi- 
lity) fettled America fo eafily, at they have done, had thefe 
Tribe9 of Savages united themfelves into one People or ge- 
neral Intercity or were they fo but every hundred Miles. In 
fhort, they are an odd fort of People under the Circum- 
stances they are at prefent, and have Tome fuch uncouth 
Ways in their Management and Courfe of Living, that it 
feems a Miracle to us, how they bring about their Defigns, 
as they do, when their Ways are commonly quite contrary 
to ours. I believe, they are (as to this Life) a very happy 
People •, and were it not for the Feuds amongft themfelves* 
they would enjoy the happieft State (in this World) of all 
Mankind. They met with Enemies when we came amongft 
them j for they are no nearer Chriftianity now, than they 
were at the firlbDifcovery, to all Appearance. They have 
learnt feveral Vices of the Europe ans, but not one Vertue, as Indians 
I know of. Drunkennefs was a Stranger, when we found horn of 
them out, and Swearing their Speech cannot exprefs ; yet J ^ £ ur©* 
thofe that fpeak £»£/»/&, learn to fwear the iirft thing they5 eans ° 

H 2 talk. 



An Account of the Indians 

talk of. _It's true, they have fame Vertues. and fome Vices - y 
but how the Chriftiaas can bring thefe People into; the fld- 
fom of the Church, is a Propofal that ought to be forra'd 
and follow'd by the wifeft Heads and belt Cbriftians. After 
I have given one Remark or two farther, of. fome of their 
ftrange Practices and Notions, I will give ray Opinion, bow 
I think, in probability, it may be (if poflible,) effeffcedy andfo 
fhall conclude this Treatife of Carolina. ^. 

They are a very craving People, and if a Man give; tbiem 
any thing of a Prefent, they think it obliges him to give 
them another ; and fo on, till, he has given them all, he has 5 
for they have no Bounds of Satisfaction in that way ; and if 
they give you any thing, it is to receive twice the Value of it. 
They have no Confederation that you will wajat -what you 
give them } for their way of Living. j§ fo contrary to ours, 
that neither we nor they can fathom one anothers Deiigns 
and Methods. They call Rum and Phyfick by one Name, 
which implies that Rum make People lick-, as when they have 
taken any poifonous Plant :, yetthey cannot forbeanRum. They 
make Offerings of their Firft-Fruits, and the mare feriousJfort 
of them throw into the Afhes, near the Fire, thefirftBit 
or Spoonful of every Meal they fit down to, wbicb, they 
fay, is the fame to them, as the pulling off our Hats, and 
talking, when we go to Victuals, js to us. They name the 
Mpnths very agreeably, as one is the; Herring-Month, ano- 
ther the Strawberry-Month, another the MulberryTMontb:» 
Others name them by the Trees that biofTom ; efpeciauyv 
the Dogwood-Tree- j or they, fay, we, will return when Tur- 
iey-Cocks gobble, that is in March afl^ ApriL The Age of 
the Moon they underftand, -but know no -diffeeat [Name for 
Sun, ancj Moon. They, can guefs well at the timfe <otf tfee 
Day, by the Sun's Height. Their Age 'fchey^uinbei- b.y Wini 
ters, "and lay* fucha Man or Woman Is fo many Winters okL 
They have no Sabbath, or Day of Reft. Their Slaves are 
not over-burden'd with Work, and fo not driven by Severity 
to feek for that Relief. Thofe that are acquainted with the 
Englljb, and fpeak the Tongue, know when Sunday comes 5 be- 
fides, the Indians have a diftindt Name for Chrifimas whidi 
they call Winmck Kejbvfe, or the Engl ijhmans Gads Mwn. 
There is one moft abominable Cuftom lamongft them, ^vifoicn* 
they call Hus-quenming their young Men; wiiich I iiave not 


■mi — iiiiwiii i >nmi mii ii '• ' "" 

of North-Carolina. 

'made am? Mention of as yet, fo will give you an Account 
of it here. You muft know, that moft commonly, once a 
Year, or, at fartheft, once in two Years, thefe People take 
up fo many of their young Men, as they think are able to 
undergo it, and hufqievangh them, which is to make them 
obedient and refpeftive to their Superiors, and (as they fay) 
is the fame to them, as it is to us to fend our Children to 
School:, to be taught good Breeding and Letters. This Houfe 
©f Correction is a large ftrong Cabin, made on purpofe for 
the Reception of the young Men and Boys, that have not 
pafTed this Graduation already •, and it is always at Chriftmas 
that they hufquenaugh their Youth , which is by bringing 
them into this Houfe, and keeping thern dark all the time, 
■where they more than half-ftarve them. Befides, they give 
them Pellitory-Bark, and feveral intoxicating Plants, that 
make them go raving mad as ever were any People in the 
World ; and you may hear them make the moft difmal and 
helliih Cries, and How lings, that ever humane Creatures ex- 
prefs'd ; all which continues about five or fix Weeks, and 
the little Meat they eat, is the naftieft, loathfome ftuff, and 
mkt'Witri all manner of Filth it's poffible to get. After the 
Time is expired, they are brought out of the Cabin, which, 
never is in the Town, but always a diftance off, and guarded 
by a Jaylor or two. who watch by Turns. Now, when they 
rfirft come but, they are as poor as ever any Cretftfres werej 
for you mull know feveral die under this diabolical Purga- 
't-ion.; Moreover, they either really are, or pretend to Tie 
-durhB, and do notfpeak for feveral Days •, I think^ twenty 
or thirty ; and look fo gaftly, and are fo changd^that it's 
oiext to an Impoffibility to know them again^lthotigh you 
was never fo well acquainted with them beforev.T.wbuld faia 
'have gone into the mad Houfe, and have feen them in their 
f ime'-of Purgatory, but the King would .not fuffer it, becaufe, 
lie told me, they would do me, or aiity-other white Man, an. 
injury, -that ventured in amongft th^hfv fo I defifted. They 
play this Prank with Girls as wellas r fioys, and I believe it 
a mifera^le Life they endure, becaufe I have known feveral 
of them run away, at that time, to avoid it. Now, the 
Savages fay, if it was not for this, they could never keep them 
Youth in Subjection, befides that it hardens them ever after 
to the Fatigues of War, Hunting, and all manner of Hard- 

ihip r 

: 34- 

An Account of the indians 

fhip, which their way of Jiving expofes them to, Befides, they 
add,that it carries offthp'fe infirm weakBodies, that would have 
been only a Burden and Difgfcace tp. their Nation, and faves 
the Victuals and Cloathing for better People, that Would 
r .bave been expended on fuchufelefs Creatures.. Thefe Sava- 
ges are defcribed in, their proper Colours, but by a very few ■ 
for . thofe- that generally write Hiftories of this new WorldJ 
are fucli as Intereft, Preferment* and Merchandize, drew 
thither, arid know no more of that People than I do of 
the Laplanders, which is only by Hear- fay. "And if we will 
make juft Remarks, how near fuch Relations generally ap- 
proach Truth and Nicety, we fhall find very few of them 
worthy of Entertainment ; and as for the other part of the 
Volume, it is generally ftufft with Invectives againft! the Go- 
vernment they lived under, on which Stage is commonly 
acted greater Barbarities, in Murdering worthy Mens Repu- 
tations, than all the Savages in the new World are. capable 
of equalizing, or fo much as imitating. 

And fince 1 hinted at a Regulation of the Savages, and to 
propofe a way to convert them to Chriltianity, I will firlt 
particularize the feveral Nations of Indians that are our 
Neighbours, and then proceed to what I promis'd. 

Tusker uro Indians are fifteenTowns, viz,.Haruta,Waqui, Con- 
tah-nah,^4nna Ooka, Conauh-Kare Harooka^Vna Nauhan, Kenta* 
nuska, Ckyfffneets, Kent a, Eno ? Naur-hegh-ne,Oonoj[oora,Tofneoc, 
Nonaroharitfe, Nvrfoorooka, Fighting Men 1 200. Waccon. Towns 
2; Jvpwauremau, Tooptatmeer, Fighting Men 120. Machapunga, 
Town i^Maramiskeet, Fighting Men 30. Bear River, Town 
i, Raufiafflga-quank, Fighting Men 50. Maherring Indians, 
Towa .!}<3i$g\ errill g River, Fighting Men 50. Chuwon Indians, 
Town 'i^'fynhets Creek, Fighting Men 15. Pafpatank Indians, 
Town 1, Pafpatank River, Fighting Men 10. Poteskeit, Town 
1, North River, Fighting Men 30. Nottaway Indians, Town 
1, Winoack Creek, Fating Men 30. Hatter as Town i,Sand 
Banks, Fighting Men^. Connamo* Indians, Towns 2, Cora- 
nine, Raruta, Fighting Men 25. Neus Indians, Towns 2, Chat- 
tooka, Rouconk, Fighting Men 15. Pampticough Indians, Town 
i,Ijland, Fighting Men 15. Jaupim Indians, 6 People. Thefe 
five Nations of the Totero's, Sapona's, Keiauwee's, Aconechos, 
and Schoccories, are lately comeamongft us, and may contain' 
in all, about 750 Men, Women and Children. Total 4780. ' 


of North- Carolina. 


Now, there appears to be one thoufand fix hundred arid- 
twelve Fighting Men, of our Neighbouring Indians; and pro- 
bably., there are three Fifths of Women and Children, not in- 
cluding Old Men, which amounts to four thoufand and thirty- 
Savages, befides the five Nations lately come. Now, as 
I before hinted, we will 'fee what grounds there are tomake. 
thefe People ferviceable to us, and better themfelves there- 

^(Xafair Scheme, we mult fiiil allow thefe Savages what, 
really belongs to them, that is, what good Qualities, .and 
natural Endowments,, they poffefs, whereby they being in 
their proper Colours, the Event better guefs'd at, and. 
fathom'd. ; 

Firlc, they are as apt to learn any Handicraft, as any Peo- 
ple that the World affords; I will except none; as is feen 
by their Canoes and Stauking Heads, which they make of, 
themfelves; but to my purppfe, the Indian Slaves in South- 
Carolina, and elfew here, -make my Argument good. 

Secondly, we have no difciplin'd Men in Europe, but what 
have, at one time or other, been branded with Mutining, and. 
Murmuring againft their Chiefs. Thefe Savages are never 
found guilty of that great Crime in aSoldier ; I challenge all 
Mankind to tell me of one Inita.nce of it ; befides, they never 
prove Traitors to their "Native Country, but rather chufe. 
Death than partake and fide with- the Enemy. 

They naturally poffefs the Righteous Man s Gift ; they are- 
Patient under all Afflictions , and have a great many other. 
Natural Vertues ? which I have High tlytoueh'd throughout 
the Account of thefe Savages. 

They are really better to us, than we are to them ; they 
always give us Viduals. at their Quarters, and take care we. 
are arm'd againft Hunger and Thirft : We do not fo by ; 
them ( generally fpeaking ) but let them walk by our Doors. 
Hungry, and do not often relieve them.. We. look upon, 
them with Scorn and Difdain, and think them little better:, 
than Beafts in Humane Shape, though if well examined, we. 
fhall find that, for all our. Religion and Education, we poffefs; 
more Moral Deformities, and Evils than thefe Savages do*. 
or are acquainted withal. 

We reckon them Slaves in Comparifon to us, and Intru- 
ders, as. oft as they enter our Houfes, or hunt near our. 

An Accotmt of the Indians 

Dwellings. But if we will admit Reafon to be our Guide, Ihe 
will inform us, that thefe Indians are the freeft People in the 
World, and fo far from being Intruders upon us, that we 
have abandon'd our own Native Soil, to drive them out, and. 
poflefs theirs ; neither have we any true Balance, in Judging 
of thefe poor Heathens, becaufe we neither give Allowance 
for their Natural Difpofition, nor the Sylvian Education, and 
ftrange Cuftoms, (uncouth to us) they lie under and have 
ever been train'd uptb-, thefe are falfe Meafuresfjbr Cliri- 
ftians to take, and indeed no Man can be reckon'd aMo- 
ralift only, who will not make choice and ufe, of bet- 
ter Rules to walk and ad by : We trade with them, it's true, 
but to what End? Not to Ihew them the Steps of Vertue,and 
the Golden Rule, to do as we would be done by. No, we 
have furniihed them with theViceof Drunkennefs, which is 
the open Road to all others, and daily cheat them in every 
thing we fell, and efteem it a Gift of CKriftianity, not to 
fell to them fo cheap as we do to the Chriftians, as we call our 
felves. Pray let me know where is there to be found one 
Sacred Command or Precept of our Matter, that counfels us 
to fuch Behaviour ? Befides, I believe it will not appear, but 
that all the Wars, which we have had with the Savages, 
were occafion'd by the unjuft Dealings of the Chriftians 
towards them. I can name more than a few, which my own 
Enquiry has given me a right Underftanding of, and I am 
afraid the remainder (if they come to the teft) will prove 
themfelves Birds of the fame Feather. 
Indians As we are in Chriftian Duty bound, fo we muft adt and be- 
jiverfion have ourfelves to thefe Savages, if we either intend to be 
to chrifti- ferviceable in converting them to the Knowledge of the 
mm- Gofpel, or difcharge the Duty which every Man, within the 
Pale of the Chriftian Church, is bound to do. Upon this 
Score, we ought to lhew a Tendernefs for thefe Heathens 
under the weight of Infidelity; let us cherifh their good Deeds, 
and, with Mildnefs and Clemency,mak£ them fenfjble and for- 
warn them of their ill ones-, let our Dealings be juft to them 
In every Refpeft, and fhew no ill Example, whereby they 
oiay think we advife them to praftife that which we will 
not be conformable to ourfelves : Let them have cheap Pen- 
niworths (without Guile in our Trading with them) and 
learn them the Myfteries of our Handicrafts, as well as our 


of NorMvGapolinaA •' 

Religion; Dtherwife we deal -unjtiitly by them. But it is high T . 
lyneceilary to be brought in Practice,/ which is, to give En- 
couragement to the' ordinary People, and .thofe of a lower 
Ranky that cthey might 'marry with thefe Indians.,, and. come' 
into Plantations, and Monies, where To, many Acres of Land 
and ibme Gratuity of Money, (out of a publick Stock) are 
given to the new-married. Couple; and that the Indidns might 
have Encouragement to fend their Children Apprentices to 
proper Matters, that would be kind to them, and mi ke them 
Mailers of a Trade^ whereby they would be drawn to livea- 
mongft us, and become Members of the. fame Ecciefiaftical 
and Civil Government we are under •, then we mould have- 
great Advantages to make daily Conversions amongft them, 
when they faW that we were kind and juft to them in all our 
Dealings. Moreover, by the Indians Marrying with the Chri- 
ftians, and coming' into Plantations with their English Huf- 
bands^ ! 6r Wives, they would become Chri'fiians, and their 
Idolatry would be quite forgotten, and, in all probability, a 
better Worfhip come in its Stead •, for were theT^ engrafted 
thus, and alienated from the Worfhip and Converfation of 
Jews, their Abominations would vanifh, and be no more. 

- Thus iwe mould be let into a better "Underftanding of the 
Indian Tongue, bybur hew Converts ; and the whole Body 
of thefe People would arrive to the'Knowledge of our 'Reli- 
gion and Cuftoms, and become as one People with us. By this ' 
Method alfo, we mould have a true Knowledge of all thelndians 
Skill in Medicine and Surgery, they would inform us of the 
Situation of our Rivers, Lakes, and Tracts "of Land in; the 
Lords Dominions, where by their Affiftance, greater DifcQve- 
riesmay be made than has been hitherto found out, and" by 
their Accompanying us in our Expeditions, we might civi- 
lize a great many other Nations of the Savages, and daily 
add to bur Strength in Trade, and Intereft •, To that we might 
be fuffioiently enabled to conquer, or maintain our ' Ground, 
againft all the Enemies to the Crown of- England in America^ 
both Chriltian and Savage. 

-■ What Children we have of theirs, to learn Trades, e£r. 
ought to be put into thofe Hands that are Men of the beft 
Lives and Chara&ers, and that are not only ftridt Obfervers 
of their Religion, but alfo of a mild, winning and fweet Dif- 
pofition, that thefe Indian Parents may often go and fee how 

Ii well 


An Account of the Indian^ &c. 

well their Children are dealt with, which would much win 
them to our Ways of Living, Mildnefs being a Vertue the 
Indians are in love withal, for they do not practife beatine 
and correcting their Children, as we do. A general Com- 
plaint is, thatitfeemsimpoffible to convert theft PeopLe to 
Chriftianity, as, at firft fight, it does ; and as for thofe in 
New Spain, they have the Prayer of that Church in Latin by 
Rote, and know the external Behaviour at Mafs and Ser- 
mons ', yetfcarce any of them are fteady and abide with con- 
ftancy in good Works, and the Duties of the Chriftian Church. 
We find that the Fuentes and feveral other of the noted Indian 
Families about Mexico^ and in other parts of New Spain, had 
given feveral large Gifts to the Altar, and outwardly feem'd 
fond of their new Religion ; yet-thofe that were thegreateffc 
Zealots outwards, on a ftrid Enquiry, were found guilty of 
Idolatry and Witchcraft ; and this feems to proceed from 
their Cohabiting, which, as I have noted before, gives Oppor- 
tunities of Cabals to recal their ancient priftine Infidelity 
and Superftitions. They never argae againft our Religion, 
but with all imaginable Indifference own, that it is moft pro- 
per for us that have been brought up in it. 

In my opinion, it's better for Chriftjans of a mean Fortune 
to marry with the Civiliz'd Indians, than to fuffer the HarcK 
Ihips of four or five years Servitude,, in which they meet with 
Sicknefsand Seafonings aniidft a Crowd of other Afflictions, 
which the Tyranny of a bad Matter lays upon fuch poor Souls, 
all which thofe acquainted with our Tobacco Plantations are 
not Strangers to. 

This feems to be a more reafonable Method of converting 
the Indians, than to fet up our Chriftian Banner in a Field of 
Blood, as the Spaniards have done in New Spain, and baptize 
©ne hundred with the Sword for one at the Font. Whjlft we 
make way for a Chriftian Colony through a Field of Blood 
and defraud, and make away with thofe that one day may be 
wanted in this World, and in the next appear againft us, we 
make way for a more potent Chriftian Enemy to invade us" 
iiereafter, ©f which we may repent* when too late. 



3 39 




Granted by 

King CHARLES 11 

T O T H E 


O F 





CHARLES II. by the Grace of God, &c. Whc 
Our Letters Patents, bearing Date the Four and 
Twentieth Day of March , in the Fifteenth Year of 
Our Reign, We were Gracioufly Pleas'd to Grant unto 
Our right Trufty, and right Well-beloved Coufin and Coun- 
fellor Edward Earl of Clarendon, our High Chancellor of Eng- 
land, Our right Trufty, and right entirely Beloved Coufin 
and Counfellor, George Duke of Albemarle , Matter of our 
Horfe, Our right Trufty and Well Beloved William, now 
Earl ox Craven, our right Trufty and well-beloved Counfellor, ; 
3Mw'Lord Berkley, our right Trufty, and well-beloved 
Counfellor, Anthony .hord Afhley, Chancellor of our Exche- 
quer, our right Trufty and Well-beloved' -Counfellor Sir 
George Carter -m Knight and Baronet, Vice-Chamberlain of 

lis oar 


The Second Charter 

our Houfhold, Our right Trudy and well-beloved, Sir John 
Colleton Knight and Baronet, and Sir William Berkeley Knieht 
all that Province, Territory, or Tract of Ground, called' 
CareLna, fituate, lying and being within our Dominions of 
America, Extending from the North End of the Ifland called 
Lvhljland, which lyeth in. the Southern Virginians, and 

] Vlt u m £ X * and th c irty De S rees of the Northe ™ Latitude and 
to the Weft, as far as the South Seas; and fo refpeaively as 
far as the River of Mathios, which bordereth upon the Coaft 
ot Florida, and within One and Thirty Degrees of the Vw- 
*W» Latitude,' and fo ^/ in a dired Line, as far as' the 
iez/fbaeas aforefaid. 

Now, know Ye, that We, at the Humble Reqneft of the 
faid -Grandees i in the aforefaid Letters Patents named, and 
as a farther Mark of Onr-efpecial Favour towards them, We 
are Gracioufly Pleafcd to Enlarge Our faid Grant unto them 
according to the Bounds and Limits hereafter Specifyed, and 
in Favour to the Pious and Noble Purpofe of the faid Edward 
Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Alhemark, William Earl of 
Craven, John JLord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ajhley, Sir Georr* 

ITS' Sir ??*? Colletcn -> and ^ ir William Berkeley, their Heirs 
and Ate all that Province, Territory, or Traft of Ground 
fituate, lying, and being within Our Dominions of America 
aforefaid extending North and Weft^ard, as far as the North 
1 • ° %f* , Rlver > ov Gulet, upon a ftreight Wcfttrh 
Line, to Wyonoake Creek, which lies within, or about the De- 
gV Tr rJa lVty Si ?' and Thirty Minutes Northern Latitude 

f /°KV n a / ire ? Lille ' aS far as the Smhsilf^ 
South and ^Masfar as the Degrees of Twenty Niie 1*3 
clufive Aorthern Latitude, and fo Weft, in a dired; Line, Ts far 
as the South Seas- together with all and Angular Ports 
Harbours Bays, Rivers and Iflets, belonging SSSgft* 

58&S A^ afbrefaM - «i%*nSs^nfe 
Fields Woods, Mountains, Ferms. Lakes, Rivers, Bays and 
Iflets, fituate, or being within the Bounds, or Limits! If? 
before mentioned v with the Fiihing of all forts of ¥^,WhaL 
Sturgeons, and all other Royal Fifhes in the Sea, Bays, Iflets 
and Rivers, within the Premifes, and the Fifh therein taken 
together with the Royalty of the Sea, upon the Coaft with! 
an the Limits aforefaid. And moreover, all Veins, Mines 




a ad Quarries, as welldifcoveredasnot difeover'd, of Gold, 
Silver, Gems and Precious Stories, and all other whatfoever ; 
be it of Stones, Metal, or any other thing found, or to be 
found within the Province, Territory, Ifletf and Limits 

And furthermore, the Patronage and Advowfons of all the 
Churches and Chappels, which as the Chriftian Religion fhall 
encreafe within the Province,, Territory, Iiles, and Limits a- 
forefaid, fhall happen hereafter to be ere&ed ; together, with 
Licence and Power to buiiiiand found Churches, Ch^ppeis 
and Oratories in convenient and fit places, within the faid 
Bounds and Limits -, and to caufe them to be Dedicated and 
Confecrated, according to theEcclefiaflicalLawsof Our King- 
dom Qi. Engl and:, together with all and; lingular, the like, and 
as ample, '.Rights , Jurifdi&ions ^Privileges j, . Prerogative S\ 
Royalties, Liberties, Immunities, of what 
Kind foever, within .the Territory* Hies,, Ifletsand Limits-^ 
forefaid. To have, hold, ufe, exercife and enjoy the fame, as 
amply, fully, and in as ample Manneiyas any Bifhop oi Durham. 
in Our Kingdom of England,w§r heretofore had, held, ufed, 
or enjoyed, or of right ought v or could have, ufe, or enjoy^ 
and them the Laid Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of 
Albemarle, William Earl of Cramn, John Lor&Berkeleyl Anthony 
Lord Ajhley, Sir George. Carterett, Sir 'John Colleton, and Sir 
William Berkeley, their Heirs and Affigns y We do by thefe 
Prefents, for Us, Our Heirs and Succeflbrs, make, create and 
conftitute the true and.abfolute Lojjdsahd Proprietors of the 
faid Province, or Territory, and of all other the Premifes, 
faving always the Faith, Allegiance and Sovereign Dominion 
due to Us , our Heirs and . Succeflbrs , for the' fame i to 
have, hold, poflefs and enjoy the faid Province, Territory, 
Iflets, and all and Angular, other the Premifes, to them the 
faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, Wil- 
liam Earl ;of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Afh- 
ley , Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton and Sir William 
Berkeley, their Heirs and Affigns, for Ever, to be holdeu of 
Us, Our Heirs and Succeflbrs, as of Our Mannor of Eafl Green- 
wich, in Kent, in free and common Soccage, and not in Capite, 
or by Kmghts Service, yielding and paying yearly to Us, Our 
Heirs and Succeflbrs, for the fame,the fourth Part of all Goods 
and Silver Oar, which within the Limits hereby Granted, 


i a. a 

The Second Charter 

ihall from Time to Time, happen to be found, over and be- 
fides the Yearly Rent of Twenty Marks and the fourth part 
of the Gold and Silver Oar, in and by the faid recited Let- 
ters Patents teferved and payable. 

And that the Province, or Territory hereby granted and 
defcribed, may be dignifyed with as large Titles and Privi- 
leges, as any other Parts of our Dominions and Territories in 
that Region ; Know ye, That We, of our farther Grace, cer- 
tain Knowledge and meer Motion, have thought fit to annex 
the fame Trad of Ground and Territory, unto the fame Pro- 
vince of Carolina, and out of the Fulnefs of our Royal Power 
and Prerogative, We do for Us, our Heirs and Succeflbrs, 
annex and unite the fame to the faid Province of Carolina. 
And forafmuch as We have made and ordained the aforefaid 
Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William 
Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ajhley^ 
Sir George Carter ett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, 
their Heirs and Affigns, the true Lords and Proprietors of 
all the Province or Territory aforefaid ; Know ye therefore 
moreover, that We repofing efpecial Truft and Confidence in 
their Fidelity, Wifdom, Juftice and provident Circumfpecrion 
for Us, our Heirs and SuccefTors, do grant full and abfolute 
Power, by virtue of thefe Prefents, to them the faid Edward 
Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle ^William Earl of 
Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ajhley, Sir George 
Catterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, and their 
Heirs and Affigns, for the good and happy Government of 
the faid whole Province or Territory, full Power and Autho* 
rity to erect, conftitute, and make feveral Counties, Baronies^ 
and Colonies, of and within the faid Provinces, Territories^ 
Lands and Hereditaments, in and by the faid recited Letters 
Patents , and thefe Prefents, granted, or mentioned to be 
granted, as aforefaid, with feveral and diftindt Jurifdidtions, 
Powers, Liberties and Privileges. And alfo, to ordain, 
make and enadr, and under their Seals, topublifh any Laws 
and Constitutions whatfoever, either appertaining to the 
publick State of the laid whole Province or Territory, or of 
any diftindt or particular County, Barony or Colony, of or 
within the fame, or to the private Utility of particular Per- 
fons, according to their beft Discretion, by and with the Ad- 
vice, AfTentand Approbation of the Freemen of the faid Pro- 



~- n ,, or Territory, or of the Freemen of the County, Barony 
6 • cXnlft ^ wh ch r fach Law or Constitution ftall be made, 
or?h^TreateftPart of them, or of their Delegates or Depu- 
t 'es Xm for enading of the faid Laws, when and as oftea 
as ne^d fhall require, We will that the faid Edward Ezvl of 
cZnlTGeorgemie of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, 
?fkn Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord AjUey, Sir George Carterett, 
S ^l£c5^» and Sir WVto M^<£ «d .their Heirs or 
St S5l from Time to Time, affcmble in fuch Manner 
rndForm isto them mall feem belt: And the fame Laws duly 
to execuTe upon all People within the faid Province or ler- 
ntorv CoS Barony or Colony, and the Limits thereof, 
for [he T?me being, which fhall be confuted under the 
Power a^ Government of them, or any of them either fail- 
inTtowards the faid Province or Territory of Carohna ,ot 
re?uS from thence towards England, or any other of our, 
or forebn Dominions, by Impofition of.Penakies, Impn- 
Lmen for any other Punifliment: Yea,ifit fhall be need-- 
ful and the auklity of the Offence require it by taking a- 
' M.mW^d Life, either by them, the faid Edward Earl 
W /^ £ ctm\ Duk of Albemarle, WMam Earl of CM. 
I^lSW, ^thony Lord tfk Sir— 
Sem r, Sir3W» C,// ef i,andSir^ T .^^, and their 
Hers or by them or their Deputies, Lieutenants judges, 
Tdtices MaftiftrateV, or Officers whatfoever, as well within 
xne fcfd Province^ at Sea, in fuch Manner and Form as una 
the iSd Edvard Earl of GUM**** Ge^e Duke of f^rh 
miUam Earl of £tf»A jM« ^rd JfcrMgr, ^ ** Lord 
Se7sfrW» C.r^, Sir John Colleton, and Sir «fc 
^&f and their Heirs, fhall feem moit convenient; Alio, 
foreS releafe, pardon and abolifh, whether before Judg- 
ment or after, ail Crimes and Offences whatfoever agamft 
SI ftS Laws-- and to do all and every other Thing and 
SSS&JS the compleatEftablimmentofJuftice 
M ^Courts, Seflion, and Forms of Judicature, and Manners 
It ^rnreedines therein, do belong, altho' in thefe Prefents, 
«iS Sm i & onl not made thereof, and by Judges, to hin, 
S them delegated to award, procefs, hold Pleafe, and detei - 
mine in all the faid Courts and Places of Judicature, all ■ Afti- 
Tns Suit and Caufes whatfoever, as well criminal as civil, 
r3,S, perfonal, or of any other Kind or tttarewha*. 


1 ; 

Tbe'Sgcond Chsrtei? 

foever : Which'JLaws fa as; aforefaid, -to .be-publifhed, , Our 
Pleafure. island-. We .da cojoyn, require and commang, iljall 
be ahfolutely, -fitnl«and'av:ail:able4ft 'Law,-,, and'that .all. the 
Leige People of Us v out jKeirs; and'. -Succe#pr.s:j f w'ith£n the. 
faid .Province, or Territory,, do^.ohfe/ve andVjkeejj tkeilme 
inviolably in thofe Paft5,"Jo far as.tbey : concern them, under 
the Pains and Penalties- therein exprejfed • or to be excelled * 
provided: nevertheifCs^ thatuhe ;faiG .Laws be confonant .to. 
Reafon, and as'; near asr may- jbe .cpriyen^tiyj 'agreeab^ f t» 
the Laws and Cuftoms of this our: Realm of ' ErgUwd. ' 

And becaufe fuchAffemblies of Fref-h;oldcrs cannot be fo' 
fuddenly called, as there may be Occafi^n to require the fame ; 
We do therefore by thefe Prefents, give and grant unto the 
faid Edward Ezv\ of Clarendon, Gep-rge Duke of ' Alhe marie ,W'd~ 
Ham Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley , Anthony, Lord ~AJJi- 
ley , Sir George Carterett , Sir John Colleton, and Sir William. 
Berkeley, their Heirs and Afligns, by themfelves or their Ma- 
giftrates in that Behalf, lawfully authorized, full Power and 
Authority from Time to Time, to make. arid ordain fit and 
wholfome Orders and Ordinances, within the Province or, 
Territory aforefaid, or any County, Barony or Province, of 
or within the fame, to be kept and obferved, as well for the 
keeping of the Peace, as for the better Government of the 
People there abiding, and to publifh the fame to all to whom 
it may concern : Which Ordinances we do, by thefe Prefents, 
ftreightly charge and command to be inviolably obferved 
within the fame- Province, Counties, Territories, Baronies, 
and Provinces, under the Penalties therein exprefled ; fo as 
fuch Ordinances be reafonable and not repugnant or contra- 
ry, but as near as, may be agreeable to the Laws and Statutes 
of this our Kingdom of England; and fo as the fame Ordi- 
nances do not extend to the binding, charging or taking a- 
way of the Right or Intereft of anyPeribn. or Perfons,in their 
freehold Goods, or Chattels, whatfoeyer. 

And to the end the faid Province or Territory, may be the 
more happily encreafed by the Multitude of People reforting 
thither , and may likewife be the more ftrongly defended 
from the Incurfioas of Savages and other Enemies, Pirates; 
and Robbers. '-.V c 


' bl 


• • '■ 

There : 



Therefore, We for Us, Our Heirs and Succeflbrs, do give 
and grant by thefe Prefents, Power, Licenfe and Liberty 
unto all the Leige People of Us, our Heirs and Succeflbrs in 
our Kingdom of England, or elfewhere, within any other 
our Dominions, lflands, Colonies or Plantations ; /excepting 
thofe. who (hall be efpecially forbidden) to tranfport them- 
felves and Families into the faid Province or Territory, with 
convenient Shipping, and fitting Proviiions ;and there to fet- 
tle themfelves, dwell and inhabit, any Law, Ad, Statute, Or- 
dinance, or other Thing to the contrary in any wife, not- 

And we will alfo, and ofOurefpecial Grace, for Us, our 
Heirs and Succeflbrs, do flreightly enjoyn, ordain, conftitute 
and demand, That the faid Province or Territory, fhall be 
of our Allegiance \ and that all and Angular, the Subjeds 
and Leige People of Us, our Heirs and Succeflbrs, tranfpor- 
ted, or to be tranfported into .the faid Province, and the 
Children of them, and fuch as (hall defcend from them, there 
born, or hereafter to be born, be, and fhall be Denizens and 
Lieges of Us, our Heirs and Succeflbrs of this our Kingdom 
of England^ and be in all Things, held, treated and reputed 
as the Liege faithful People of Us, our Heirs and Succeflbrs, 
born within this our faid Kingdom, or any other of our Do- 
minions •, and may inherit, or otherwife purchafe and re- 
ceive, take, hold, buy and pofl'efs any Lands, Tenements or 
Hereditaments, within the faid Places, and them may occu* 
py, and enjoy, fell, alien and bequeath \ as likewife, all Li- 
berties, Frartcbifes and Privileges of this our Kingdom, and 
of other our Dominions aforefaid , may freely and quietly 
have, poflefs and enjoy, as our Liege People born within the 
fame, without the Moleftation, Vexation, Trouble or Grie- 
vance of Us, Our Heirs and Succeflbrs, any Ad, Statute, 
Ordinance, or Provifion to the contrary, notwithftanding. 
. And furthermore, That Our Subjeds of this Our faid King- 
dom of England^ and other our Dominions, may be the rather 
encouraged to undertake this Expedition, with ready and 
chearfalMinds - Know Ye, That We, of Our efpecial Grace, 
certain Knowledge and meer Motion, <\o give and grant, by 
virtue of thefe Prefents, as well to the faid Edward Earl of 
Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, 
John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ajbley, Sir George Cmerett 9 

K k wir 


The Second Charter 

Sir John Colleton, arid Sir William Berkeley, and their Heirs, as 
unto all others as fhali,.froni time to time, repair unto the faid 
Province or Territory., with a JPurpofe to inhabit there, or to 
trade with the Natives thereof v Full Liberty and Licenfe to 
lade and freight in every Port whatfoever, of Us, our Heirs 
and Succeilbrs \ and into the faid Province of Carol .na ; hy them, 
their Servants -and A ffigns, to tranfport all and lingular, their 
Goods, Wares and Merchandises : as likewife^ ;all i fort of 
Grain whatfoevei;, and any other Thing whatfoever, necef- 
iary for their Food and Gloathi-ag, not prohibited by the 
Laws and Statutes of our Kingdom and Dominions, to be car- 
ried out of the fame, without any Letf or Moleftation of Us, 
our Heirs and SuccefTors, or of any other our Officers or Mi- 
Bifters iW ; hatfoever \ faving alfoito l§kj otirilileirsand Succd* 
fors, the Cuftoms,and other' Duties and Payment's due for the- 
laid Wares and Merchandizes, according to the ft vera! Rates-' 
of the Place from whence the fame lhal'i be tranfported. 

We will alfo, and by thefe Prefents, for Us r ou'r- Heirs and 
SuccefFors, do give and grant Licenfe by this ourGharter-, un- 
to the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, Geo'jWCjUke of AlbeA 
marle, William EarLof Graven,^ John Lord Berhley s -Jinihohy- 
' Lord \Ajhley, Sir George Carterett, Sk'john Coilefy%,lan<& Sir 
William Berkeley, their Heirs and Affigns, and to all' the Inha- 
bitants and Dwellers in the Province or Territory aforefaid,: 
both prefent and to come, full Power and Authority to im- 
port or unlade by themfelves, -or their Servants, Factors or 
Affigns, all Merchandizes and Goods whatfoever, that mail 
arife of the Fruits and Commodities of the faid Province or 
Territory, either by Land or Sea, into any the Ports of Us, our 
Heirs and Suc'ceffors, in our Kingdom of Engl, Seal, or Ireland, 
or otherwife, to difpofe of the faid Goods, in the faid Ports. 
And if need .be, within one year next after the unlading, to' 
lade the faid Merchandizes and Goods again in the fame, or 
other Ships; and to export the fame into any other Coun- 
tries, either of our Dominins or foreign, being in Amity 
with Us,, our Heirs and Succeffors, fo as they pay fuch 
Cuftoms, Subsidies and other Duties for the fame to Us, our 
Heirsand Succeffors*, as the reft x>f our Subjects of this- our 
Kingdom, for the Time being, {hall be bound to pay. Beyond 
which We will not that the Inhabitants of the faid Province^ 
or Territory, fhall beany ways charged.. Provided, never- 
¥erthelefs ? and our Will and Pfeafure is, and we have fur- 



tiler, for the Conllderations aforefaid, of our fpecial Grace, 
certain Knowledge and meer Motion, given and granted, 
and by thefe Prefents, for Us, our Heirs and Succeflbrs, do 
give and grant unto the laid Edward Earl of Clarendon, George 
Duke of Albemarle, William Eari of Craven; John Lord Berke- 
ley, Anthony Lord Ajhley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colle- 
ton, a.w\S'\K William Berkeley, their Heirs and AfTigns, full and 
free Licenfe, Liberty, Power and Authority, at any Time 
or Times, from and after the Feaft of.St. Michael the Arch- 
Angel, which, (hall be in the Year of our Lord Chrift, One 
Thoufand, Six Hundred, Sixty and Seven ; as well to im- 
port and bring into any our Dominions from the faid Pro- 
vince of Carolina, or any Part thereof, the feveral Goods and. 
Commodities herein after mentioned •, That is to fay, Silks, 
Wines, Currants, Raifons, Capers, Wax, Almonds, Oil and 
Olives, without paying or ( anfwering to Us, our Heirs and 
Succeflbrs, any Cuftom,- Impoft, or other Duty, for, or in. 
refpect thereof, for and during the Time and Space of Seven 
Years to commence and be accompted from and after the firft 
Importation of Four Tons of any the faid Goods, in any one 
Bottom Ship or VelTer, from thefaid Province or Territory, 
into any of our Dominions ; as alfo, to export and carry 
out of any of our Dominions into the faid Province or Terri- 
tory, Cuftom-free, all forts of Tools, which fhall be ufeful or 
necefTary for the Planters there, in the Accommodation and 
Improvement of the Premifes, any thing before in thefe Pre- 
sents contained, or any Law, Act, Statute, Prohibition, or 
other Matter or Thing, heretofore had, made, enacted or 
provided, or hereafter to be had, made, ena&ed or provided, 
in any wife notwithstanding. 

And furthermore, of our more ample and efpecial Grace, 
certain Knowledge and.meer Motion, We do for Us, our Heirs 
and Succeflbrs, grant unto the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, 
Geor?e Duke of Albemarle, WiltiamEivl of Craven, John Lord 
Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ajhley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John 
Colleton, and Sir Will. Berkeley, their Heirs and AfTigns, full and 
abfolute Power and Authority to make, ere<2t and conftitute 
within the. faid Province or Territory, aud the Ifles and Iflets 
aforefaid , fuch and fo many Sea-Forts, Harbours, Creeks and 
other Places for difcharge and unlading of Goods and Merchan- 
dizes out of Ships, Boats, and other VefTels, and for lading of 
them in fuch and fo many Places, as with fach Jurifdittions, 

Kk2 Pri- 

H 8 

The Second Charter 

Privileges and Franchifes, unto the faid Ports belonging, as 
to them fhall feem moft expedient ; And that all and lingular 
the Ships, Boats and other VefTels, which fhall come for Mer- 
chandizes, and trade into the faid Province or Territory or 
fhall depart out of the fame, fhall be laden and unladen at 
fuch Ports only, as fhall be ere&ed and conftitued by the faid 
Edward E^r\ of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William 
ILaxl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ajhley, Sir 
George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley 
their Heirs and Affigns, and not elfew here, anyUfe^ Cu- 
ftom, or any thing to the contrary in any wife notwithftand- 

And we do furthermore will, appoint and ordain, and by 
thefe Prefents, for Us, our Heirs and Succeflbrs, do grant 
unto the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of 
Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley An- 
thony Lord Ajhley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton and 
Sir William Berkeley , their Heirs and Affigns, That they, 
the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle 
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord 
Ajliley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sit William 
Berkeley, their Heirs and Affigns, may from Time to Time for 
ever, have and enjoy the Cuftoms and Subfidies in the Ports 
Harbours,Creeks and other Places, within the Province afore- 
faid, payable for the Goods, Merchandizes and Wares there 
laded, or to be laded or unladed, the faid Cuftoms to be reafo- 
aably affeffed upon any Occafion by themfelves, and by and 
with the Confent of the free People, or the greater Part of 
them, as aforefaid; to whom We give Power by thefe Prfe- 
fents, for Us, our Heirs and Succeffors, upon juft Caufeand 
in a due Proportion to afTefs and impofe the fame. 

And further, of our efpecial Grace , certain Knowledge 
and meer Motion, we have given, granted and confirmed 
and by thefe Prefents, for Us, our Heirs and Succeffors do 
give, grant and confirm unto the faid Edward Earl of Claren- 
don, George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John- 
Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ajhley, Sir George Carterett, Sir 
John Colleton, and ShWilliam Berkeley, their Heirs and Affigns* 
foil and abfolute Power, Licenfe and Authority, that they 
the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle 
William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley^ Anthony Lord 


*/ Carolina! 


Mley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, ancL Sir WBum 
ilhley, their Heirs and Affigns, from Time to Time, here- 
after for ever, afc his and their Will and Pleafure, may affign, 
alien/grant, demife or enfeoff the Premifes or any Part or 
PaVel thereof to him or them, that lhall be willing to pur- 
chafe the fame ; and to fuch Perfon and Perfons, as they fliatt 
think fit, to have, and to hold to them the iaid Perfon or 
Perfons, their HeHaad Affigns,in-Fee fimple or in Fee Tay le 
or for the Term of Life or Lives, or Years to be heldof 
them, the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, Gentle puke or £fr 
bemarle, WdlUm Earl of Craven, -John Lord Berkeley, Ant bony- 
Lord Alhley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and >ir 
Wtlliam Berkeley, their Heirs and Affigns, by MiMfe Ser- 
vices andCuftoms, as fhall feem fit to them the faid |^W 
Earl of Clarendon, Georgemte &f Albmarf,rWfam^vl m 
Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ajhley^ Sit Georg* 
Carterltt, Sir John Colleton, and WtBam Berkeley, their Heirs 
and Affigns, and not of Us, our Heirs and Succeffors i And 
to the fame Perfon and Perfons, and to all and every of them, 
We do give and grant by thefe Prefents, for Us, our Heirs 
and Succefibrs, Licenfe, Authority and Power, that fuch Per- 
fon or Perfons, may have and take the Premifes, or any Par- 
cel thereof, of the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, Gtorgepxxks 
of Albemarle , William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley,, 
Anthony Lord Ajklcy, Sir George Carterett, SfJohn Colleton* 
and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Affigns, and the 
fame to hold to themfelves, their Heirs or Affigns, in_what 
Eftate of Inheritance foever, in Fee fimple, or inFeeTayle, 
or otherwife, as to them the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon* 
George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven-, John Lord 
Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ajhley, Sir George Cartentt, Sir John 
Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Affigns, malt 
feem expedient ; The Statute in the Parliament of Edward* 
Son of King Henry, heretofore King of England, ourPrede- 
ceflbr, commonly called, The Statuteof^^ Emptores Terror',, 
or any other Statute, Ad, Ordinance* Ufe,. Law, Cuftom, 
any other Matter, Caufe or Thing heretofore publiined or 
provided to the contrary, in any wife notwithstanding* 

And becaufe many Perfons born and inhabiting m WftifrW 
Province for their Deferts and Services miry exped, and be 
capable of tyarks of Honour and Favour, which, in refpea 


l-he Second Charter - 

-of the great Diftance cannot conveniently be conferred by 
Uiyout Will aad Pleafur-e therefore is, and We'd 5 by, trie'fe- 
Prefects,- give and grant tin to the- laid Edward mn®f-€UL 
re$W$ ' ®fcgfmm%PMlUMrt&WMm Lord "&&>&$ John 
L^dWmeliyj'^mmyMrd Idfiley, $&®mti Carterett+Sk 
John CelletohiGtid. Sir William Berkeley,- their Heirs and Alliens, 
full Power and Authority to give and-confer ufito, and upon 
fach'of thelnbabitants' of- the- faid 1 Province, or Territory 
as they- ll' thihkvdoVwaal'ljiierit the fame,- -fach Marks 
Wf aUdTilksW HMour,-as •" they^M think fit, fo as 
tbeir Titles of Honours be not the fameas are enjoyed'by, or 

* kiri'Tj ' vivcry-vticic; rreiencs, *ror us, uur> 

Hetfs -and SuccelTdrs, r give and Grte, Licenfe to them' the" 
M^rd'-EavlomareMon., 'Getfgfbuke Of Albemarle, William 
EarloFCmw??: .«0W» Lord Berkeley; 'Anthony Lord j?p%| Sir 
GW^e Carter^ -Sir y^» -(7*//^ and Sir »?/&»» Berkeley < 
their Heirs and- Affigns, full Power, Liberty and Licenfe, to 
W§&k R-aife and Build within- the laid- Province and -Places 
afcrefaM .- or ahyPart -or ^art%^thefe<jf, fuch and To many' 
Fort*, -FortrefTes, Oaftlesy GitfesV -Boroughs, Towns,-' Villa-' 
ges and : other Fortifications .Wbatfoever-, and the fame or 
any of them to Fortify and Furnifh with Ordnance, Powder, 
Shot, Armour and all other Weapons, Ammunition and Ha- 
biliments of War, both Defenfive and OfFenlive, as fhall be 
th'bught'fLt and convenient fot the Safety and Welfare of the 
faid Province, and Places, or anyiPart thereof j and the fame 
or any of them, from Time to Time, as OccafTon fhall require^ 
to Difmantle , Disfurnifh i Demolifh and Pull down j And 
alfo to Place, Conftitute and Appoint in, or over all, or any 
of the faid Caftlesj- Forts,- Fortifications, Cities, Towns and 
Places aforefaid, GovernOurs, -Deputy Governours Magi- 
ftraresv^Skpiffs and other Officers, Civil and MMitary, as to 
therh^lil^feewi^lneei: ; and" to the faid- Cities, Boroughs,: 
Towns, Villages, or any other Place or Places, within the 
faid Prbvince or Territory, to Grant Letters or Charters 
of Incorporation, with' all Liberties, Franchifes and Privi- 
leges requifite, or ufual, to, or within this our Kingdom 
fflj -England granted^ or belonging ^ And in the fame Ci- 
ties, •Boroughs, Towns and other Places, to Gonititute* 
Eredand Appoint fuch, and fo many Markets, Marts and' 




mm*& (hall in that Behalf be thought fit and necefhry ; 
And farther lfo" to Ereft and Make in the Province -or Ter- 
rl^y^relaidAr any Part thereof, *> many Mannors with 
fch Series as to thenVmall ieem meet and convenient, 
fnd in Serv-ofthe fame Manners to-have an d * -hold a .Court- 
Baron, with ail Things whatever to a ^rt-Baion 
do belong and to have and to hold Views orFiahk WWgej 
a^dSrt'Leet, for the GonferVationof th^ Peaee,"and^cL- 
SS^ thbfeParts, with >m® yg® |»8*&* 

Sou s to be- MMfe hy ^^M^.b^e^e^a.^^h^ 
X*v Lord 3*fe S^^{C^?4 ^<Wf!?SSH 

7'And becatfft «QrfK3M«*W a'Cotm^and Sifuat* 
among fo many. Barbarous Nations, the Invasions as Well of 
Sis « otLr Enemies, Pirates, and- Robbjrs may |&o~ 

Viniam- Earl Sof fiBE**," ȤS ISS *&*<*& ^jffiSS 
y»?, Sir CerrfeCtrterett, Sir ?^&$? and- Sir WW** 
Behlel their Heirs or Affigns bythemfelves, or their- Cap- 
S, ir^hflir Officers to~W ] Mufter^nd-Trnd-.u;?,^ 
grS of Mifft wte Conditioner,'^ rtgg®** rJfl 
father i¥*5 feid Province, or-flfeft her*, J#^»^ 
MM and to make War and pur fce the -Enemies afe-refaid ^ 
■ wfllb^Sea, as by Land, yea, even without che Limit, of h^ 
ftid Province, and "by God's AOiftance, to Vanquift and Take, 
&%dbAng Taken, to put Am to, Deadly W £g ' 
S^aM, tS fl^ &iW fefc&r •Pleafeel^d to ; 
S and tfwfefc* -tning, eftttg to .^Charge -and OIS** 
Sa CaptaiV General of fa Army belonged or hph ^ 


The Second Charter 

jtangft fully and freely as any Captain General 

A Ajfp, pur WiJ! and Plea&re is, '^nd by this Our Charter 
We dp give mf grant unto the &id Edward Earl of Clarendon, 
fr^Pukeof Albemarle, WUliam Lord Craven, John Lord 
Mdey, Anthony Lord AJldey, Sir George Carterett, Sir John 
Colleton, and Sir Willimn Berkeley, their Heirs and Affigns, full 
Power, .Liberty and Authority, in Cafe of Rebellion, Tumult 
or Sedition (if any mould happen, which God forbid) either' 
upon the Land within the Province aforefaid, or upon the 
main Sea, m making a Voyage thither, or returning from 
thence, by him and themfelves, their Captains, Deputies or 
umeers, to be authorized under his or their Seals, for that 
purppfe; To whom aifo for Us, our Heirs and SuccefTors, We 
do give and grant by thefe Prefents, full Power and Autho- 
rity to exercife^ Martial Law; againft mutinous and feditious 
Perfons of thofe Parts* fuch as fliall refufe to fubmit them! 
lelves to their Government, or lhall refufe to ferve in the 
Wars, or lhall fly to the Enemy, or forfake their Colours or 
Unligns, or be Loiterers or Stragglers, or otherwife howfo- 
cyer offending againft Law, Cuftom, or Military Difcipline 
as freely and m as ample Manner and Form as any Captain 
General of an Army, by virtue of his Office, might, or hath 
accuftomed to ufe the fame. 

And Our further Pleafure is, and by thefe Prefents, for Us 
our Heirs and Sacceflbrs, We do grant unto the fa id Edward 
harlot Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of 
Craven, John Lord Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ajhley, Sir GvWe 
Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley their 
Heirs and Affigns, and to the Tenants -and Inhabitants of the 
laid Province, or Territory, both prefent and to come, and 
to every of them, that the faid Province, or Territory 
and the Tenants and Inhabitants thereof, lhall not from 
Henceforth, be held or reputed any Member, or Part of 
any Colony whatfoever , in America or elfewhere , now 
transported or made, or hereafter to be tranfported or 
made -, nor mall he depending on, or fubjed to their 
Government in any Thing, but be abfolutely feparated and 
divided from the fame: And our Pleafute is, by thefe- Pre- 
*eats, That they may be feparattd, and: that they be fubjed 




immediately to our Crown of England., as depending thereof 
for ever. And that the Inhabitants of the faid Province or 
Territory, or any of them, fhall at any Time hereafter, be 
compelled or cotnpellible, or be any ways fubjed, or liable 
to appear or anfwer to any Matter, Suit, Caufe, or Plaint 
whatsoever, out of the Province or Territory aforefaid, in 
any other of our Iflands, Colonies or Dominions in America, 
or elfewhere, other than in our Realm of England wi Do- 
minion of Wales. 

And becaufe it may happen, That fome of the People and 
Inhabitants of the faid Province, cannot in their private O- 
pinions conform to the Publick Exercife of Religion according 
to the Liturgy, Forms and Ceremonies of the Church of Eng- 
land, or take or fubfcribe the Oaths and Articles made and 
eftablifhed in that Behalf: And for that the fame, by reafon 
of the remote Diftances of thofe Places, will, as we hope, be 
no Breach of the Unity, and Conformity, Eftabliihed in this 
Nation ; Our Will and Pleafure therefore is, and We do by 
thefe Prefents for Us, Our Heirs, and SuccefTors, Givfr and 
Grant unto the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, George-Duke of 
.Albemarle y William Earl of Craven, "John Lord Berkeley, An- 
thony Lord Afhley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton, and 
Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Affigns, full and free 
licence, Liberty and Authority, by fuch Ways and Means 
as they fhall think fit, To Give and Grant unto fuch Perfon 
any Perfons, Inhabiting, and being within the faid Province 
or Territory, hereby or by the faid recited Letters Patents, 
mentioned to be granted as aforefaid, or any Part thereof, 
fuch Indigencies and Difpenfations, in that Behalf, for, and 
during fuch Time and Times, and with fuch Limitations and 
Reftrictions, as they the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, George 
Duke of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berke- 
iey, Anthony Lord Ajhley, Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton^ 
and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs, Or Affigns, mall in 
their Difcretion think fit and reafonable. And that no Per- 
fon or Perfons, unto whom fuch Liberty fhall be given, mail 
be any way molefted, punifhed, difquieted, or called in que- 
stion for any Differences in Opinion or Practice, in Matters 
of Religious Concernment, who do not actually difturb the 
civil Peace of the Province, County or Colony, that they 
fhall make their abode in. But all and every fuch Perfon and 

L 1 Perfons, 

The Second Charter ^ &c. 

Perfons, may from Time to Time, and at all Times, freely and 
(juietly have and enjoy his^nd their Judgment andConfciences, 
in Matters of Religion, throughout all the laid Province^ 
or Colony, they behaving themfelves peaceably, and not 
uiing this Liberty to Licentioufnefs, nor to the Civil Injury 
or outward Difturbance of others. Any Law, Statute or 
Claufe contained, or to be contained, Ufage or Cuftoms of 
our Realm of England to the contrary hereof in any wife, 

And in Gale it mall happen, that any Doubts or Queflions 
ffyould arife concerning the True Senfe and TJnderftanding 
df any Word, Claufe, or Sentence, contained in this Our 
prefent Charter, We Will, Ordain, and Command, that at 
all Times, and in all Things, fuch Interpretations be made 
thereof, and allowed in all and every of Our Courts. whatfa- 
ever, as Lawfully may be Adjudged molt Advantageous and 
Favourable to the faid Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke: 
of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkeley, 
Anthony Lord AJhlefa Sir George Carterett, Sir John Colleton* 
and Sir William Berkeley, their Heirs and Affigns,_ although 
Exprefs Mention, &c. 

Witnefs our Self at Weftmmfter, the Thirtieth Day of 
June, in the Seventeenth Year of our Reign. 

Per Ifjitm Regem, 


A N 




O F 


AS to the Government of Carolina^ the Laws of Eng- 
land are there in Force ; yet the Lords-Proprietors, 
by their Deputies, have Power, with the Gonfent 
of the Inhabitants, to make By-Laws for the better 
Government" of the faid Province ; fo that no Law can be 
made or Money rais'd^ unlefs the Inhabitants, or their Re- 
orefetitatives, confent thereto: One Law which they have 
in South-Carolina deferves particular Mention, which is, 
their Method of chafing* Juries, it being done by making a 
<:onfiderable Number of Pape. Billets, on which are written 
the Names of as. many of the molt fubftantial Freeholders. 
Thefe Billets are put into a Hat, out of which Twenty-four 
arechofen by the next Child that appears. Then, out of 
thofe Twenty-four, Twelve are chofen at the next Court, 
after the fame manner »,. which is an infallible way to pre- 
vent all Manner of Fraud. 

L 1 2 North 

An Abftraff of the Conftitutwn 

North and South- Carolina Settlements are diftant from 
one another fome hundreds of Miles ; fo that Neceffity 
compels each Colony to keep to themfelves, a.Governour, 
Council and AfFembly. The Governor reprefents the Lord- 
Palatine ; the reft of the Counfellors are the Lord-Deputies \ 
who, of themfelves, make a Palatines Court, and a Court 
of Chancery; wherein they pafs feveral Orders of Council, 
much, of the Nature of the Prince's Proclamation • which 
continues no longer in Force, than the next AfTembly. Like- 
wife, they grant feveral forts of Commiflions, Warrants 
&c. yet Military Commiflions lie wholly in the Governor's 
Power ; but Making of War or Peace, in all, or the Majority 
of the Lords-Deputies ; by whom (the Governor being one) 
it is determin'd, and by whofe Commiffions all other Magf- 
ftrates act. On thefe Heads they have fettled, and maintain 
an admirable Conftitution of Government, for the laftine 
Peace, Security, and Well-being of all" the Inhabitants! 
The way of any ones taking up his Land in Carolina, due 
to him either by Purchafing it of the Lords Proprietors 
herein England, who keep their Board at Craven^Houfe in 
Brury-Lane, London, the firft Thurfday in every Month • or 
if purchas'd in Carolina, is after this manner : He firft looks' 
out for a Place to his Mind, that is not already poiTefVd by 
any other ; then applies himfelf to the Governor and Lords 
Proprietors Deputies, and fhews what Right he hath to 
fuch a Trad of Land, either by Purchafe of the Lords in 
England,, or by an Entry in the Surveyor-General's Office 
in order to purchafe of theGovernor and Lords Deputies there 
in Carolina, who thereupon ifftie out their Warrant-Land as 
is due to him. Who making Certificate, that he had mea- 
fured out fo much Land and the Bounds, a Deed is prepared 
ofCourfe, by the Secretary, which is figu 3 d by the Governor 
and the Lords Proprietors Deputies, and the Proprietors 
Seal afflx'd to it, and regifter'd in the Secretaries Office 
which is a good Coveyance in Law of the Land therein 
mention'd,. to the Party and his Heirs for ever. 

Thus have I given you as large and exact an Account of 
Carolina, as the Difcovery of fo few Years (in this g rea t 


of C A RO LINA. 


and extenfive Land) would permit. Which flouriftung 
Country will, doubtlefs, in time, increafe the Number of its 
Produ&ions, and afford us plentifully thofe Neceffaries 
and rich Commodities, which the Str eights, Turfy and o- 
ther Countries fupply us withal at prefent, and not feldom 
in their own Shipping \ whereas, were thofe Merchandizes 
the Produce of an Eqglifh Plantation, and brought us home 
-by our own Hands and Bottoms, of what Advantage fuch 
an Improvement would be to the Crown of Great- Britain, 
and the People in general, I leave to Men of Reafon and 
Experience to judge. I do intend (if God permit) by future 
Voyages (after my Arrival in Carolina) to pierce into the 
Body of the Continent, and what Difcoveries and Obferva- 
tions I ihall, at any time hereafter, make, will be commu- 
nicated to my Correfpondents in £«g/W,'d-, ha- 
ving ; furniflv'd myfelf with Inftruments and other Necefla- 
ries for fuch Voyages. 

For the better "Underftanding of this Country, I have al- 
ready drawn a very large and exaft Map thereof, as far as 
any Difcoveries have been yet made, either by others or my 
felf, and have fpared neither- Colt nor Pains, to procure 
the moft correct Maps' and JournalsM;hereof, that are extant 
in Print, or in Manufcript. This Map containing nine 
Sheets of Imperial Paper, and now fit for engraving, be- 
gins at Cape Henry in Virginia, 37 deg. N. Lat. and contains 
all the Coafts of Carolina, or Florida, with the Bahama Iflands, 
great Part of the Bay of Mexico, and the Iiland of Cvba, to 
the Southward, and feveral Degrees to the Weftward of 
of the Mefliafippi River,, with all the Indian Nations and 
Villages, and their Numbers, which of them are fubje&to 
Carolina, and trade with their People, what Places are 
convenient Factories and Forts, to increafe and fecure our 
Trade on the Mejfiajippi, and what Forts and Factories the 
French and Spaniards have gain'd in thofe Latitudes, efpeci- 
ally on the great River and the Neighbouring Streams j all 
which they illegally poffefs, fince the very Mouth of the 
River Mefiajipji is in the King of England's Grant to the 
Lords Proprietors of Carolina? it falling fomething to the 


An ABSTRACT, &c." 

Northward of 29 Degr. AM, Lat. whofe Claim and Right 
I queftionnot, but a Peace willadjuft, and reftore, which eve* 
ry Englishman is bound in Duty and In^ereft, to wilhfor- if 
we confider how advantageoufly they have feated themfelves, 
-whereby to difturb the Peace and Intereft of all the Ewld 
Plantations on the Continent of America. ■, J - 

O J ' ' 

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Lately publifli'd, in the CoUeftions for December, Ja+ 
nuary, February, and March, 

HE Difcovery and Conqueft of the Molucco and 
Philippine Iflands 5 containing their Hiflory, An- 
cient and Modern, Natural and Political: Their Ue- 
fcription, ProduB, Religion, Government, Laws, lf®- 
sua&s, Cujioms, Manners, Habits, Shape, and Inclina- 
tions of the Natives. With an Account of many other 
adjacent Iflands, and feveral remarkable Voyages through 
the Streights ^/Magellan, andin other Parts. Written 
in Spanifh by Bartholomew Leonardo Argenfola, Chap- 
lain to the Emprefs, and ReStor of Villahermofa. Norn- 
tranflated into EngliOi 3 and illuftrated with a Map and, 
fever al Cuts* 

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